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with power, in connection with them, to organ- her divine Head and Master, the Lord Jesus Christ. ize a General Educational Society.” The nine- And I cannot doubt that it is equally approved by all teenth anniversary of the Evangelical Knowl- my brethren, whose sympathy and contidence in the

firmness and fidelity of your whole course were so elge Society was likewise held in New York in unanimously declared in the resolution passed at October. The annual report set forth that the our last General Convention, new works published by the society amounted With my earnest prayer that the Holy Spirit of to 2,497 pages. The treasurer's report an

grace and consolation may guide and prosper all your

arduous labors, and mercifully overrule this strange nounced that the receipts for the past year and mournful 'defection to the greater glory of the announted to $40,998.32, and the expenditures Redeemer, and the confirmation of His Church's abto $39,596.31, leaving a balance of $1,402.01. solute faith in the sacred Scriptures as the unerring

The Church of England continued to be Word of God, I remain, my dear Lord Bishop, with greatly agitated by the case of Dr. Colenso, high regard, your friend and brother in Christ,

[L. s.]

JOIN HI. HOPKINS, who, in the latter months of the year 1865, re- Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal turned to his diocese of Natal. The Bishop of

Church in the United States. Capetown, as Metropolitan of the Anglican At the session of the convocation of CanterChurch in North Africa, had offered to Colenso bury, which began on May 1, 1806, the Archto have the sentence of deposition, which had bishop of Canterbury announced that he had been passed upon him by a synod of the South received letters from the Bishop of Capetown African bishops in 1865, revised either by the and the Dean of Maritzburg, asking in substance

Archbishop of Canterbury, or by the bishops of the following questions: 1. Whether the Church the United Church of England and Ireland, or of England hold communion with Dr.•Colenso, hy such bishops of the Anglican communion and the heretical church which he is seeking to throughout the British empire as could be as- establish at Natal, or whether it is in commusembled in London for the hearing of his case. rion with the orthodox bishops who, in synod, As Colenso refused to avail himself of this of- declared him to be ipso facto excommunicated, fer, the metropolitan issued a formal sentence 2. Whether the acceptance of a new bishop on of excommunication, reading as follows: the part of the diocese of Natal, while Bishop'

In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, We, Robert, Colenso still retains the letters-patent of the by Divine permission, Metropolitan of the Church in crown, would, in any way, sever the diocese the province of Capetown, in accordance with the from the mother Church of England. 3. Supdecision of the bishops of the province, in synod assembled, do hereby, it being our oflice and our grief posing the reply to the last question to be that to do so, by the authority of Christ committed unto they would not in any way be severed, what us, pass upon John William Colenso, D, D., the sen- are the proper steps for the diocese to take to tence of the greater excommunication, thereby sep- obtain a new bishop? The discussion of these arating him from the communion of the Church of Carist so long as he shall obstinately and impeni- questions showed that the bishops were any tently persist in his heresy, and claim to exercise thing but agreed. The Bishop of Oxford wished the oflice of a bishop within the province of Cape. all the three questions to be answered in a town. And we do hereby make known to the faithful manly and hearty manner, while the Bishops in Christ that, being thus excluded from all commu. nion with the Church, he is, according to our Lord's and Peterborough, were opposed to immediate

of St. Asaph, Llandaff

, St. Davids, Lincoln, Ely, the Thirty-third of the Articles of Religion, “ to be action. In the session, beginning June 26th, the taken of the whole multitude of the faithful, as a discussion of the case was resumed. The Bishop heathen man and publican.” (Matt. xviii. 17, 18.) of Oxford moved to reply, in answer to the

Given under our hand and seal this 16th day of first question submitted to the convocation, December, in the year of our Lord 1865.


that the Church did not hold communion with

Dr. Colenso, and that it did hold communion The Metropolitan of Capetown notified the with the orthodox bishops of South Africa. A Anglican bishops of Great Britain, the British majority of the bishops were, however, opposed colonies, and the United States of this step. In to committing themselves on the first part of the England some of the bishops disapproved of resolution, and by five against four votes adoptthe measure, while, as far as is known, those ed an amendment, declaring that they held of the British colonies and the United States communion with the Bishop of Capetown, and were unanimous in sanctioning it. From the those bishops who with him declared Dr. Colensenior bishop of the Protestant Episcopal so to be ipso facto excommunicated. The lower Church in the United States the following re- house gave to this amendment a unanimous ply was received:

consent. In reply to the second question, the DuelisGTON, VT., May 4, 1966. Bislop of Oxford moved the following declaraTo the Most Recerent Robert Gray, D. D., Lord tion : That as it has been decided, on appeal Dirhop of Capetown, and Metropolitan : My Dear Lord Bishop: Your útlicial statement of the one hand, that the Church in the province

to the highest judicial court in this kingdom, on the greater excommunication formally pronounced by poa on John Williarn Colenso, D. D., late Bishop of of Natal, in communion with the United Church Vatal, and addressed to me as the senior bishop of of England and Ireland, is in the eye of the law the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United Stłtes,

a mere voluntary association; and, on the other has been received and placed on record.

On my own part, this painful and afflicting work land, as the letters-patent do not profess to of discipline is perfectly approved, as an act of solemn confer spiritual power, and have been declared and imperative duty to the Church of God, and to by the court to convey no episcopal jurisdic


tion, it is the judgment of this house that the assent, if they so will.” The Bishop of Grahams. acceptance of a new bishop does not impair the town wrote to express bis general concurconnection or alter the relations existing be- rence in the views as to the election of a bishop tween the members of the Church in the prov- contained in the metropolitan's letter to the ince of Natal and the Church of England, dean.” The discussions extended over two provided : 1. That the bishop be canonically days. The final result was that the clergy consecrated according to the use of the Church present were evenly divided, seven voting for of England. 2. That there be no invasion of the election of the Rev. William Butler, Vicar the title of the Bishop of Natal conveyed by her of Wantage (of the diocese of Oxford), as bishop, inajesty's letters-patent."

and seven voting against such election, holding As regards the third question (the proper such a course to be illegal, and opposed to the measures to be taken to secure the election of advice of the convccation. Dean Green gave his a new bishop), the Bishop of Oxford proposed casting vote in favor of the election. Twentythat the House of Bishops should recommend: 1. eight laymen also voted for it. The dean then That an instrument should be prepared declara- pronounced that the Rev. William Butler had tory of the doctrine and discipline of the Church been duly elected. The congregation of St. of South Africa, which every priest and deacon John's Church, Pinetown, held a meeting, repuappointed to any office should be required to diated this election, ejected their incumbent, the subscribe. 2. That a godly and well-learned Rev. James Walton, for the part he had taken man should be chosen, with the consent of the in it, and then called upon Dr. Colenso to apcommunicants of the Church, to be the bishop. point a new minister. On October 30th, a meet3. That the person so selected should be pre- ing of the supporters of Dr. Colenso was also sented for consecration either to the Archbishop held at the cathedral, to protest against the elecof Canterbury or to the bishops of the Church tion, at which about 200 persons were present. in South Africa, as might be hereafter deemed A protest, the adoption of which was moved by most advisable. The Bishops of London, St. the Colonial Secretary, and seconded by the Davids, and others declared themselves opposed Secretary for Native Affairs, was unanimously to the appointment of a new bishop, but after agreed to. The protest declared that the clergy being submitted to some verbal alterations, the and laity concerned in the election had, by that first resolution of the Bishop of Oxford was act of legislation, renounced the queen's supremcarried by six to four. The second resolution acy, and forfeited their membership of the was also agreed to. The lower house assented Church of England. Dr. Colenso, on his part, to both resolutions. Notwithstanding these contended that all persons taking part in conven. proceedings against him, Colenso continued to ticles or private meetings to consult on any perform his episcopal functions in his diocese. matter or course impeaching the doctrine of Of the seventeen clergymen of the diocese, only the Church of England or of the Book of Comone sided with him; but, on the other hand, mon Prayer, or of any part of the government or the secular authorities of the colony gave hin discipline now established in the Church of all the support that was in their power. Colenso England, were ipso fucto excommunicated, in also obtained, in October, a decision in his terms of the 75th canon of the Church, and favor by the Master of the Rolls (Lord Romilly), that Dean Green and his supporters were who decided that the trustees of the Colonial therefore excommunicated by their own act Bishopric's Fund were obliged to pay to Dr. Co- in electing a bishop without her majesty's lenso the arrears of his salary which they had authority. The English Government instructed deemed themselves authorized to cut off. But the officers of the crown in the colony to obabout the same time when this decision was serve a strict neutrality in the controversy. rendered, the majority of the clergy and Iaity Another controversy in the Church of Engof Natal took the last step for a complete sev- land, which, during the past year, obtained a erance of their ecclesiastical connection with great importance, was that of the ritnalistic Colenso. On October 25th a meeting was held changes in the worship of the Church. A numof the clergy of the diocese of Natal, to con ber of clergymen had for some time past introsider the replies sent out by the English con- duced into their churches practices for which vocation to the queries forwarded through the they claimed both the authority of the Anglican inetropolitan, in 1865, from the Church in Natal, Church of former centuries and of the ancient and, in accordance with the advice tendered, Christian Church, but which by another party to elect a bishop for the vacant sec. Fourteen were viewed as “ a deviation from law and clergymen and about fifty communicants were long-established usage, and as disturbing the present. The two clerical supporters of Colenso peace and impairing the efficiency of the were present, but not allowed to vote. A letter Church, and as disquieting the minds of many was read from the Bishop of Capetown, urging devout members of the Anglican communion." them to elect a new bishop, and, as regards the Some of the opponents of “ritualism” were mode of election, giving this advice: “ The of opinion that the Book of Common Prayer, clergy elect; com.nunicants assent. They alone in its present form, gave some encouragement have to do with the matter. All communicants to the ritualists, and they desired the appointhave a right, I apprehend, according to the cus- ment of a commission by the Government " for toms of the primitive Church, to express their the revision of the Liturgy." To this schema

the Archbishop of Canterbury declared his de- were actively pursued. The societies chiefly termined opposition, and Earl Russell (in reply instrumental in pursuing these efforts on the to Lord Ebury, February 12th) stated that the part of the Anglican churches are the “ English Government, anxious to promote peace and Church Union,” the “ Association for the Progood-will, and not to open the way to discord,” motion of the Unity of Christendom," and the had, after communicating with the Archbishop “Eastern Church Association." The latter of Canterbury, declined to propose the form- confined its efforts to the Eastern Churches, ing of a commission. The friends of “church while the two former have a more general terornaments" had accordingly (February 3d) pre- dency, and in particular keep in view the estabsented a memorial to the Archbishop of Can- lishment of closer relations with the Roman terbury, signed by 36,008 communicants, of Catholic Church. An interesting correspondwhom 24,133 were laymen, and 2,970 clergy of ence between a number of Anglican clergythe Church of England, against any alterations men and Cardinal Patrizi took place in the latbeing made in the Book of Common Prayer ter months of the year 1865, but was only made respecting the “ornaments of the Church, and public in 1866. The letter of the Anglican of the ministers thereof;" and the mode and clergymen (written in Latin) was signed by 198 manner of performing divine service “accord- “ deans, canons, parish priests, and other ing to the use of the Church of England." priests,” and addressed to the Most Eminent

The archbishop, in his reply, while repeating and Reverend Father in Christ, the Lord Carhis declaration that he would never consent to dinal Patrizi." As regards the relation of the any alteration in any part of the Book of Com- Anglican Church to that of Rome, the writers mon Prayer without the full concurrence of say: * Whatever may have been less perfect in convocation, at the same time declared his de- the faith of the flock, in Divine worship and in cided opposition to many of the ritualistic in- ecclesiastical discipline, we have improved benovations. The lower house of convocation, yond our hope; and, not to be forgetful of at its session in February, after a long and other things, we have shown an amount of animated discussion, agreed to the following good-will toward the venerable Church of resolution : “ That this house, recognizing the Rome, which has rendered us suspected in the evils which may arise from an excess of ritual- eyes of some.” The cardinal, in his reply, which ism, deprecates, nevertheless, any attempt to is dated November 8, 1865, salutes the writers avert those possible evils by the introduction as “ Worthy and Very Dear Sirs," and he asof changes in the prayer book; that in coming sures them that their letter has inspired the to these resolntions the house by no means in- " sacred congregation with a most pleasing tends to express approval of any alteration from hope." But he declines to admit their claims church order not included in the expression to the name “ Catholic," and describes their excess of ritualisin.' That this resolution (the condition as an "inherited state of separation." first paragraph) be communicated to their lord- He concludes with the hope that they will “ no ships of the upper house, with a humble re. longer hesitate to throw themselves into the quest that they take the subject into their con- bosom of that Church which, from the Apossideration, and adopt such measures as they tolic See through the succession of its bishops, shall see fit, in conjunction with the house, for while heretics have barked in vain, bas attained clearing the doubts and allaying the anxiety the pinnacle.” The views of Dr. Pusey, conthat exists upon it.” The bishops, in return, cerning a union between the Churches of Eng. desired the lower house to appoint a committee land and Rome (see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for of inquiry. The report of this committee was 1865, p. 26), were supported by the “ English ma'le by its chairman, Dr. Goodwin, Dean of Church Union," of which society Dr. Pusey has Ely, in July. The report gives a history of the become a member. At a discussion on the ritualistic usages which the party tries to in- subject, Dr. Pusey stated that as the basis of troluce, and deprecates any attempt at a judi- such a union he proposed “the decrees of the cial settlement of the question of ritualism, Council of Trent and the Thirty-nine Articles, urging moderation on both sides. The report both documents being properly explained.” As of the comunittee was adopted by a vote of 38 regards the movements for a closer intercointo 9.

munion between the Eastern and the Anglican The monastery of the "English Order of St. Churches, the Convocation of Canterbury was Benedict,” at Norwich, was dissolved in conse- requested by the Russo-Greek committee of quence of the long absence of its founder, the the lower house, for an enlargement of their Rev. Mr. Lyne (" Father Ignatiu3'), and from powers. They were appointed originally " to want of support. Mr. Lyne, toward the close communicate with the committee appointed of the year, received an appointment as a at the general convention of the Protestant curate in the diocese of London. A monastery Episcopal Church in the United States as to inof the “ Third Order of St. Benedict” was still tercommunion with the Russo-Greek Church, in existence at the close of the year, at Bristol. and to communicate the result to convocation."

The efforts for bringing on a closer union They now requested permission to consider the between the Anglican churches on the one question of "intercommunion with the Oriental hand, and other religious denominations pos- churches generally; and the request was sessed of an apostolical succession on the other, granted. The “Eastern Church Asunciation”

published in 1866 its first annual report. The every assistance that might be required. The principles of the association are thus stated in committee were of opinion that in most cases the report: “To establish such relations be- the expense of those suffragan bishops could be tween the two communions as shall enable the met by their holding important posts, such as laity and clergy of either to join in the sacra deaneries and canonries, in connection with the ments and offices of the other, without forfeit- Church. Any legislation for the settlement by ing the communion of their own church; sec- law of any expense upon those bishops to whom ondly, that any overtures toward such an object the assistance was rendered, was deemed inexshould be made, if possible, in cooperation pedient. The committee also recommended that with those churches with which the Church of an attempt should be made, through the ArchiEngland is in communion; and thirdly, that bishop of Canterbury, to sweep away any diffisuch overtures, whenever made, should be ex culties which have existed in regard to the mattended to the other Eastern Patriarchates, and ter. As regards the appointment of suffragan not confined to the Russo-Greek Church, The bishops, the bishop is to nominate two, and the association numbers two hundred and eighty crown to select one of these. On motion of the members, and among its patrons are English, Bishop of Oxford, seconded by the Bishop of Scotch, Colonial, American, and Eastern London, the report of the committee was bishops. (On the results of the Society's adopted. labors in the East, see the article “EASTERN The sixty-seventh annual meeting of the Eng. CHURCES.”) A number of the Anglican lish Church Society was held May 1st, at Exeter friends of this movement regarded the Eastern Hall. From the report, it appeared that the total Churches as right in rejecting the addition of ordinary income amounted to £146,208 18. 9d.; filioque (the procession of the Holy Spirit from total ordinary expenditure, £144,558 178. 4d.; the Father " and the Son” to the Athanasian surplus, £1,649 48. 5d. The local funds raised Creed, and one of them (Rev. J. Ouseley) pub- in the missions and expended there upon the licly declared that he had abandoned the An- operations of the society, but independent of glican communion office, and the filioque too, for the general fund, were not included in the at least the last two years. A priest, claiming to above figures, amounted to £20,000. The sobe an Eastern bishop (Rev. Julius Ferretta), who ciety has at present 148 missionary stations, 278 made his appearance in England, met with a clergymen, 21 European laymen, 9 European fecordial reception on the part of a number of male teachers (exclusive of missionaries' wires), Anglican clergymen. (See Eastern CHURCIES.) and 2,122 native and country-born catechists Some advance was also made in 1866 toward and teachers of all classes, not sent from home. a closer intercommunion with the Episcopal The number of cominunicants in 1860 was Lutheran Churches of the Scandinavian coun 19,828; 1861, 21,064; 1862, 21,261; 1863, 18,tries. (Ses LUTHERAN Church.) An important 110; 1864, 18,124; 1865, 14,155.

These figures step toward effecting a closer union between did not include the New Zealand mission, the the Established Church of Great Britain and returns from which had not been received on Ireland on the one hand, and the Scottish Epis- account of the disturbed state of tho colony. copal Church on the other, was a declaration The society has withdrawn from seventy-seven inade by the Archbishop of Canterbury at the stations, chicily added to parochial establishlaying of the foundation-stone of a cathedral atments in the West Indies or transferred to the Inverness, Scotland, in October, 1866, that the native church in Sierra Leone, containing ten Scottish Episcopal Church is the only true rep- native clergy, 4,356 communicants, and 12,866 resentative of the Church of England in Scot- scholars. The annual meeting of the Society land, and that the prelates of the Church of for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign England pretend to exercise no jurisdiction over Parts, was held April 26th. The income of the clergymen in Scotland.

society for 1865 was £94,957 118. 3d.; and the The House of Bishops of the Convocation of expenditure for the saine period was in British Canterbury, took, in 1866, for the first time, de- North America, £22,120; in the West Indies, cided steps for an increase of tho number of £1,328; in South Africa, £11,000; in the rest bishops. The Bishop oť Oxford presented the of Africa, £1,460; in Asia, £31,372, and in unanimous request of a committee appointed to Australia and New-Zealand, £6,271. The Engconsider - as to the best mode of providing as- glish “ Church Congress” for 1866 was held sistance for bishops in the event of illness, or at York, and both the archbishops of England old age, or the like, rendering thein unable to took an active part in its proceedings. discharge the duties of their office, and needing The archbishops and bishops of the United some assistance in the performance of the same." Church of England and Ireland, in 1866, gavo The committee considered the appointment of their assent to the establishment of a lay diacoadjutor bishops cum successione, would be un- conate, the persons composing it to be set apart advisable, being not suited to the Church of by episcopal authority, to act in all cases under England. But, on the other hand, they con the direction of the parochial clergy, and to be sidered it very desirable to bring into active designated as “readers.” They are to be puboperation the act of Henry VIII., which em- licly appointed after an examination by a bishop; powers the nomination of suffragan bishops to but not to be set apart by the imposition of different posts in England, who might renderlands as in the case of bishops, priests. and

Beacons. They are to minister in outlying dis- upon Paraguay and Bolivia, great dissatisfactricts, but will not have authority to administer tion with the continuance of the triple alliance the holy commupion—that part of the church and the war was expressed, and repeated atservice being taken on stated days by the paro- tempts wero made at stirring up civil war and a chial clergy. The “readers” are not to be ad- separation of some of the northern provinces dressed as “rererend,” but they are to wear from the Argentine Confederation. Most of the surplice in their ministrations. At the first theso attempts were easily suppressed; but the annual meeting of the “ Association of Lay latest reports from Buenos Ayres stated that, in Helpers," in the diocese of London, about fifty December, the insurrection in Mendoza was persons were present.

becoming more serious, the chief having upANHALT, a duchy in Germany. Area, 1,017 ward of three thousand men at his command, Engl. square miles. Population, in 1864, 193,- and being evidently supported by Chili. In 046. Capital, Dessau, with 16,306 inhabitants. Catamarca the insurrection was

also reIn the German war, in 1866, Anhalt sided with ported still to hold the Government. The Prussia, and after the conclusion of tho war it sympathy of Chili, Peru, and Bolivia with joined the North German confederation. the Paraguayans threatened the friendly rela

ARGENTINE REPUBLIO. President (froin tions which had hitherto existed between these October 12, 1862, to October 11, 1868), Barto, republics and the Argentine Conferleration, and lomé Mitré; Vice-President, Marcos Paz. toward the close of the year fears were enterMinister of the United States at Buenos Ayres, tained of an invasion of Argentine territory General Alexander Asboth, appointed in Octo- by a Bolivian army. (See Bolivia.) The Arber, 1866.

gentine Government took, however, occasion The area of the republic is estimated at 38,- from the bombardment of Valparaiso by the 890 geographical (or about 825,000 English) Spanish fleet, to protest against this act as consquare miles. Exclusive of this territory the trary to the principles of international law. Argentine Government claims Patagonia, Notwithstanding the continuance of the war which is generally connected with Chili, and which taxed the strength of the government to the whole of the Gran Chaco, parts of which are the utmost, the republic is at present making generally counted with the territory of Bolivia greater progress than during the previous peace. and Paraguay. The population of the republic On September 11th the Western Railroad was in 1857, and, according to Martin de Moussy*, openeil ten leagues farther, to the town of in 1863, was as follows:

Chiviledy. This finishes one hundred and ten

miles of railroad westward from Buenos Ayres. Population Population This railroad traverses a fine country, and al

ready has a great business. It is owned by the Buenos Arres..

(Not counted) 350,000 government. In the same month two AmeriEotre Rios..

79,252 107,000 can gentlemen, Messrs. Hopkins and Cary, obCorrientes and Missions.. 85,447 90,000

tained a charter from Congress for a telegraph Santa Fé..

41,261 45,000 Cordova...

137,079 150,000

from Buenos Ayres to Chili. In October the Santiago del Estero,

77,575 90,000 submarine cable which connects the cities of Tucuman.

84,136 100,000 Buenos Ayres and Montevideo was successfully Salta..

(Not counted) 80,000 laid. It lies on the bed of the river, between Jajis.

35,189 (+) 40,000

Buenos Ayres and Colonia, a distance of twenCatamarca.

56,000 (1) 80,000 La Rioja.

34,431 (t 40,000

ty-six miles. The works on the Argentine San Joan.

(Not counted) 70,000 Central Railroad, from Rosario to Cordova, were Vendoza.

47,478 50,000 suspended in November, 1866, on account of San Luis..

37,602 45,000 the tardiness of the government in making out Indian territory in the Sortb


the titles to the public lands granted to the Iadian territory in the

company. For every twenty leagues of railSouth..

30,000 road there was to be a transfer of title to the

granted lands, and the company having finished Total.


the railroad about twice that distance, needed The war which the Argentine Republic in the land, on which to base the issue of bonds. common with Brazil and Uruguay) has for some But though the materials for the entire railroad time been carrying on against Paraguay, con had all arrived, or were en route from Europe, tinued throughout the year. (See PAPAGUAY.) yet there was this obstacle to the work. This In some provinces, especially those bordering road, when finished, will be the grandest road

south of the equator, sweeping for two bun* Martin de Moussy, the author of the grcat work, . dred and fifty miles through a region of great tription de la Cortedéralion Argentine stom, iii., Paris, fertility. 191, is called by Page (in his work, "La Plata," London, 189) ** an eminent scientific man," and his work is recom

On Dece:nber 10th a convention to reform Baded by Sir Woodbine Parish, who himself is the author the constitution of the republic met at Santa s the best-known book on the La Plata States, to all who re to have the latest and most accurate information on

Fé, in a kind of general caucus. On the 11th the subject. M. de Moussy has carefully compared all tho it had a preliminary meeting, and on the Dess and estimates of population, and his statements are Dirtsally accepted as those most entitled to credit,

12th they proposed amendments, discussed + Cuosis of 1600. * Census of 1854.

them, voted on them, apl adjourned. The

in 1857.

in 1963.

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