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bate in the Senate. I was very unwilling that coincides with that of the honorable Senator that should be changed. If the House of Rep- from Rhode Island. resentatives, for its own convenience and in “My friend from Michigan (Mr. Iloward) order to accomplish business, finds it necessary will allow me to say to him that I do not think to adopt another rule, that rule can be adopted the question of whether the men who may preby the House as applicable to its own proceed- sent themselves as members are fit to come in ings, but not here; and hence I was opposed now, or whether the States of which they proto that particular provision, and thought it un- fess to be the representatives are fit to come in wise so far as we were concerned.

now and act with us and ought to be admitted "My judgment was that every thing that to do so, is involved in this question at all. lle was necessary could be accomplished by the has argued it as if by striking out this portion mere appointment of a joint committee of the of the resolution we have settled that. By no two llouses; that it was not necessary to pro- manner of means. If it would do so, I would vide that all the credentials of members should vote with him. We are only settling, on the be referred to that committee. There was an contrary, that that question shall be deferred apparent constitutional objection to it; and until a committee of both branches have thorthere is much force in the argument that if 'oughly considered it and reported to this body; that should be done, and the provision retained and certainly I shall go with him, as long as I that no action should be bad until there was a believe that committee is doing its duty, in opreport from that committee, constituted as the posing action upon the subject committed to it committee is to be, each House is putting into until it is ready to enlighten us with the inforthe hands of the other a power to control its mation it may have received and the concluaction in a matter which, by the Constitution, sions to which it may have arrived. I say this is lett to itself. I might have been willing even simply to bar the inference that by this action to strain a little upon that point had I con- in amending it any one who may vote for it ceived that there was any danger; but, sir, means to say or intimate that he is ready to act when we come to look at it, a committee is ap- upon that question now and admit anybody pointed by the ordinary rules proceeding; from any of these so- lled Confederate States. every thing relating to the proper subject- Certainly I am not one of them, and yet I shall matter, referred to that committee goes there; vote with the honorable Senator from Rhodo no harm would happen from a discussion in Island. this body on that subject; it would very soon “ Allow me to say, sir, in closing, one thing be settled, and we should avoid the apparent which I may as well say now in the beginning difficulty that arose with reference to what was of the session, because it is the principle which our constitutional duty. I was not frightened I intend shall guide my action, and I hope will by any idea that it was necessary now to tie guide the action of all of us. We have just up this body or that body by a joint rule which gone through a state of war. While we were could not be altered without the assent of the in it, it became necessary all around to do cerother, because, on such a subject, a majority tain things for which perhaps no strict warrant at any time will rule. If this body chooses will be found; contrary, at any rate, to preat any tiine to become false to its duty, it vious experience. That I admit most distinctly; will find a way to accomplish the wrong; Sir, I defended them from the beginning. "I and so will it be with the House of Repre- laid down the principle that the man who, sentatives.

placed in a position such as the President and " If the members of that body are, as I be- other oificers occupied, would not, in a time of liere they will be, firm in their convictions of war, and when his country was in peril, put right and what the good of the country re- his own reputation at hazard as readily as he quires, there is no need of putting them under would any thing else in order to do his duty, the control of the Senate in order to keep them was not fit for his place. I upheld many things 80. Hence I agree with the honorable Senator then that perhaps I would not uphold now, be: who moved this amendment that it is best to cause they are not necessary. The time must strike out that clause, and simply appoint a come when the Senate and House of Representcommittee, and then if the Senate chooses to atives, the Congress, must revert to its own pass a rule of its own to refer all the papers on original position. I do not think there will be this subject, even credentials, to that commit- the slightest danger; I have no apprehension of tee, so be it; it will have the control of that any; but if I act upon different principles now subject: and if the House of Representatives, and hereafter in a state of peace, from those on the other hand, chooses to do the same which I adopted and defended before, I wish thing, so be it; it will have the control of its everybody to understand the reason for it. In own action, and we have accomplished the all countries, in all nations in a time of exgreat purpose, which is to put tho considera- tremo peril, extreme and somewhat questiuntion of the question which lies at the founda- able measures are inevitable.” tion of this subject of the admission of members The amendment was agreed to. into the hands of a joint comunittee to be thor- Mr. Cowan, of Pennsylvania, moved further oughly consulted upon and considered. That to amend the resolution by striking out the is the only ground upon which my judgment word “nino " in the second line and inserting

the word “six." The amendment was lost committee, will not consider the question of yeas 14, nays 29.

credentials from these States, but in effect it Mr. Saulsbury, of Delaware, followed, say amounts to that." ing: "This resolution, as it exists now, is very Mr. Trumbull, of Illinois, said: “If I underobjectionable to my mind. It is for the ap stood the resolution as the Senator from lopointment of a committee of the two Houses to diana does, I should certainly vote with him; determine and to report upon, what? The right but I do not so understand it as it has been of representation of eleven States in this body. amended. That was the very objection to the What determines the rights of those States resolution in the form in which it came from to representation here? Is it the views of the the House of Representatives, but as it has been members of the House of Representatives? Do amended it is simply a resolution that a joint we stand in need of any light, however bright committee be raised to inquire into the conit may be, that may come from that distinguish- dition of the States which formed the so-called ed quarter? Are we going to ask them to illu Confederate States of America, and to report minate us by wisdom, and to report the fact to whether they or any of them are entitled to be us whether those States are entitled to repre- represented in either House of Congress, with sentation on this floor?

leave to report at any time by bill or otherwise. "Mr. President, on the first day of your as It is true, as the Senator says, that after having semblage after the battle of Manassas you and raised this committee, the Senate will not be they declared, by joint resolution, that the ob- likely to take action in regard to the admission ject for which the war was waged was for no of the Senators from any of these States until purpose of conquest or subjugation, but it was the committee shall have had a reasonable time to preserve the Union of the States and to at least to act and report; but it is very desirmaintain the rights, dignity, and equality of able that we should have joint action upon this the several States unimpaired. While that war subject. It would produce a very awkward was being waged there was no action, cither and undesirable state of things in the mind, I of this House or of the House of Representa- doubt not, of the Senator from Indiana himself, tives, declaring that when it was over the ex- if the House of Representatives were to admit istence of those States should be ignored or members from one of the lately rebellious States their right to representation in Congress de- and the Senate were to refuse to receive Sennied. Throughout the whole contest the battle- ators from the same State. cry was “the preservation of the Union” and 66 We all know that the State organizations in " the Union of the States." If there was a certain States of the Union have been usurpel voice then raised that those States had ceased and overthrown. This is a fact of which we to have an existence in this body, it was so must officially take notice. There was a time feeble as to be passed by and totally disre- when the Senator from Indiana, as well as my. garded.

self, would not have thought of receiving : “Sir, suppose this committee should report Senator from the Legislature or what purported that those States are not entitled to represen- to be the Legislature of South Carolina. When tation in this body, are you bound by their the people of that State, by their representaaction? Is there not a higher law, the supreme tives, undertook to withdraw from the Union law of the land, which says, if they be States and set up an independent government in that that they shall each be entitled to two Senators State in hostility to the Union, when the body on this floor? And shall a report of a joint acting as a Legislature there was avowedly act, committee of the two Houses override and ing against this Government, neither he nor I overrule the fundamental law of the land ? Sir, would have received representatives from it. it is dangerous as a precedent, and I protest That was a usurpation which by force of arms against it as a humble member of this body. we bave put down. Now the question arises, If they be not States, then the object avowed has a State Government since been inaugurated for which the war was waged was false." there entitled to representation ? Is not that s

Mr. Doolittle added: “I feel called upon to fair subject of inquiry? Ought we not to be say, in relation to this matter, that inasmuch as satisfied upon that point? We do not make the Senate and House of Representatives are such an inquiry in reference to members that not put upon a footing of equality in the com come from States which have never undertaken inittee, I ain constrained to vote against the to deny their allegiance to the Government of resolution. As my friends around me all know, the United States. Having once been admitted I have uniformly stated to them that I could as States, they continue so until by some posinot vote for the resolution if they were not put tive act they throw off their allegiance, and asupon a footing of equality.”

sume an attitude of hostility to the GovernMr. Hendricks, of Indiana, said: “I shall ment, and make war upon it; and while in that vote against this resolution because it refers to condition I know we should all object that they, a joint committee a subject which, according of course, could not be represented in the Con. to my judgment, belongs exclusively to the gress of the United States. Now, is it not s Senate. I know that the resolution no longer proper subject for inquiry to ascertain whether provides in express terms that the Senate, pend- they have assumed a position in harmony with ing the continuance of the investigation of this the Government; and is it not proper that that

inquiry should be made the subject of joint will not trust them. I hope that no such ideas action?"

will prevail here. I think this will be a cold Mr. Dixon, of Connecticut, said: “I desire shock to the warm feelings of the nation for to offer a proviso by way of amendment, and I restoration, for equal privileges, and equal will only say that without such proviso I can- rights. They were in insurrection. We have not vote for the resolution. My amendment suppressed that insurrection. They are now is, after the words bill or otherwise' to insert: States of the Union; and if they como hero ac

Protiled, That nothing herein contained shall be cording to the laws of the States, they are enso constructed as to limit, restrict, or impair the titled, in my judgment, to representation, and right of each House at all times to judge of the elec- we have no right to refuse it. They are in a tions, returns, and qualifications of its own mem. minority, and they would be in a minority even bers.

if they meant now what they felt when they Mr. Guthrie, of Kentucky, said: "I wish to raised their arms against the Government; but ask the friends of this resolution if it is contem- they do not, and of those whom they will send plated that this committee shall take evidence here to represent them, nineteen out of twenty and report that evidence to the two Houses will be just as loyal as any of us—even some If they are only to take what is open to every of those who took up arms against us.” member of the Senate, the fact that the rebel- The question being taken by yeas and nays, Cion has been suppressed; the fact that the on the amendment of Mr. Dixon, resulted President of the United States has appointed yeas 12, nays 31. officers to collect the taxes, and in some in- So the amendment was rejected. stances judges and other officers; that he has The question on concurring in the resolution sent the post-office into all the States; that as amended being taken by yeas and nays, rethere have been found enough individuals loyal sulted as follows: to the country to accept the offices; the fact Yeas—Messrs. Anthony, Brown, Chandler, Clark, that the President has issued his proclamation Conness, Creswell, Fessenden, Foot, Foster, Grimes, to all these States appointing provisional gov- Harris, Howard, Howe, Lanc of Indiana, Lane of ernors; that they liave all elected conventions; Kansas, Morgan, Morrill, Norton, Nye, Poland, Pomthat the conventions have rescinded the ordi- ner, Trumbull, Van Winkle, Wade, Willey, Williams,

eroy, Ramsey, Sherman, Sprague, Stewart, Sumnances of secession ; that most of them have Wilson, and Yates—33. imended their constitutions and abolished slave- Nays-Messrs. Buckalew, Cowan, Dixon, Doolit. Ty, and the Legislatures of some of them have tlo, Guthrie, Hendricks, Johnson, Riddle, Saulsbury, passed the amendment to the Constitution on

Stockton, and Wright—11.

ABSENT—Messrs. Cragin, Davis, IIenderson, Mcthe subject of slavery—if they are only to take Dougal, and Nesmith-5. these facts which are open and clear to us all, I can see no necessity for such a committee. in, as follows:

So the resolution, as amended, was concurred My principal objection to the resolution is, that this committee can give us no information ate concurring), That a joint committee of fifteen

Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Sen. which we do not now possess, coupled with members shall be appointed, nine of whom shall be the fact that the loyal conservative men of the members of the House, and six members of the SenUnited States, North, South, East, and West,

ate, who shall inquire into the condition of the States do most earnestly desire that we shall so act which formed the so-called Confederate States of

America, and report whether they, or any of them, that there shall be no longer a doubt that we are entitled to be represented in either Ilouse of are the United States of America in full accord Congress, with leave to report at any time by bill or and harmony with each other.

otherwise. “I know it has been said that the President had no authority to do these things. I read The consideration of the amended resolution the Constitution and the laws of this country took place in the House on December 13th. differently. He is to “take care that the laws Mr. Stevens, of Pennsylvania, moved that the be faithfully executed ;” he is to suppress in- House concur in the amendments of the Senate. surrection and rebellion. The power is put in He said: "The Senate took what to them aphis hands, and I do not see why, when he peared to be the proper view of their prerogamarches into a rebel State, he has not authority tives, and though they did not seem to differ

put down a rebel government and put up a with us as to the main object, the mode of getgovernment that is friendly to the United ting at it with them was essential, and they States, and in accordance with it; I do not very properly put the resolution in the shape see why be cannot do that while the war goes they considered right. on, and I do not see why he may not do it after “They have changed the form of the resolu

The people in those States tion so as not to require the assent of the Presize at the mercy of the nation. I see no usur. dent; and they have also considered that each pation in what he has done, and if the work llouse should determine for itself as to the refis Well done, I, for one, am ready to accept it. erence of papers by its own action at the time. Are we to send out a commission to see what To this I see no objection, and while moving to the men whom he has appointed have done? concur, I will say now that when it is in order It is said that they are not to be relied on; I shall move, or some other gentleman will that they have been guilty of treason, and we move when his State is called, a resolution pro


the war is over.

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cisely similar or very nearly similar to the pro- The same resolution was agreed to in the vision which the Senate bas stricken out, only House on January 16th-yeas 125, nays 35. applicable to the Ilouse alone. I merely give In the Senate, on January 30th, Mr. Fessenthat notice now. I cannot move it as an amend- den, of Maine, offered a joint resolution, approment to this resolution, because that would send priating $10,000, or so much thereof as might the resolution back to the other IIouse, which be necessary for the expenses of the committee, is not desirable."

for witnesses, travelling expenses, etc., which Mr. Raymond, of New York, said: “I wish was passed. It subsequently passed the House to inquire, not being versed in the usages of the on February_7th, and was approved by the House, or its rules, whether this clause of the President on February 10th. Constitution does not apply. It is the seventh In the Senato, on February 1st, Mr. Brown, section of the first article of the Constitution : of Missouri, offered the following resolution, Every order, resolution, or vote to which the con

which was agreed to: currence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjourn

Resolved, that the joint Committee on Reconstrucment) shall be presented to the President of the tion be directed to inquire into the expediency of United States; and before the same shall take effect, amending the Constitution of the United States so as shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by

to declare with greater certainty the power of Con. him, shall be repassed lay two-thirds of the Senate and

gress to enforce and determine by appropriate legis. House of Representatives, according to the rules and

lation all the guaranties contained in that instrument, limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

and more especially, first, that which recites the peo

ple, without distinguishing them by color or race, as "I do not understand how that can be evaded. those who are to choose Representatives; second, It is possible that the usages of the House may that which assures the citizens of each State all privi. dispense with it."

leges and immunities of citizens in the several States; Ir. Stevens, of Pennsylvania, replied: “Un- third, that which enjoins upon the United States the der the usage of the Ilouse, a resolution in this guaranty to every Siate in the Union of a republican

form of government. form is never sent to the President, and it is not desired that this resolution should be. I

In the Senate, on February 10th, Mr. Wilson, know it has not been the practice heretofore to of Massachusetts, offered the following resolusend such resolutions to the President."

tion, which was agreed to: The amendments of the Senate were then Resolred, That the Committee on Reconstruction be agreed to.

directed to inquire into and report how far the States In the lIouse on December 14th, the Speaker with the terms proposed by the President as condi

lately in rebellion, or any of them, bare complied announced the following members of the joint tions precedent to their resumption of practical relacommittee on the part of the House : Messrs. tions with the United States, which terms and con. Thaildeus Stevens of Pennsylvania, Elihu B.

ditions were as follows, namely: Washburne of Illinois, Justin S. Morrill of Ver

1. That the several State constitutions should be

amended by the insertion of a provision abolishing mont, llenry Grider of Kentucky, John A. slavery. Bingham of Ohio, Roscoe Conkling of New 2. That the several State conventions should deYork, George S. Boutwell of Massachusetts, clare null and void the ordinances of secession and Henry T. Blow of Missouri, and Andrew J.

the laws and decrees of the Confederacy.

3. That the several State Legislatures should ratify Rogers of New Jersey.

the amendment to the Federal Constitution abolishing In the Senate, on December 21st, the follow- slavery. ing members were announced by the President 4. That the rebel debt, State and Confederate, pro tem. : Messrs. Fessenden, Grimes, Harris,

should be repudiated. Howard, Johnson, Williams.

5. That civil rights should be secured by laws ap

plicable alike to whites and blacks. In the Senate, on December 19th, Mr. An

In the Ilouse, on December 14th, Mr. Wilson, thony, of Rhode Island, offered the following:

of Iowa, offered the following resolution: Resolved, That until otherwise ordered, all papers presented to the Senate relating to the condition and

Resolved, That all papers which may be offered title to representation of the so-called Confederate

relative to the representation of the late so-called States, shall be referred to the joint committee upon shall be referred to the joint committee of fifteen with

Confederate States of America, or either of them, that subject.

out debate, aud no members shall be admitted from It was laid over until January 16th, when it either of said so-called States until Congress shall was considered. A debate arose on the ques- declare such States or either of them entitled to reption whether the resolution embraced the cre

resentation. dentials of Senators. Mr. Doolittle, of Wis- Numerous points of order were raised, which consin, moved to insert the words “except cre

were overruled by the Speaker, and the resoludentials," and the debate was not concluded. tion was adopted-yeas 107, nays 56.

In the Senate, on January 12th, Mr. Fessen- On December 18th, Mr. Baker, of Illinois, den, of Maine, offered the following, which was offered the foliowing preamble and resolution, agreed to:

which was referred to the Committee on ReconResolreil by the Senate (the House of Representa

struction : tives concurring), That the joint committee appointed Whereas, class rule and aristocratic principles of to inquire into the condition of the States which government have burdened well-nigh all Europe with formed the so-called Confederate States be authorized enormous public debts and standing armies, which to send for persons and papers.

press as a grievous incubus on the people, absorbing their substance, impeding their culture, and impair, republican government firm and stable forever. ing their happiness; and whereas the class rule and The first of those amendments is to change the aristocratic element of slaveholding which found a place in our Republic has proved itself, in like man.

basis of representation among the States from ber, hurtful to our people, by degrading labor and Federal numbers to actual voters. Now all the probibiting popular education in a large section of colored freemen in the slave States, and threeibe country; by striving to rend our Union in frag- fifths of the slaves, are represented, though ments; by causing the blood of hundreds of thou.

none of them have votes. The States have sands of patriots to How. and by compelling the nineteen representatives of colored slaves; If magnitude in defence of liberty, nationality, and the slaves are now free then they can add, for cirilization on this continent: Therefore

the other two-fifths thirteen more, making the ficzołred (as the sense of this House), That once slave representationtion thirty-two. I suppose for all we should have done with class rule and aris

the free blacks in those States will give at least tocracy as a privileged power before the law in this nation, no matter where or in what form they may five more, making the representation of nonappear; and that, in restoring the normal relations voting people of color about thirty-seren. Tho of the States lately in rebellion, it is the high and whole number of representatives now from tho sacred duty of the Representatives of the people to slave States is seventy. Add the other twoproceed upon the true, as distinguished from the false, democratic principle, and to realize and secure

fifths and it will be eighty-three. the largest attainable liberty to the whole people of “If the amendment prevails, and those States the Republic, irrespective of class or race.

withhold the right of suffrage from persons of

color, it will deduct about thirty-seven, leaving On the same day, on a motion to refer the Pres- them but forty-six. With the basis unchanged, ident's message to the respective committees the eighty-three Southern members, with the in the House, Mír. Stevens, of Pennsylvania, ex- Democrats that will in the best times be elected pressed his views on the state of the country. from the North, will always give them a majorAfter advancing reasons to prove it to be the ity in Congress and in the electoral college. duty of Congress to "create States and declare They will at the very first election take possesWhen they are entitled to be represented,” he sion of the White Ilouse and the halls of Consaid:

gress. I need not depict the ruin that would " It is obvious from all this that the first follow. Assumption of the rebel debt or repuduty of Congress is to pass a law declaring the diation of the Federal debt would be sure to condition of these outside or defunct States, follow. The oppression of the freedinen; the and providing proper civil governments for reamendment of their State constitutions, and them. Since the conquest they have been gov- the reëstablishment of slavery would be the erned by martial law. Military rule is neces- inevitable result. That they would scorn and sarily despotic, and ought not to exist longer disregard their present constitutions, forced than is absolutely necessary. As there are no upon them in tho midst of martial law, would Floptoms that the people of these provinces be both natural and just. No one who has any will be prepared to participate in constitutional regard for freedom of clections can look upon government for some years, I know of no ar- those governments, forced upon them in duress, rangement so proper for them as territorial with any favor. If they should grant the right gorernments. There they can learn the prin- of suffrage to persons of color, I think there ciples of freedom, and eat the fruit of foul would always be Union white men enough rebellion. Under such governments, while in the South, aided by the blacks, to divide electing members to the Territorial Legisla- the representation, and thus continue the Retures, they will necessarily mingle with those publican ascendency. If they should refuse to to whom Congress shall extend the right of tbus alter their election laws, it would reduco sufirage. In Territories, Congress fixes the the representatives of the late slave States to qualifications of electors; and I know of no about forty-five, and render them powerless for better place nor better occasion for the con- evil. It is plain that this amendment must be quered rebels and the conqueror to practise consummated before the defunct States are adjustice to all men, and accustom themselves to mitted to be capable of State action, or it never make and to obey equal laws.

can be... As these fallen rebels cannot at their option “The proposed amendment to allow Conreënter the heaven which they have disturbed, gress to lay a duty on exports is precisely in the garden of Eden which they have deserted, the same situation. Its importance cannot well and flaming swords are set at the gates to be overstated. It is very obvious that for many secure their exclusion, it becomes important to years the South will not pay much under our the welfare of the nation to inquire when the internal revenue laws. The only article on doors shall be reopened for their admission. which we can raise any considerable amount is

** According to my judgment they ought cotton. It will be grown largely at once. With never to be recognized as capable of acting in ten cents a pound export duty it would be the Union, or of being counted as valid States, furnished cheaper to foreign markets than they until the Constitution shall have been so amend- could obtain it from any other part of the ed as to make it what its framers intended; world. The late war has shown that. Two and so as to secure perpetual ascendency to the million bales exported, at five hundred pounds party of the Union; and so as to render our to the bala, would yield $100,000,000. This

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