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А. ABYSSINIA, a kingdom or empire in East- the Queen of Sheba, but until the present monern Africa. On account of our little acquaint- arch seized the throne, their authority was ance with this country, the statements on its merely nominal, the real power being in the area and population widely differ. Brehm's hands of the governors of the provinces, who Geographisches Jahrbuch (vol. i., 1866), one of gave them a formal allegiance. The present the best authorities on population, puts down emperor, Theodore, succeeded in 1855, and his the area at 7,450 geographical square miles and attention was soon directed to obtaining recthe population at 3,000,000. Dr. Küppell (Reise ognition and friendly intercourse from the in Abessinien, 1831-33, Frankfort, 1838) esti- power which holds India, and has established mates the population in the territory from 12° to itself in the neighboring stronghold of Aden. 16° north latitude, and from 37° to 40° east longi- A treaty had, therefore, been made between tade, at not more than 500,000 inhabitants; and Great Britain and Abyssinia so long ago as in the remainder of Abyssinia, comprising the 1849, and it was ratified in 1852. In this western provinces of Quara, Madsha, and Agov, treaty it was stipulated that each state should and the southern provinces of Gudjam, Damot, receive ambassadors from the other. The emAmhara, and Begemeder, at 1,000,000, thus peror, desirous to strengthen his authority, regiving to the whole of Abyssinia (with the ex- solved to assert the rights thus assured to him: ception of Shoa) a population of 1,500,000. but, unfortunately, the officer who represented The province of Shoa has, according to the British interests in those regions was suddenly missionary Dr. Krapf, one of the best writers taken away. Mr. Plowden had been for many on this country (" Travels, Researches, and Mis- years English consul at Massowah; though not sionary Labors in Eastern Africa," ' London, an accredited agent to Abyssinia, he had been 1860), about 1,000,000 inhabitants. These intrusted with presents for the people in austatements, taken together, and the natural in- thority, and with these he went into the conncrease, indicate a population of about 3,000,000. try, where he remained, taking part in a war The same estimate is made by the Roman which broke out at the accession of the present Catholic bishop Massaja, who for many years emperor, and thus ingratiated himself exlived among the Gallas (Annales de la Propa- tremely with that potentate. gation de la Foi, January, 1865). According Mr. Plowden was killed in 1860, and Mr. to the missionary Isenberg (Abessinien, Bonn, Cameron was sent from some other Eastern 1864), the population of Abyssinia, Shoa, and post to succeed him. Mr. Cameron arrived in the country between 70 and 16° north lat- 1862, and shortly afterward the emperor told itude and 36° and 42° east longitude, amounts him that he desired to carry out the treaty to five or six millions. The whole Ethiopian made so many years before. Toward the end plateau, comprising Abyssinia, and the Sidama of 1862 he wrote an autograph letter to Queen and Galla countries, has, according to Massaja, Victoria, requesting perinission to send an em12,000,000 of people, 9,000,000 of whom are bassy to England. This letter reached London Sidamas and Gallas. This statement agrees in February, 1863, and, for some reason or other, with that of Krapf, according to which the Gal- was left unanswered. Then came a quarrel with las number from six to eight millions.
a missionary, Mr. Stern, who had committed the Abyssinia is ruled by emperors, who are sup- unpardonable offence of remonstrating against posed to be descended from King Solomon and the flogging to death of two interpreters.
VOL. V.-1 A
The emperor's wrath appears to have been the emperor dreaded that his unjustifiable conronsed at these and perhaps other causes, and duct toward Consul Cameron and his associates within a year after he had written with his would bring down upon him the vengeance of own hard to Queen Victoria, asking to be ad- the British Government. In the mean time mitted into the pale of friendly intercourse, Consul Cameron and those who were imprishe sent a body of troops to the mission- oned with him enjoyed comparative freedom; ary station, seized the missionaries and Mr. and the emperor, whose fitful and suspicious Cameron himself, put them in chains, and cast temper is his bane, renewed his friendly interthem into prison, Mr. Cameron being chained course with Mr. Rassam and his companions, continually to an Abyssinian soldier. This was looking after their comforts personally, and endone in November, 1863, and from that time deavoring to relieve the pompous monotony of to this the unhappy men have been in confine- court life by taking them out on occasional ment.
shooting excursions. With the consul were incarcerated his sec On August 25th, the Rev. Mr. Stern, one of retary Kerans, his servants McKelvie, Makerer, the prisoners, wrote as follows: "Our present Petro, and Bardel; the missionaries Stern, Ro- more rigorous captivity is to be attributed to an senthal, Flad, Steiger, and Brandeis, and the nat- alleged report that English, French, and Turkural-history collectors Schiller and Essler. This ish troops were on their way to invade Abysoutrage against British subjects produced the sinia. Mr. Rassam protested against the vegreatest excitement in England; but as the ter- racity of this statement; nay, every one of us ritory of the Emperor Theodore does not ex would have discredited the story even had it tend to the sea, and as the murderous climate been confined to a mere military expedition. puts the greatest obstacle to the success of an On the same day that he charged the British armed expedition, it was deemed best by the Government with duplicity, he also reproached English Government to confine its efforts in be- me with the stale offence of having traduced half of the prisoners to diplomacy.
his character by throwing doubts on his lineal In the second half of the year 1865 the Eng- descent from Solomon. I tendered my wonted lish Government sent Mr. Rassam, an Asiatic by apology for this oft-repeated crime, but his birth, well known in connection with Mr. Lay- majesty said he would not pardon me till I had ard's discoveries, and at that time holding the atoned for the sin by rendering him some seroffice of assistant to the British resident at Aden, vice. In the evening of the same day he made on a special mission to the Abyssinian emperor. fresh proffers of his friendship to Mr. Rassam, Mr. Rassam started from Massowah on the and also told Mr. Rosenthal, and particularly 15th of October, with forty camel-loads of pres- nyself, that we should not indulge in unpleasents to the emperor. In a letter from Mr. ant surmises, as he had nothing against us; Rassam, dated February 7, 1866, it was an- and, like the rest of our fellow-prisoners, we nounced that the emperor had given him a drank his health in good áraki, provided for magnificent reception, and ordered the release that purpose from the royal distillery." of all the prisoners. The fact was accordingly Letters from Rev. Mr. Stern and Consul announced in the English Parliament by Lord Cameron, dated September 15, 1866, stated that Clarendon. But the hope thus raised was soon the emperor was expected at Magdala (the to be disappointed. When Mr. Rassam and the place where the prisoners were kept), and that other prisoners were just on the point of taking a crisis in the fate of the prisoners was apleave of the emperor, he and his party were put proaching. Later letters (written about the under arrest, and informed that they were to beginning of October) were received by Dr. remain in the country, not as prisoners, but as Beke, a gentleman who has long resided in "state guests," until an answer could be ob- Abyssinia, understands the language of the tained to a second letter which the emperor country, is personally acquainted with the Negos was abont to write to the queen. This letter (emperor), and has taken a special interest in was duly indited, in a style worthy of some the liberation of the prisoners, from which it Lusitanian monarch of old, beginning: “In the appeared that Messrs. Rosenthal and McKelvie name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. had been allowed to remain at Gaffat; that From God's slave and His created being, the Messrs. Kerans and McKelvie had offered their son of David, the son of Solomon, the king of services to the emperor-those of the former kings, Theodore,” etc. The ostensible reason having been rejected, but those of the latter assigned for the detention of Mr. Rassam was accepted; and that Messrs. Bardel, Makerer, to consult with him in what way the friendly Steiger, Brandeis, Essler, and Schiller, had also relations of the English and Abyssinian mon- entered the emperor's service. A full account archy might best be extended. Theodore's let- of the fate of the prisoners is given by Dr. ter was conveyed to England by Mr. Flad, the Beke, in his work, “The English Captives in German missionary, who was also the bearer of Abyssinia" (London, 1866). a letter from Mr. Rassam, in which, by desire Interesting information on the Emperor of Theodore, he requested that English artisans Thcodore is contained in the parliamentary might be sent to engage in the Abyssinian ser- papers published by the English Government. vice. It was supposed that these men were În 1855 Consul Plowden sent to the Foreign required more as hostages than as artisans, as Office a report in which, after referring to the
distracted state of Abyssinia, with its chiefs thee aid of every kind thou mayst stand in need generally at variance with each other, he says: of. We place, moreover, at thy disposal a body * A remarkable man has now appeared, who, of troops, to protect thee against all, for thou under the title of King Theodore, has broken art our brother, and we have faith in thy loythe power of the great feudal chiefs; has united alty." Signed : Prince Aylo-Chooma-Mohamthe whole of Northern Abyssinia under his med-abd-Allah, melk (king), in the name of anthority, and has established tolerable tran- the emperor. quillity." It appears that from his earliest The emperor has for some time been engaged yoath he has regarded this as his destiny. Mr. in war with the rulers of Tigré and Shoa, two Powden describes him as young, vigorous in all of the principal and most civilized provinces in manly exercises, of a striking countenance, pecu- Southern Abyssinia. At the end of Februliarly polite and engaging when pleased, and ary, 1866, Devas, the lieutenant of Wáagshum mostly displaying great tact and delicacy; of Góbazye (the ruler of Tigré), was defeated in untiring energy, both mental and bodily, and battle by Tekla Geórgis, the brother and deputy of boundless daring, personal and moral.' His of Ras Báriau, Theodore's lieutenant; but the ideas and language are said to be clear and cholera entered the camp of the latter, destroyed precise; hesitation is not known to him; he a considerable number of his troops, and dishas neither councillors nor go-betweens. He persed the rest. In May Tekla Geórgis retired salutes bis meanest subject with courtesy, and into Shíré to raise a fresh army. On July 30th, is generous to excess, but also unsparing in according to an account furnished to the “ Nice punishment and terrible when his wrath is Journal ” by Count Bisson, the above-mentioned aroused. His faith is signal: “Without Christ,” “Founder of the French Colony in Abyssinia," he says, “I am nothing; but if He has destined a tremendous battle was fought between the me to purify and reform this distracted king- arinies of Theodore and Góbazye at Axoum, one dom, who shall stay me?” Mr. Plowden, who of the two capitals of Tigré. Theodore is said thus sketched the king's character, stated that to have been at the head of 95,000 men; the he had made great reforms in Abyssinia; had forces of the insurgents are estimated to have enforced more decency of manners; was put- been rather larger. The latter occupied an inting down trade in slaves, and removing vexa trenched camp. In various of their preparatious exactions on commerce. As might be tions for defence Count Bisson's correspondent expected, he was jealous of his sovereign rights, recognized European skill. “The English were and he objected to the establishment of an there, in constant communication with Aden; English consulate in his dominions as an inno- the insurgents drew arms and supplies from vation. “IIe found no such thing in the history that place.” Two redoubts, armed with canof the institutions of Abyssinia.” Mr. Plow- non, covered the extremities of the insurgents' den binted that if he consented to the estab- wings, the centre was covered by abatis ; lishment of friendly relations the sea-coast and the plain was cut up by trenches, and other Massowah might possibly be given up to him; obstacles were skilfully grouped, so as to renbut though his ambition was roused at this, he der the cavalry of the assailants nearly useless; feared the clause conferring jurisdiction on the and as it composed the greater part of the army, consul as trenching on his prerogative, and the the lancers had to dismount and act as infantry. time for consideration was so short that he was Driving a cloud of skirmishers from one cover too much startled at the proposal to accept it. after another, the Abyssinians levelled the difThe Roman Catholic mission had usurped the ferent obstacles as soon as conquered. Ten functions of the Aboona and the Abyssinian thousand men then remounted and charged the clergy, and the king feared that we should wish insurgent centre, driving it in. But when four in like manner to usurp the political rights of times as many lancers advanced to pass through the sovereign.
the gap thus made, the redoubts opened a cross At the beginning of 1865 a society was or- fire on the attacking columns, inflicting heavy ganized in France by the Count de Mounier, for loss. The sharpshooters rallied, the attack was establishing at Halai, in Abyssinia, a commer- defeated, and the insurgent centre again had cial agency, but, on arriving in Egypt, the society time to form. The 10,000 horsemen, under the dissolved." Another project of civilization had orders of Telema, the general-in-chief, who had been started by the Count de Bisson, who, in a first broken the line, had pushed forward, disletter to the Paris journal, La France, stated regarding what passed in their rear, to charge that he liad received from Theodore a conces- a second line of insurgents, who, profiting by sion of all the uncultivated lands of the empire, the military instruction formerly given them by and that the Negos had put an armed force at Count Bisson and his followers, firm as a rock, his disposal for the protection of himself and awaited the enemy kneeling, their lance-butts his associates. In support of his assertion he fixed in the ground, living chevaux de frise, quoted the following extract from the ordinance covered with their bucklers, while, close behind of concession: "We give to thee and concede them, thousands of sharpshooters poured volleys forever all the lands which thou mayst choose into the assailants. To complete the discomand take in Abyssinia. They belong to thee. fiture of the latter, they were charged in flank We engage by oath to defend thee and thy com- by twenty squadrons. Talema cut his way out, panions by our invincible arms; to furnish to but left half his people behind him. After
various vicissitudes, and what seems, if this ac- and a still larger army of insurgents of Tigré count be not over-colored, to have been ex- and Shoa, two of the powerful and most civilized tremely hard fighting, the redoubt on the insur- provinces of that country, rested on the doubtgents' left wing, after being taken and retaken ful authority of a French Count Bisson, who five times, remained in the hands of the Abys- signs himself “Founder of the French Colony sinians. But reënforcements reached Gobazye, of Abyssinia.” The English prisoners, accordthe chief of the Tigréans; his right wing had ing to dates up to November, 1866, still renot been engaged, while almost the whole of mained in captivity. (See ABYSSINIA.) Theodore's troops had fought and suffered Madagascar concluded a treaty with Great grievously. Changing front to the rear, with Britain, the ratifications of which were exhis right for his pivot, Góbazye presented a changed on July 6, 1866. The treaty declares new line of battle, at right angles with his first that British subjects in the dominious of her position. It was seven in the ovening, and the majesty the Queen of Madagascar shall be albattle bad begun at six in the morning. Theo- lowed freely to exercise and teach the Chrisdore refrained from a fresh attack, remaining tian religion, and to erect and maintain suitable master of part of the battle-field, and of three places of worship. Such places of Worship, pieces of artillery of English manufacture. IIe with their lands and appartenances, shell, howhad the redoubt razed, the wounded removed, ever, be recognized as the property of the and that same night occupied Asoum, lately Queen of Madagascar, who shall permit them the headquarters and depot of the insurgents, to be applied forever to the special purposes for who thus found themselves cut off from Masso- which they shall have been built. They shall, wah and from the most populous and warlike in the profession, exercise, and teaching of their provinces that supported them. On the other religion, receive the protection of the queen hand, Theodore's position was by no means and her officers, and shall not be prosecuted or good; his rear was harassed by disaffected interfered with. The Queen of Madagascar, populations, and he had only a flank connection from her friendship for her Britannic majesty, with his base of operations. His losses were promises to grant full religious liberty to all her 23,000 dead and 18,000 wounded, according to subjects, and not to persecute or molest any M. de Bisson's correspondent, who adds that subjects or natives of Madagascar on account of they were due chiefly to musketry fire. “Among their embracing or exercising the Christian the Tigréan dead," he continues, "we recog- religion. But should any of her subjects, pronized Egyptians and some English faces, espe- fessing Christianity, be found guilty of any cially in the fort. No doubt officers of that criminal offence, the action of the law of the nation directed all the evolutions of the battle, land shall not be interfered with. The Queen One may guess it from the skilful defensive- of Madagascar engages that British subjects offensive of the enemy." The accuracy of this shall, as far as lies in her power, equally with account was doubted by the missionary Flad, but her own subjects, enjoy within her dominions Dr. Beke, in a letter to the London Times," full and complete protection and security for expressed his belief that the account had a solid themselves and for any property which they foundation of truth.
may acquire in future, or which they may AFRICA. The most important event in the have acquired before the date of the present history of this division of the world during the treaty. British subjects may freely engage in past year is the great change in the Govern- their service, in any capacity whatever, any ment of Egypt. The viceroy, more successful native of Madagascar, not a slave or a soldier, than his predecessors, obtained from the Sul- .who may be free from any previous engagetan a change in the order of succession for his ment. The Queen of Madagascar engages to own line, to the exclusion of collateral branches abolish trial by the ordeal of poison. If there of the family of Mehemet Ali. This first step; should be a war between Great Britain and by which Egypt separates from the Mohamme- Madagascar, any prisoners who may be taken dan law, and conforms to the habits of Christian by either party shall be kindly treated, and monarchies, was followed by the introduction shall be set free, either by exchange during of a constitutional form of government, the first the war, or without exchange when peace is Parliament, elected by universal suffrage, being made; and such prisoners shall not on any opened in November. With regard to the Suez account be made slaves or put to death. The Canal, a convention was concluded between treaty is signed by Thomas Conolly Pakenham, the Egyptian Government and the Suez Canal Esq., British consul in Madagascar, duly auCompany, which put an end to the difficulties thorized to that effect on the part of the that at one time seriously threatened to inter- British Government, and by Rainimaharavo, fere with the progress of the work. (See EGYPT.) Sixteenth Honor, Chief Secretary of State;
The Emperor Theodore, of Abyssinia, con- Andriantsitohaina, Sixteenth Honor; Ravahatinued the war for the aggrandizement of his tra, Chief Judge; and Rafaralahibemalo, Ilead empire, which he hopes will gradually be en- of the Civilians, duly authorized to that effect larged by the conquest of all the Mohammedan on the part of the Queen of Madagascar. The countries. An account of a great battle, said Christian missionaries in Madagascar report a to have been fought on the 30th of July, be- rapid and steady progress of Christianity and tween Theodore, at the head of 95,000 men, civilization.
I. EASTERN AFRICA.
II. SOUTH AFRICA.
Geog. sq. Population.
The long war between the Basutos and the Orange Free State was closed by a treaty signed by Moshesh, the chief of the Basutos,
Miles. Population on the 31 of April. The Free State acquired by this treaty a valuable territory, and the Free Bogos..
13 10,000 State authorities at once adopted measures Beit Takue.
8,000 to colonize the new territory. Later advices Marea .
25 16,000 (September, 1866) stated that the settlement of Habab.
113 68,000 the Free State frontiers was being interfered
2 1,200 Mensa.
29 with by the Basutos, and the land commissioners Kunama.
292 150,000 were unable to mark out the new farms with- Abyssinia.
7,450 3,000,000 out a considerable escort. They had encoun- Gallas, S. of Abyssinia as far as tered threatenings and warnings on every side.
13,000 7,000,000 The Basutos were said to be starving, and a The territory bounded by Abys
Peninsula of Somali..
15,000 8,000,000 renewal of the war was feared.
sinia and Egyptian Soudan The English Cape Colony was enlarged by to the north, the White Nile the annexation of Caffraria, and in June mem to the west, the equator to the bers for the Legislative Council were elected in
south, and the country of the
Gallas to the east... the annexed territory in accordance with the The territory between the equa
14,000 7,840,000 provisions of the annexation and representation tor, the Portuguese territory act adopted during the last session of the Cape of Mozambique, the kingdom Parliament. The third session of the third of Cazembe, the Lake of Tancolonial Parliament was opened by Governor
ganyika, and the Eastern
25,000 3,500,000 Wodehouse on September 6th. New government measures were announced in the form of Total...
174,942 | 29,610,600 three bills for the establishment of a new government paper currency, for the revision of the customs' import tariff, and for the imposition of an export duty.
Miles. The Cape Government took formal possession for the Home Government of the unclaim- Portuguese Possessions on the ed Guano Islands at the northern extremity of Eastern Coast.
18,000 300,000 the colony. Penguin harbor, the Mercury Isl- Cape Colony..
4,935 297,096 ands, and Ichaboe, are now in the absolute British Caffraria.
81,353 Natal ....
970 possession of the British Government.
Caffraria (between British CafOn the 26th of June, a detachment of the fraria and Natal)..
750 100,000 Fourth West India regiment, under command Caffraria, north of Natal.
2,960 440,000 of Major Mackay, was ordered on an expedition The Orange Free State. 1,600 50,000 against the “Maraboos,” who had attacked
The Transvaal Republic.. 3,480 120,000
Country of the Basutos. several towns in British territory, in Western Country of the Betchuanas..
99,400 300,000 Africa. The expedition was completely success- Country of Namaqua.
4,700 40,000 ful, and on the 30th of June the last stronghold Damara ...
2,000 20,000 of the enemy was captured. Col. D'Arcy en- Portuguese Possessions on the tered the stockade at the head of his detach
Western Coast (Angola, Ben-
14,700 9,057,500 ment. The enemy surrendered at discretion, Lobale.
200,000 after sustaining a loss of three hundred in killed Kibokoe.
500 750,000 and wounded.
7,700 2,300,000 The French possessions remained at peace Kingdom of Cazembe..
5,800 530,000 throughout the year, the insurrection in Algeria subsided about the close of the year 1865.
88,080 ( 15,843,532 The territory on the Senegal only was several times invaded by native chiefs, who were, howerer, without difficulty, driven beyond the French settlements.
Gcog. sq. MIs. Population. The area of Africa, and its population, con- Socotra
3,000 tinue to be very differently estimated by the Abd-el-Kuri
100 ablest geographical writers. Brehm's Geogra- Zanzibar..
250,000 phisches Jahrbuck (vol. i., 1866), which is re
10,927 3,000,000 Nossi Be.
3.54 garded as the best authority on these matters, St. Marie de Madagascar...
16.52 5,701 estimates the total area of Africa at 543,570 Comoros....
49.4 49,000 geog. sq. miles,* and the aggegate population at Aroo, Cosmoledo, Ared, Glo188,000,000. The following statistics are given
riosa, and some adjoining for the several divisions and countries:
42.5 193,288 Mauritius and dependencies.
322,517 * One geographical square mile is equal to 21.21 English square miles.
III. ISLANDS IN THE INDIAN OCEAN.