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marvellous powers of correct deduction, be able to demonstrate to its own consciousness the fact of immortality? All these questions, and more, will be asked by the earnest 'seeker after tangible evidences of a future life. They are interesting, if not pertinent, questions; and were we indulging in the pleasing phantasies of speculative philosophy, and could thus afford to dispense with facts, we might construct an argument for immortality that to many would seem impregnable. But there is one insuperable obstacle in the way which must forever prevent the construction of a conclusive argument based upon these hypothetical powers. The inexorable law of suggestion interposes itself at the very threshold of the argument, and casts a doubt upon the verity of the premises. It might even be demonstrated that the soul's power of correct deduction from given premises was perfect and infallible; yet, when the correctness of the premises is in doubt, the argument based upon them is necessarily invalid. In other words, the soul, so long as it inhabits the body, is never exempt from the operation of the law of suggestion. Hence it is often impossible to know whether its supposed perceptions are veridical or are merely subjective hallucinations resulting from auto-suggestion or from a suggestion imparted to it from some extraneous source. It is evident, therefore, that we must look elsewhere than in hypothetical perceptions or intuitions, unsupported by demonstrative evidence of their verity, for logical proof of a future life. I have dwelt thus far upon the subject of the deductive power of the subjective mind, not because it differentiates the one mind from the other, except in degree, but because of its general interest in that it furnishes an explanation of much of the phenomena of so-called prevision. In the ensuing chapter I will return to the consideration of those faculties of the soul which present distinctive points of difference from the faculties and functions of the objective mind.
HAS MAN A SOUL? (continued).
The Perfect Memory of the Subjective Mind. — Memory and Recollection Differentiated. Sir William Hamilton's Views. Intuitional Powers of Perception of Nature's Laws.-The Seat of the Emotions. The Three Normal Functions of the Subjective Mind. The Infant's Development from Savagery to Civilization. - Total Depravity. - Dangers of Subjective Control. Telepathy a purely Subjective Faculty. — Abnormality of Psychic Manifestations. Ill Health a Condition precedent to their Production. They grow Stronger as the Body grows Weaker. Strongest in the Hour of Death. — The Objective Mind perishes with the Brain.
HE fourth characteristic of the subjective mind, which distinguishes it from the objective, consists in the fact that the former is endowed with a perfect memory. In saying this, I am not unmindful of the fact that the objective mind is also endowed with a memory; but its manifestations are feeble in comparison with the prodigious power of the subjective mind. Properly speaking, the difference between the two would be defined by the employment of the word "memory" to designate the faculty in the subjective intelligence, and the word "recollection " to designate the corresponding faculty in the objective mind. Memory, in this sense, is the actual and distinct retention of recognition of past ideas in the mind (Webster). Recollection is the power of recalling ideas to the mind; in other words, it is the power of re-collecting the ideas which have once been in the mind, but are, for the
time being, forgotten. The latter faculty varies in strength in different individuals. Subjective memory is the absolute retention of all ideas, however superficially they may have been impressed upon the objective mind; and it admits of no variation in power in different individuals. It must not be understood that all manifestations of subjective memory are equally perfect. That is obviously impossible, for the reason that subjective conditions are not always perfect; but experimental hypnotism develops the fact that subjective memory is exalted, other things being equal, just in proportion to the depth of the hypnosis.
The German psychologists noted this phenomenon many years before the English philosophers took it into account; and it was not until Sir William Hamilton brought it to the attention of the English-speaking public that it was seriously considered as a factor in psychological science. Sir William designated it as "mental latency;" and he went so far as to hold that all recollection consisted in rescuing from the storehouse of latent memory some part of its treasure. His hypothesis necessarily presupposed latent memory to be perfect, and he cites many cases in support of that supposition. The curious part of his hypothesis, however, consists in the fact that whilst he considers it a normal mental process to elevate a part of the latent treasures of the mind above the threshold of consciousness, he recognizes the fact that it is only under the most intensely abnormal conditions that the whole content of the magazine of latent intelligence can be brought to light. He says:
"The second degree of latency exists when the mind contains certain systems of knowledge or certain habits of action which it is wholly unconscious of possessing in its ordinary state, but which are revealed to consciousness in certain extraordinary exaltations of its powers. The evidence on this point shows that the mind frequently contains whole systems of knowledge which, though in our normal state they may have faded into
absolute oblivion, may in certain abnormal states, as madness, febrile delirium, somnambulisın, catalepsy, etc., flash into Juminous consciousness, and even throw into the shade of unconsciousness those other systems by which they had for a long period been eclipsed and even extinguished. For example, there are cases in which the extinct memory of whole languages was suddenly restored, and, what is even still more remarkable, in which the faculty was exhibited of accurately repeating, in known or unknown tongues, passages which were never within the grasp of conscious memory in the normal state. This degree, this phenomenon of latency, is one of the most marvellous in the whole compass of philosophy."1
He then cites some most remarkable instances demonstrative of the perfection of subjective memory."
It is obvious that Sir William had not studied the phenomena of experimental hypnotism, or he would have discovered many facts which his hypothesis of mental latency could not account for. Amongst others he would have discovered that physical disease of a very pronounced character is not essential to the production of phenomena exhibiting the marvellous perfection of subjective memory; and that an hypnotic subject can be so trained that, even in an apparently normal condition, he can be caused to memorize a whole page of printed matter by gazing upon it but two seconds of time.R He would have found in the dual hypothesis a complete explanation of the facts which he labored in vain to explain, and a more direct road to a demonstration of what he labored so assiduously to prove.
The fifth faculty of the subjective mind, which distinguishes it from the objective intelligence, consists in its power under certain conditions, not yet clearly defined, of apprehending by perception or intuition, and without the
1 Lectures on Metaphysics, p. 236.
2 For a fuller discussion of this subject, see "The Law of Psychic Phenomena," ch. iv., v. See also Beasley on the Mind; Abercumbie on the Intellectual Powers; and Coleridge's Biographia Literaria. 8 See Bertolacci's Christian Spiritualism, p. 30.
aid of the process of induction, the laws of Nature. As this branch of the subject has been treated in a former chapter, it is mentioned here merely for the sake of symmetrical grouping.
The sixth distinctive characteristic of the subjective mind consists in the fact that it is the seat of the emotions. In that alone exists the emotional element in man. The objective mind is pure intellect, — cold, deliberate, reasoning. During the normal physical life of man it is the dominating power in the dual mental organization. This is necessarily true for the reasons, first, that it would be impossible for the two entities to maintain harmonious relations if one were not normally subordinated to the other; and second, that the dominant power must be that which is endowed with the faculty of reasoning by all processes and in all directions. That power is the objective mind, and it is enabled to maintain its ascendency solely by virtue of the fact that the subjective mind is normally amenable to control by the power of suggestion. A complete reversal of the order that is, the subjective mind in controlis what constitutes insanity. A partial reversal constitutes partial insanity, and is also the source of all vice and immorality. Indeed, vice, in this sense, is a form of insanity; that is to say, the same cause operates to produce both, the difference being in degree only.
Before proceeding, however, to discuss this branch of the subject, it is logically necessary to verify the fundamental proposition; namely, that the subjective mind or soul is the seat of the emotions. A few words will be sufficient for this purpose.
It will not be denied that what we call "instinct " in animals is a purely subjective endowment. Its acts are performed independently of objective reason or intelligence.
“Instinctive acts, so far as the individual exhibiting them is concerned, are not the result of instruction or experience. This