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23d Cong. 1st Sess. ]
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
30th October. Additional contracts were made in June Office of the Chief Engineer.-Besides the current bu. last for different parts of the road, as far as the 157th siness of the office, the nature of which remains the same mile. Upon examination, it was found that between the as beretofore, a number of the works under the depart. 150th and 157th mile, the country is extremely broken, ment have received my personal attention. In the course and the travelling not only difficult but dangerous; it of the year, I made, in accordance with the regulations, was, therefore, deemed advisable to contract for this part a tour of inspection, embracing the Cumberland road in of the road this year, and to postpone until the next, the the States of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Ohio; portion between the 132d mile, where the contracts of the barbor improvements on the south shores of Lakes last year terminated, and the commencement of the bro. Erie and Ontario; and the works of fortifications at ken district. This has been done.
Hampton roads, Pea Patch island, New York harbor, and Road from Detroit to Saginaw.—The contrac's enter- Narragansett roads. ed into last year fo: the construction of the Saginaw In conclusion, I would respectfully renew the sugges road will have been complied with, it is believed, before tions offered in my previous reports, that the means of the termination of the present fall
. Twelve additional the department are entirely inadequate to meet the nucontracts, for making eight miles of this road, ending merous calls upon it for officers. Permit me, therefore, with the first half of the 65th mile, were made last June. to call your attention again to the subject of an increase They provide for the completion of that part of the road of the present corps of engineers, agreeably to the plan by the 1st of September next, and no doubts are enter. heretofore recommended; it is deemed a measure of in. tained of the contractors being able to comply with their dispensable necessity for the public interest. engagements on this and the Chicago road.
All of which is respectfully submitted. Road from La Plaisance bay to meet the Chicago road
C. GRATIOT, from Detroit.-Twenty-seven miles of this road liave been
Br. Gen. and Chief Engineer. put under contract; four miles were completed on the Hon. LEWIS Cass, 30th September; eight were expected to be finished by
Secrelary of War. the 30th ultimo. The contractors are laboring on twelve more, and hopes are entertained that all will be done by the 31st January next.
ERIE, (PA.) October 18, 1833. Road from Detroit to the mouth of Grand river.-On Sir: In compliance with the erders and regulations of ten miles of this road, the first class of operations, con the Engineer department, the following report, in relasisting of clearing and grubbing, excepting on one mile, tion to the public works of internal improvements on the will be completed by the close of the season. The ap- south shore of Lake Erie, is most respectfully submitted. propriation now asked for is intended for the continuation Black Rock harbor, N. Y.-The money which has been of the plan at present adopted.
applied to the works this season, has been principally in Road from Delroit to Fort Gratiot.—This road was put procuring stone for the mole on Bird island, and in reunder contract last season to its termination, and would pairing the traverse pier. No report has been made by have been completed before the close of this, had not the superintendent of the progress and condition of the some sections of it been under water for a great portion works. I have been informed that a plan has been made of the time, thereby preventing their being worked upon. out for enlarging or extending the works, and sent to It will, however, be made passable by the end of the Colonel Totten, the cost of which is estimated at $20,000. year.
Information through that channel to the department may Northern boundary of Ohio.-The officer charged with be expected. collecting data preparatory to the adjustment of this line, Buffalo harbor, N. Y.-The public works for securing bas been engaged with an assistant in a reconnoissance to the harbor at Buffalo have the appearance of great determine the stations and points where the more im- strength and durability. The importance of this port portant instruments are to be used, and to ascertain more may be learned from the collector of the customs, The accurately the extent and nature of the duty required by schedule of shipping belonging to this port, and the the law creating this service. This was deemed necessa. amount of exports, will show the great amount of busiry before ordering all the instruments; and accordingly, ness transacted. The whole front wall of the mole on complete sets of observations were made for the deter- the south side of the harbor, together with the coping mination of the latitude and longitude at and near the and ftagging, are completed. The new light-house on the four principal points, viz. on Gull or Ship island, in Lake mole head is complete in every part. An estimate of Erie; at the north point of Maumee bay or Bay point; funds required for 1834 accompanies this report. the south bend of Lake Michigan; and near the same Dunkirk harbor, N. Y.-This harbor is formed by two parallel on the Mississippi.
points projecting into the lake; the western pier extends Military Academy. This institution continues to pros. into the lake 416 yards; for extending the pier 158 yards per, and, for more particular information respecting it, I further, and constructing the eastern breakwater, an estibeg leave to call your attention to the report of the Board mate accompanies ibis report. The works which have of Visiters, herewith, marked H. An appropriation was been already constructed stand well and in good condimade at the last session of Congress for the erection of tion; the piers are all filled in with stone, level with the two buildings much needed at the academy. One is for top timbers, based upon solid rock, and planked. The a place of divine worship, the other for the exercise of pier has been extended this season 113 yards. This bar. the cadets, in the winter and in times of bad weather bor bas at its entrance 12 feet of water, and from 12 to 15 generally. On drawing up plans, it was found that they on the anchorage. would exceed the amount appropriated; and it was, there Presqu' Isle harbor, Pa.-The north breakwater of this fore, deemed proper to defer their erection till the facts barbor is now connected with the main land of the penincould be submitted to Congress, and its further action in sula, and filled in with brush and stone; it has been exthe matter be had. An estimate, exhibiting the differ- tended this season 400 yards. The stone in the piers ence of cost, will be submitted.
have settled about two feet on an average, the planks Board of Engineers.—The members of the Board of bave been taken off, and the piers filled to a level with Engineers bave been engaged in making inspections of the top timbers, and replanked as far as the old ones the various works in the vicinity of their respective sta. would answer; the whole will be covered as soon as plank tions, in addition to the specific daties with which they can be obtained. The depth of water has been increasing are individually charged.
in the channel every year from the commencement of the
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
[23d Cond. 1s Sess.
works; 12 feet of water may be carried the whole length ter, a greater depth than could bave been wished, as of the channel to the entrance of the bay, and then 95 greater quantities of stone are required to fill in the piers, feet to the borough pier, which is 14 mile from the en- and to secure them in their place against the effect of the trance. This harbor is capacious when compared with current. Large quantities of stone and brush are requi. others on this lake, and very important to the country. red to be placed on each side of the piers the whole length, It is the most suitable point for a naval slation on the to give them additional strength. .Estimates are theresouth shore of the lake. These works, as soon as practic fore made out, and accompany this report. cable, should be placed on a permanent footing. In 1830 Cleaveland, Ohio.-The piers at this harbor extend into a breach was made through the south pier at iis junction the lake 525 yards, giving a depth of water in the chanwith the south breakwater; but as no serious injury has nel of eleven and a half feet at its shoalest place. This been felt, and the channel has continued good, it has re- harbor is one of great importance; it must, from its local mained in the same situation ever since. A deep basin has, situation, be the great centre for business on the lake however, been worn in the channel, and the standing shore for the State of Ohio. The Erie and Ohio canal work endangered by being undermined. Colonel Totten, enters this harbor, extending 330 miles to Portsmouth, at of the engineer corps, recommends its being filled in the mouth of the Scioto river. The quantity of business without delay. The appropriation will be only sufficient transacted at this place is shown by the collector of the to secure the other part of the works, leaving this until customs in a document herewith transmitted. Large further appropriations are made. To strengthen these quantities of stone and brush are required to secure and works, large quantities of stone and brush are required to strengthen these works. An estimate for that purpose is be placed on each side of the piers and breakwater, the made out, and accompanies this report. whole length, to prevent them from being undermined, Black river, Ohio.-These piers are extended into the and the sand from being driven through by the current lake 417 yards, with an opening of 200 feet; the shoalest and waves. An estimate is made out for this purpose, place in the channel is seven and a balf feet. The works likewise for closing the breach at the junction of the stand well; the stone in the piers bave settled nearly two south breakwater and pier, and filling in the deep basin feet on an average; a quantity of stone is required to fill worn by the current surrounding this breach. The breach them even with the top timbers. A deposite of stone at the head of the peninsula, (five miles from the en. and brush on the outside of the piers would give additrance,) which was mentioned in my last annual report, tional strength to the works, and prevent the sand, which has been thoroughly examined by Colonel Totten, and it is constantly accumulating, from being driven through is presumed that some plan will be recommended to pre- the piers. This being effected, a brush would be formed vent its increase.
alongside the piers, and thereby a strong barrier erected Conneaut creek, Ohio.--These piers extend into the for the preservation of the works. The western pier has lake 415 yards. The depth of water in the channel at its been extended this season 30 yards; filled in with stone shoalest place is eight and a hall feel. The stone in the and planked, and 150 yards of the eastern pier, which piers have seltled very considerably, and must be filled was in an unfinished state, have been completed. The in even with the top timbers. Some large stone are re eastern pier is to be extended 30 yards further, agreeably quired around the head of the piers, and on the outside, to the original plan. A dredging machine has been conmixed in with brush. An estimate of the expense ac structed for deepening the channel, by removing the companies this report. 202 yards of pier have been con hard clay pan at its bottom, and is now in operation, and structed since the 30th of September, 1832. A simple works to good advantage. dredging machine has been built this season for deepen. Huron harbor, Ohio.--The depth of water in this har. ing the channel, which is now in operation, and doing bor at its shoalest place is eight feet; the works are in well, removing from six to eight cords per day of hard good condition; some considerable stone will be required clay pan.
for filling the piers where they have settled even with the Ashtabula, Ohio.— These piers extend into the lake top timbers, and quantities of stone and brush on each 428 yards; if they were extended 150 feet further, and side of the piers to give strength to the work, and prespread so as to give additional width at the entrance, vent the sand from being driven through the piers into greater safety would be given to vessels entering the har- the channel. The entrance to this harbor is only 140 bor, especially when the wind and waves are high. A feet: this is too narrow for safety. If these piers were rock lies across this channel, about 200 yards from the extended into the lake 200 feet further, on an angle that head of the pier, extending 200 feet in length, six and a would give an additional width of 100 feet, the entrance half feet below the surface of the water, and the whole into the harbor would be more safe, and damage less frewidth of the channel. The machinery for cutting up this quent. An estimate for repairing and extending these rock was in operation when last there, and worked to works accompanies this report. good advantage. The superintendent informs me the It gives me much pleasure to communicate to the de. chisel bas again failed, but he is in daily expectation of partment the result of the experiments made in cona very substantial one from Pittsburg. I am fully in the structing harbors on the south shore of Lake Erie. The belief, notwithstanding the bad success this season, that extending of parallel piers from the mouths of rivers the plan is a good one, and that the rock will be remo. across the beach and sand bars into the lake, has exposed ved at a less expense than on any other plan suggested. the sand to the action of the current, by the force of An estimate accompanies this report for extending the which the bars have been removed, and in no instance piers, and for filling in where the stone have settled. has it failed, unless interrupted by rock and clay pan, of
Cunningham's creek, Ohio.-This is an open pier, ex- giving sufficient depth of water for the largest class of tending into the lake, and bridged. The appropriation vessels navigating the lake, thereby rendering it easy to of $500 last winter appears insufficient to complete the obtain a sate barbor at any of the given points. It was work or pier bead: more money will be required. The problematical at the commencement of these works what pier head was constructed on a larger scale than the plan would be the result of the first operation, but experience laid down, and more stone and timber were required than has shown that, could the effects bave been foreseen, the was called for by the former statement. An estimate for same plan would have been pursued; of course, no money completing this pier and enlarging the works accompa- has been lost in experiments. These works will be kept nies this report.
in repair, and strengthened by enlarging the base on each Grand river, Ohio. These piers extend into the lake side the piers with brush and stone, and obtain in a few 480 yards, and will admit yessels drawing 12 feet of wa. I years a stable foundation. To secure this most important
230 Cong. 1st Sess.]
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
end, they will require constant watchfulness and annual At Big Sodus bay, the movement of sand and gravel appropriations, but small when compared with national on the shoal between the wesi T, and the shore adjacent advantages. Beacon light-houses to all the harbors on to the light-house, make it desirable to extend the west the south shore of Lake Erie are required for the safety | T about 100 yards, and the east T about fifty yards, of navigation. Estimates have been heretofore made wlich will involve an expense of $8,000, as the estimates out, and transmitted to the department.
exhibit. Very respectfully,
By the accompanying sketch, it will be seen that Point Your most obedient and humble servant, Charles is connected with the main land by a narrow isth. JOSEPH D. SELDEN, Agent.
From causes that have most probably originated Brig. Gen. C. Gratiot, Chief Engineer.
in the reaction of the waves about the Sodus piers, the
northeastern projection of Point Charles, and the shore Office of Improvement of Navigation, Genesee river and continued therefrom to the isthmus, have been much Big Sodus Bay.
abraded. Before the piers were commenced, the rolling GENEVA, N. Y. October 6, 1833.
of the sea expended its force upon the Long Point beach Annnual report of the state of the works constructing, the reacting waves from the sides of the piers have com
within the bay. Since the works have been construcied, under the law of Congress, for the improvement of the navigation of Genesee river, and for removing obstruc mingled themselves with the currents that set east or tions at the entrace of Big Sodus bay, on Lake On west, as the winds have influenced them, and experded tario, New York, for the year ending ibe 30;h Sep. Charles, the latter being affected, because the prevalent
some of their force upon Light-house point and Point tember, 1833.
winds are from the west. Light. house point has been The materials used in the construction of these works, protected by a pier, which, although 100 small
, evidently to wit, timber, iron, and stone, and the form of the piers, shows its good effects in protecting the shore there. I to wit, a succession of cribs united, being the same as
propose a similar protection at Point Charles; and as this those used and applied in previous years, they need not promontory lies immediately adjacent to the low part of be again descr.bed in this place, save a reference to the
the narrow isthmus, I propose that a range of small piers, plans.
6 feet by 4, be made to cover the northeast point, and Al Genesee river the quantity of work accomplishing extend io the isthmus, and thus effectually protect that and to be finished this year, (1833,) amounts to 28 piers shore, and prevent a breach through to the bay, which or cribs, each 30 feet in lengļh and 20 feet wide, sunk is now seriously threatened, and which, if permitted, and extending from the existing range of piers into the might change the channel from the lake into the bay. lake at the mouth of the river, in a depth of 12 feet wa. By an estimate, it will be seen that that work would cost ter, the extreme crib being 30 feet square, the average $8,000. height of these cribs from the bed of the lake to the top of Conformably to what has been stated in previous anthe piers being 17 feet. The whole length of the piers, in-nual reports upon the removal of obstructions at Sodus cluding that to be finished this year, amounts to 4,712 feet. bay, I now proceed again to reser to that subject. The
At Big Sodus bay, there have been constructed and bed of the lake between the piers at the entrance of this sunk, during the same time this year, 27 similar cribs or harbor is sand, gravel, and pebbles, forming just belov piers, of the dimensions of 30 feet by 18, in 12 and 13 the surface a bard pan, a connexion aided in its formation feet water, the cribs averaging a depth of 18 feet from by a deposite of iron, and is of a thickness between one the bed of the lake to the top of the pier. The who'e , and three feel; through this pan I have been in the habit length of the piers, including that to be finished this year, of driving piles, consequenily the pan can be broken amounts to 5,378 feet.
through, and enough of it turned over and taken away to The works at both harbors standing firmly, and an. secure a channel for a navigation of fourteen feet of wa. swering the purposes for which they are erecting So far ter where the least depth is now nine feet. The machias the nature of the respective beds of the lake have ef. nery which I recommend to apply to this work, is to be fected; that at Genesce river being moveable sand, is driven by a twenty-horse-power steam engine, acing cleared away from 7 to 12 feet, the depth of 14 feet be
upon an iron plough running in an iron frame attached ing the object required; and that at Sodus bav, being to iron axleirees and iron wheels, to be moved over the sand and gravel and pebbles, has been washed off from 7 bed of the channel by gauging the plough to the requito 9 feet, the depth of 14 being also the object here re- site depth; and after running out one furrow, and dredg. quired.
ing out the excavation, to regauge the plough to the ad. The expenditures for materials and workmanship from ditional depth for another furrow, until the channel is the appropriation of $15,000 for each harbor, are exhib- opened to five feet below the present surface, on a line of ited in the accounts and vouchers in the Engineer de 500 yards in length, and 20 yards wide, which would pariment.
leave banks on either side of the channel 80 yards ride, It was my expectation last year that it would not be
a pan sloping up in the base of the piers. necessary to extend the pier work of these improvements
The accompanying plan will show the construction of any further into Lake Ontario than will be finished in the the plough, and ine estimates will show that the expense present year. Some changes in the form of the shoals of His work will be 14,000 dollars for the first year, and near the piers, and a movement of sand towards their ex- 6,000 dollars fir the second year. In my opinion, the tremities, make it necessary to extend the piers some. work can be done in two years. what further, to wil, at Genesee river, ihe movement of When these harbors were commenced, they were the shoal near the west pier has occasionally deposited at deemed experiments. To produce a conviction of their the end of the pier, but the deposite has not been per practicability and usefulness, the cheapest and most temmanent. To insure safety in this matter, an addition of porary materials bave been applied; the result bas been 200 yards of pier will insure a fourteen feet water navi. ibus far satisfactory. The material chiefly used at Gene. gation, which will involve an expense of $15,000. Such see river and Sodus bay has been timber secured by iron have been the advan'ages to the navigation by these piers, bolts and oak treenails, and ballasted with stone. This that it is the general wish to make the channel sase and work below the surface of the water will endure a great easy for any depth not exceeding 16 feet of water, which length of time; but that which is above water, and allerwould involve an expense of $7,500, in addition, as the nately wet and dry, must of necessity decay in a lew estimates exhibit.
years. To render, therefore, these works permanent, it
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
[23d Cong. 1st Sess.
St!llie nccesary to apply a si ucture of stune above low 41b. Prosecuting lie construction of the store tolu for Water
the protection of ihe west pier. This is under contract In observing the action of the waves upon structures to Mr. H. I. Cary, of this place, to the extent of the apintended to impede their motion, I do not think that propriation, to be completed this fall. The season his slopes form the best breakwaters, because they serve to been boisterous to an unprecedented extent. There has lead the surge. Perpendicular walls aid better to resist been on an average this summer (or since the contract the action of waves than slopes, for in such cases I have was made) scarcely six days in a month in which scows noticed that the violence of the coming surge is in part could go out with stone. In consequence of this, it will expended upon the retreating volume of water that is be lale before the contract will be completed; but as the below the surface adjacent to ihe upright wall of timber, principal part of the stone which remains to be delivered so that the force of the wave is at least divided between is to be placed above the water, and can be listed over the “undertow" and the face of the structure.
the pier with cranes, even in rough weather, I confidentI would therefore recommend that the works at Gene. !y anticipate its completion this fall. In the accompanysee river and Sodus bay be permanently secured by per- ing draught of "profile No.1,” two irregular lines drawn pendicular walls of stone constructed upon the present across the profile of the mole, represent sections of the piers, commencing below the lowest stage of water, and present mole as it will be when the stone contract is com. extending four feet above the surface of high water; pleted. The upper one represents a section any where using stones of large dimensions for the faces exposed 10 beiween the pier head and the counterfort, (marked C,) the waves, clamping them together with copper; using which is the part most exposed to injury; the lower one small stone for the inside faces, and filling the space be represents a section any where from that point to the tween the faces with fragment stones, and covering the west end of the pier. whole with large stone. The quarries on Genesee river agreeably to your directions, I visited Buffalo in July and near Sodus bay can afford an abundance of materials. last, for the purpose of collecting such information in re. I subjoin an estimate for such a work at both barbors. gard to the public works in that harbor, as might be ap1,000 cords of building stone, in lengths of
plicable to the construction of similar ones in this barbor, not Iss than four feet, at $7
$7,000 where I met, by appointment, Colonel Totten, then in800 cords, not less than 2 feet, at $5,
4,000 specting those works. It is in accordance with his sug. 3.000 cords of fragment stone, at $3,
9,000 gestions that I have prepared the accompanying estimates 20,000 pounds copper bolls, at 25 cents, 5,000 and drawings of works which are deemed necessary for Workmanship and contingencies,
13,500 the permanent security of this harbor.
For securing the present structures, $38,569, the For Big Sodus bay,
$38,500 / amount of the estimate for finishing the mole according
to “profile No. 1,” is required. The rock bortom preThe greater facility of procuring stone upon
cludes the use of piles, and makes it necessary to have a Genesee river would diminish the item of
more extended base. This mode is deemed a perfect sestone $4,000, so that the expense for Genesee
curity as long as the timber remains sound; but to make river would be
$34,500 it permanent, the estimates for finishing the west pier, ac
cording to “profile No. 3,” are submitted.
I also forward an estimate and plan for the foundation
of a light-house, to be placed at the entrance of the har. Gen. Cras. Gratiot, Chief Eng. Washington, D. C.
bor. I presume the drawing will sufficiently explain ene manner in which it is proposed to build it. The crib
work is intended to be filled up with broken stone and Oswego, Oc'ober 9, 1833.
fine gravel, and grouted. The estimate for the light.
house itself is founded on the actual cost of the one at Gen. C. Gratiot, Chief Engineer, Washington, D. C.:
Buffalo, and therefore the different items are not enuSin: I have the honor to forward berewith my monthly merated. and quarterly returns due at this time, and, also, my ani. The reasons for selecting the end of the east pier for nual report of the progress of operations since the 1st of the location of the light-house, are-1st, the water is not January, 1833; prior 10 which time I have no data left so deep there as at the end of ihe west pier, and the but. me by the former agents on which to found a narrative. tom is better, being fat rock, as far as I have been able
The operationis, since I took charge of the work, are to ascertain.' (There is a quantity of loose stone on some comprised in the following particulars, viz.
part of it, which it will be necessary to remove before a 1st. Repairing the damages sustained by the west pier thorough examination can be had.) 2d. It is more aclast winter. In doing this, I followed the plan suggested cessible in bad weather; and, 3d, there are five acres of in Captain Smith's letter of the 15th April last, and re- ground and a house, belonging to the United States, for ferred to in mine of the 22d of April.
a ligh-house keeper, on this side, and near the pier. 2d. Completing the counterfort to the east pier, (mark. It is proposed to get the lime-stone estimated for at ed B in the accompanying sketch of the piers,) which Chaumont bay, near Sackeli's harbor, by contract, and was built up nearly to the water's edge last fall by Lieut. the other stone from the quarries heretofore worked ad. Tompkins.
jacent to the pier. These quarries are on the State lands, 3d. Building the counterfort, (marked A,) to support and I lave obtained from the State the exclusive privi. that part of the west pier which was injured last winter. lege of quarrying stone in them for the public works. I This is completed now, with the exception of planking. I would therefore suggest that it will probably be cheaper have purposely delayed completing it, in order to give for me to work these quarries myself, ihan to get these the man who furnishes the stone for filling it (who is also stone by contract, for I can work them as cheap as a conthe contractor for supplying stone for the mole) an op- tractor can, and what would be bis profits in one case, portunity of furnishing ibem as they come from the quar- would be saved to the Government in the other.
Add to ry with the large stone, by which means I get them cheap- this the advantage of having every tbing done just in the er than I could if the quarry bad been worked on purpose manner, and at ihe time it is wanted to be done, which for them, but principally for the purpose of letting it get can never be the case with a contractor, perfectly and firmly settled before building the part above The information which you direcied me to obtain revater.
specting the tonnage of the port, &c. will be forwarded in
230 Cong. 1st Sess.]
Documents accompanying the President's Message.
a few days, as soon as the collector has completed the with) vary in their width at top, according to their situaexaminations necessary for obtaining it.
lion, from 24 to 27 feet. They are built of side and cenI send, enclosed in the roll with the drawings, a map of tral timbers, running longitudinally, and connected by the village of Oswego.
numerous cross ties; the sides next the lake and the top I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedi. being covered with planks, and the interior space being ent servant.
filled with stones. A number of buttresses, similar in R.C. SMEAD, construction to the piers, have been placed against the Lt. 4th Art. on Eng. duty.
inner side of the harbor piers, to strengthen them against the shock of waves; and, with a similar object, stones
have been thrown against the lake side of the west harbor FORT ADAMS, NEWPORT HARBOR, pier, so as to form a mass, rising next the pier, near to the November 9, 1833.
surface of the water, and having a base of from twice to Brig. Gen. CHARLES GRATIoT,
twice and a half the altitude. Chief Engineer, Washington City:
The effect of these works, just described, is to give a Sin: In compliance with the tenor of a letter from the capacious harbor, perfectly safe in all winds, of easy acEngineer department, of June 24, I have visited and in. cess, and deep channel and anchorage. spected the following works of harbor improvement on must be confined to finishing the buttress marked b;
During the present year, the operations on the harbor the shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, namely, Oswego, erecting the buttress a so as to occupy all the space beBig Sudus bay, Genesee river, Black Rock, Buffalo, and tween the buttresses c and d, in consequence of the force Dunkirk, in the State of New York; Erie, in the State of of the sea having curved in the pier opposite this space; Pennsylvania; Conneaut creek, Ashtabula creek, Cun. ningham's creek, Grand river, Cleveland harbor, Black repairing some other damages done to this pier, and add river, and Huron river, in the State of Ohio. And in fur ing to the quantity of stone thrown against the lake side
of the west pier: all these matters involving an expendither compliance with that letter, I have now the honor to
ture of about $8,000. submit the following report on the actual condition of those works, severally, and on the amount of funds retion of the harbor is complete, much remains to be done
Although the development of the works for the forma. quired to complete each according to the present plans, to give them present stability, and still more to give them or according to such modifications of them as may seem permanency.' The effects of the sea, urged by violent proper to aitain the end contemplated in constructing storms, upon the west pier, have been already noticed; ihese works.” I may here remark, once for all, in relation to a "pro- whole mass of the pier, in one place, bent inward. All
planks were torn off, limbers displaced, and even the ject for keeping them in good order and repair after they further action of this sort must be prevented by adequate shall be finished," which I am required to subroit, lhat no better mode has occurred to me than to commit them provision in the first place, otherwise extensive annual severaily, when finished, to the supervision of the cold repairs will be called for, and these annual repairs will lector of the customs, inspector of the revenue, or light- deposite of stones has been made on the outside of the
become more and more difficult and expensive. A large house keeper, with instructions to report, at stated times, as to their condition; to keep a strict eye to their preser reaches to the surface of the water, the wave, rolling up
west barbor pier, but as the top of this mass scarcely vation from wanton injury or depredation; to apply im. the slope, impinges with great violence upon the whole mediate repairs to slight injuries, and 10 notify the of the upright and uncovered portion of the pier. The department promptly of all serious accidents. An increase of salary accompanying these new duties would wave should either be carried by the slope towards the give them an attractive character, and insure their faithful top, and sometimes, no doubt, over the top, or the pier
should be raised so high, the outer surface being ohservance. Very respectfully,
every where sloped, that ihe wave cannot reach the top. Your most obedient servant,
The first should be the preparatory, the second the ultiJOSEPH G. TOTTEN,
mate profile of the pier. These profiles are marked in Lieut. Col. Eng., Brevet Colonel. the drawing No. 1 and No. 2. To give to this pier tbe
forın of No. 1, will cost, by the estimate of the agent, Oswego harbor, N. Y.-The mouth of the Oswego river
$38,569 00 is an open roadstead, having no shelter from the danger The entrance to the harbor is now but ous winds which blow from the northern quarter-all little benefited by the light-house on the winds from west, round through the north to northeast, hill near Fort Oswego. This leads vessels driving the waves directly into the roadstead.
towards, but does not show the entrance I'wo opposite, low, sandy points make out from the into, the anchorage. Either of two modes shores at the immediate embouchure, narrowing the chan. may be adopted: a beacon or small light nel somewhat, and affording a partial shelter within. Tois may be placed at the entrance, and both sheltered space is, however, very circumscribed, quite this and ihe present light be kept up, or a shallow, and the access to it against a current that is, at lofty, permanent light-house may be contimes, rapid; so that this inner space very imperfectly structed at the pier, abandoning the old answers the purpose of a harbor.
From the actual condition of the latTo obtain a quiet and sufficiently capacious anchorage, ter, this mode may, in all respects, be the a pier, beginning about 1,200 feet from the mouth of the most economical. river, has been run out from the western shore, first The position for a light-house will be just north 230 feet, then north about 55 degrees east, 1,155 within the terminating buttress, at the westfeet, to the channel. The channel being 250 feet broad, ern end of the east harbor pier. (See plan.) a pier to the east thereof continues on the prolongation A permanant foundation for this light-house, of the west pier (N. 55 E.) 644 feet, and thence, in a enclosed by strong pier work, according to southeasterly direction, 222 feet, to the shore near old the drawing herewith, is estimated to cost 4,651 45 Fort Oswego. These may be designated harbor piers. A permanent light-house, in all respects From near ihe eastern extremity of the west harbor pier, like the one at Buffalo, erected on this and at right angles thereto, a channel pier runs a distance foundation, is estimated at ·
5,500 00 of 126 feet into the lake. These piers (see plan here