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Message of the President of the United States.
[23d Cong. 1st Sess. States may be obliged to resort to such measures as are of the ratifications has been hitherto delayed, in conseof necessary self-defence, and there is no reason to appre- quence, in the first instance, of some delay in the recephend that it would be unfavorably received. The pro tion of the treaty at Brussels, and, subsequently, of the posed proceedings, if adopted, would not be permitied, absence of the Belgian minister of Foreign Affairs, at bowever, in any degree to induce a relaxation in the ef- the important conferences in which bis Government is enforts of our minister to effect a repeal of this irregularity gaged at London, That treaty does but imbody those by friendly negotiation, and it might serve to give force enlarged principles of friendly policy which, it is sincerely to his representations by showing the dangers to which hoped, will always regulate the conduct of the two nathat valuable trade is exposed by the obstructions and tions, having such strong motives to maintain amicable burdens which a system of discriminating and counter relations towards each other, and so sincerely desirous to yailing duties necessarily produces.
cherish them. The selection and preparation of the Florida archives, With all the cther European powers with whom the for the purpose of being delivered over to the United United States have formed diplomatic relations, and with States, in conformity with the royal order, as mentioned the Sublime Porte, the best understanding prevails. in my last annual message, though in progress, has not From all, I continue to receive assurances of good will yet been completed. This delay bas been produced part- towards the United States-assurances which it gives me ly by causes which were unavoidable, particularly the no less pleasure to reciprocate than to receive. With all, prevalence of cholera at Havana; but measures have been the engagements which have been entered into, are fultaken which it is believed will expedite the delivery of filled with good faith on both sides. Measures have also those important records.
been taken to enlarge our friendly relations and extend Congress were informed, at the opening of the last ses- our commercial intercourse with other States. The sys. sion, that, "owing, as was alleged, to embarrassments in tem we have pursued of aiming at no exclusive advantages, the finances of Portugal, consequent upon the civil war of dealing with all on terms of fair and equal reciprocity, in which that nation was engaged,” payment had been and of adhering scrupulously to all our engagements, is made of only one instalment of the amount which the well calculated to give success to efforts intended to be Portuguese Government bad stipulated to pay for indem- mutually beneficial. nifying our citizens for property illegally captured in the The wars, of which the southern part of this continent blockade of Terceira. Since ibat time, a postponement was so long the theatre, and which were carried on either for two years, with interest, of the two remaining instal. by the mother country against the states which had forments, was requested by the Portuguese Government; | merly been her colonies, or by the states against each and, as a consideration, it offered to stipulate that rice other, having terminated, and their civil dissensions of the United States should be admitted into Portugal at having so far subsided, as, with few exceptions, no long, the same duties as Brazilian rice. Being satisfied that no er to disturb the public tranquillity, it is earnestly hoped better arrangement could be made, my consent was given; those states will be able to employ themselves without and a royal order of the King of Portugal was accordingly interruption in perfecting their institutions, cultivating issued on the 4th of February last for the reduction of the the arts of peace, and promoting, by wise councils and duty on rice of the United States. It would give me great able exertions, the public and private prosperity which pleasure if, in speaking of that country, in whose pros- their patriotic struggles so well entitle them to enjoy. perity the United States are so much interested, and with With those states .our relations have undergone but whom a long subsisting, extensive, and mutually advan. little change during the present year. No reunion having tageous commercial intercourse has strengthened the re- yet taken place between the states which composed the lations of friendship, I could announce to you the restora- Republic of Colombia, our charge d'affaires at Bogota has tion of its internal tranquillity.
been accredited to the Government of New Granada, and Subsequently to the commencement of the last session we have, therefore, no diplomatic relations with Veneof Congress, the final instalment payable by Denmark, zuela and Equator, except as they may be included in under the convention of the 28th day of March, 1830, was those heretofore formed with the Colombian Republic. received. The commissioners for examining the claims It is understood that representatives from the three states have since terminated their labors, and their awards have were about to assemble at Bogota, to confer on the subbeen paid at the Treasury as they have been called for. ject of their mutual interests, particularly that of their The justice rendered to our citizens by that Government union; and if the result should render it necessary, measis thus completed, and a pledge is thereby afforded for ures will be taken on our part to preserve with each the maintenance of that friendly intercourse becoming that friendship and those liberal commercial connexions the relations that the two nations mutually bear to each which it has been the constant desire of the United States other.
to cultivate with their sister republics of this hemisphere. It is satisfactory to inform you that the Danish Govern- Until the important question of reunion shall be settled, ment bave receníly issued an ordinance by which the however, the different matters which have been under commerce with the island of St Croix is placed on a more discussion between the United States and the Republic liberal footing than heretofore. This change cannot fail of Colombia, or either of the states which composed it, to prove beneficial to the trade between the United are not likely to be brought to a satisfactory issue. Staies and that colony; and the advantages likely to flow In consequence of the illness of the chargé d'affaires from it may lead to greater relaxations in the colonial sys- appointed to Central America at the last session of Contems of other nations.
gress, he was prevented from proceeding on his mission The ratifications of the convention with the King of the until the month of October. It is hoped, however, that Two Sicilies have been duly exchanged, and the commis- he is by this time at his post, and that the official intersioners appointed for examining the claims under it have course, unfortunately so long interrupted, has been thus entered upon the duties assigned to them by law. The renewed on the part of the two nations, so amicably and friendship that the interests of ibe two nations require of advantageously connected by engagements founded on them being now established, it may be hoped that each will the most enlarged principles of commercial reciprocity. enjoy the benefits which a liberal commerce should yield It is gratifying to state that, since my last annual mes. to both.
sage, some of the most important claims of our fellowA treaty of amily and commerce between the United citizens upon the Government of Brazil have been satis. States and Belgium was concluded during the last winter, factorily adjusted, and a reliance is placed on the friendly and received the sanction of the Senate; but the exchange dispositions manifested by it that justice will also be done
230 Coxg. 1st SESS]
Message of the President of the United States.
in others. No new causes of complaint have arisen ; and uary next; it has, therefore, been included in the estithe trade between the two countries flourishes under the mated expenditures of this year, and forms a part of the encouragement secured lo it by the liberal provisions of sum above stated to have been paid on account of the the treaty.
public debt: the payment of this stock will reduce the It is cause of regret, that, owing probably to the civil whole cebt of the United States, funded and unfunded, dissensions which have occupied the attention of the to the sum of $4,760,082 08; and, as provision bas al. Mexican Government, the time fixed by the treaty of lim- ready been made for the four and a half per cent, above its with the United States for the meeting of the commis mentioned, and charged in the expenses of the present sioners to define the boundaries between the two nations, year, the sum last stated is all that now remains of the has been suffered to expire without the appointment of national debt; and the revenue of the coming year, to. any commissioners on the part of that Government. While gether with the balance now in the Treasury, will be sufthe true boundary remains in doubt by either party, it is ficient to discharge it, after meeting the current expenses difficult to give effect to those measures which are ne- of the Government. Under the power given to the Comcessary to the protection and quiet of our numerous citi- missioners of the Sinking Fund, it will, I have no doubt, zens residing near that frontier. The subject is one of be purchased on favorable terms within the year. great solicitude to the United States, and will not fail to From this view of the state of the finances, and the receive my earnest attention.
public engagements yet to be fulfi:led, you will perceive The treaty concluded with Chili, and approved by the that, if Providence permits me to meet you at another Senate at its last session, was also ratified by the Chilian session, I shall have the high gratification of announcing Government, but with certain additional and explanatory to you that the national debt is extinguished. I cannot articles of a nature to have required it to be again sub-refrain from expressing the pleasure I feel at the near mitted to the Senate. The time limited for the exchange approach of that desirable event. The short period of of the ratifications, however, having since expired, the time within which the public debt will have been dis. action of both Governments on the treaty will again be charged, is strong evidence of the abundant resources of come necessary:
the country, and of the prudence and economy with The negotiations commenced with the Argentine Re- which the Government has heretofore been administered. public, relative to the outrages committed on our vessels We have waged two wars since we became a nation, with engaged in the fisheries at the Falkland islands, by per one of the most powerful kingdoms in the worlt); both sons acting under the color of its authority, as well as of them undertaken in defence of our dearest rightsthe other matters in controversy between the two Gov. both successfully prosecuted and honorably terminated; ernments, have been suspended by the departure of the and many of those who partook in the first struggle, as chargé d'affaires of the United States from Buenos Ayres. well as the second, will have lived to see the last item of It is understood, however, that a minister was subse the debt incurred in these necessary but expensive conquently appointed by that Government to renew the ne- Alicts, faithfully and honestly discharged; and we shall gotiation in the United States, but, though daily ex. have the proud satisfaction of bequeathing to the public pected, he has not yet arrived in this country,
servants who follow us in the administration of the Gov. With Peru no treaty bas yet been formed, and with ernment, the rare blessing of a revenue suficiently abunBolivia no diplomatic intercourse has yet been established. dant, raised without injustice or oppression to our citizens, It will be my endeavor to encourage those sentiments of and unencumbered with any burdens but what they them. amily and that liberal commerce which belong to the re- selves shall think proper to impose upon it. lations in which all the independent states of this conti- The fourishing state of the finances ougbt not, hownent stand towards each other.
ever, to encourage us to indulge in a lavish expenditure I deem it proper to recommend to your notice the re. of the public treasure. The receipts of the present year vision of our consular system. This has become an im- do not furnish the test by which we are to estimate the portant branch of the public service, inasmuch as it is income of the next. The changes made in our revenue intimately connected with the preservation of our na system by the acts of Congress of 1832 and 1833, and tional character abroad, with the interest of our citizens more especially by the former, have swelled the receipts in foreign countries, with the regulations and care of our of the present year far beyond the amount to be expect. commeree, and with the protection of our seamen. At ed in future years upon the reduced tariff of duties. The the close of the last session of Congress I communicated shortened credits on revenue bonds, and the cash duties a report from the Secretary of State upon the subject, to on woollens, which were introduced by the act of 1832, which I now refer, as containing information which may and took effect on the 4th of March last, have brought be useful in any inquiries that Congress may see fit to in- large sums into the Treasury in 1833, which, according stitute with a view to a salutary reform of the system. to the credits formerly given, would not have been paya.
It gives me great pleasure to congratulate you upon the ble until 1834, and would have formed a part of the inprosperous condition of the finances of the country, as come of that year. These causes would of themselves will appear from the report which the Secretary of the produce a great diminution of the receipts in the year Treasury will, in due time, lay before you. The receipts 1834, as compared with the present one, and they will be into the Treasury during the present year will amount to still more diminished by the reduced rates of du ies which more than thirty-two millions of dollars. The revenue take place on the 1st of January next on some of the most derived from customs will, it is believed, be more than important and productive articles. Upon the best estitwenty-eight millions, and the public lands will yield mates that can be made, the receipts of the next year, about three millions. The expenditures within the year, with the aid of the unappropriated amount now in the for all objects, including two million five hundred and Treasury, will not be much more than sufficient to meet seventy-two thousand two hundred and forty dollars and the expenses of the year, and pay the small remnant of ninety-nine cents on account of the public debt, will not the national debt which yet remains unsatisfied. I canamount to twenty-five millions, and a large balance will not, therefore, recommend to you any alteration in the remain in the Treasury after satisfying all the appropria- present tariff of duties. The rate as now fixed by law on tions chargeable on the revenue for the present year. the various articles was adopted at the last session of Con.
The measures taken by the Secretary of the Treasury gress as a matter of compromise with unusual unanimity; will probably enable him to pay off, in the course of the and'unless it is found to produce more than the necessipresent year, the residue of the exchanged four and a ties of the Government call for, there would seem to be half per cent. stock, redeemable on Ilie first day of Jan. I no reason, at this time, to justify a change.
Message of the President of the United States.
[23d Cong. 1st Sess.
But, while I forbear to recommend any further reduc. lution of the board of directors authorized the same tion of the duties beyond tbat a!ready provided for by the course to be pursued in future. existing laws, I must earnestly and respectfully press upon It being thus established, by unquestionable proof, that Congress the importance of abstaining from all appropria- the Bank of the United States was converted into a pertions which are not absolutely required for the public in- manent electioneering engine, it appeared to me that the ferests, and authorized by the powers clearly delegated path of duty which the Executive department of the to the United States. We are beginning a new era Government ought to pursue was not doubtful. As, by in our Government, The national debt, which has so the terms of the bank charter, no officer but the Secre. long been a burden on the Treasury, will be finally dis- tary of the Treasury could remove the deposites, it seem. charged in the course of the ensuing year. No more ed to me that this authority ought to be at once exerted money will afterwards be needed than what may be ne. to deprive that greal corporation of the support and councessary to meet the ordinary expenses of the Government. tenance of the Government in such a use of its funds and Now, then, is the proper moment to fix our system of such an exertion of its power. In this point of the case, expenditure on firm and durable principles; and I cannot the question is distinctly presented, whether the people too strongly urge the necessity of a rigid economy, and an of the United States are to govern through representatives inflexible determination not to enlarge the income beyond chosen by their unbiased suffrages, or whether the money the real necesities of the Government, and not to increase and power of a great corporation are to be secretly exertthe wants of the Government by unnecessary and profuse ed to influence their judgment and control their decisions. expenditures. If a contrary course should be pursued, it It must now be determined whether the bank is to have may happen that the revenue of 1834 will fall
short of the its candidates for all offices in the country, from the highdemands upon it: and after reducing the tariff in order to est to the lowest, or whether candidates on both sides of lighten the burdens of the people, and providing for a political questions shall be brought forward, as heretostill further reduction to take effect hereafter, it would be fore, and supported by the usual means. much to be deplored if, at the end of another year, we At this time the efforts of the bank to control public should find ourselves obliged to retrace our steps, and opinion through the distresses of some and the fears of impose additional taxes to meet unnecessary expenditures. others, are equally apparent, and, if possible, more ob
It is my duty, on this occasion, to call your attention to jectionable. By a curtailment of its accommodations more the destruction of the public building occupied by the rapid than any emergency requires, and even while it re. Treasury Department, which happened since the last ad. tains specie to an almost unprecedented amount in its journment of Congress. A thorough inquiry into the vaults, it is attempting to produce great embarrassment causes of this loss was directed and made at the time, the in one portion of the community, while, through presses result of which will be duly communicated to you. I take known to have been sustained by its money, it attempts, pleasure, however, in slating here, that, by the laudable by unfounded alarms, to create a panic in all. exertions of the officers of the Department, and many of These are the means by which it seems to expect that the citizens of the District, but few papers were lost, and it can force a restoration of the deposites, and, as a nenone that will materially affect the public interest. cessary consequence, extort from Congress a renewal of
The public convenience requires that another building its charter. I am liappy to know that, ihrough the good should be erected as soon as practicable, and, in provi- sense of our people, the effort to get up a panic has hither. ding for it, it will be advisable to enlarge, in some manner, to failed, and that, through the increased accommodations the accommodations for the public officers of the several which the State banks have been enabled to afford, no Departments, and to authorize the erection of suitable public distress has followed the exertions of the bank; depositories for the sale-keeping of the public documents and it cannot be doubled that the exercise of its power, and records.
and the expenditure of its money, as well as ils efforts to Since the last adjournment of Congress, the Secretary spread groundless alarm, will be met and rebuked as they of the Treasury has direcled the money of the United deserve. In my own spliere of duty, I should feel myself States to be deposited in certain State banks designated called on, by the facts disclosed, to order a scire facias by him, and he will immediately lay before you his rea- against the bank, with a view to put an end to the charsons for this direction. I concur with him entirely interes rights it has so palpably violated, were it not that the view he bas taken of the subject, and some months the charter itself will expire as soon as a decision would before the removal I urged upon the Department the probably be obtained from the court of last resort. propriety of taking that step. The near approach of the I called the attention of Congress to this subject in my day on which the charter will expire, as well as the con- last annual message, and informed them that such meas. duct of the bank, appeared to me to call for this measure, ures as were within the reach of the Secretary of the upon the high considerations of public interest and pub. Treasury, had been taken to enable him to judge whether lic duty. The extent of its misconduct, however, although the public deposiles in the Bank of the United States known to be great, was not at that time fully developed were entirely safe; but thai, as his single powers might by proof. It was not unlil late in the month of August be inadequate to the object, I recommend ihe subject to that I received from the Government directors an official Congress, as worthy of their serious investigation: dereport, establishing beyond question that this great and claring it as my opinion that an inquiry into the transacpowerful institution had been actively engaged in attempt. tions of that institution, embracing the branches as well ing to influence the elections of the public officers by as the principal bank, was called for by the credit which means of its money, and that, in violation of the express was given throughout the country to many serious charges provisions of its charter, it had, by a formal resolution, impeaching their character; and which, if true, might placed its funds at the disposition of its president, to be justly excite the apprehension that they were no longer a employed in sustaining the political power of the bank. safe depository for the public money. The extent to A copy of this resolution is contained in the report of the which the examination, thus recommended, was gone Government directors, before referred to; and, however into, is spread upon your journals, and is too well known the objects may be disguised by cautious language, no to require to be stated. Such as was made resulted in one can doubt that this money was, in truth, intended for a report from a majority of the Commitee of Ways and electioneering purposes, and the particular uses to which means, touching certain specified points only, concluding it is proved to have been applied, abundantly show that with a resolution that the Government deposites might it was so understood. Not only was the evidence com- safely be continued in the Bank of the United States. This plete as to the past application of the money and power resolution was adopted at the close of the session, by the of the bank to electioneering purposes, but that the reso- l vote of a majority of the House of Representatives,
23d Cong. 1st Sess.]
Message of the President of the United States.
Although I may not always be able to concur in the and it is, it can only be done by a general removal beviews of the public interest, or the duties of its agents, yond our boundary, and by a reorganization of their powhich may be taken by the other departments of the litical system upon principles adapted to the new relaGovernment, or either of its branches, I am, not with. tions in which they will be placed. The experiment standing, wholly incapable of receiving otherwise than which has been recently made bas so far proved successwith the most sincere respect, all opinions or suggestions ful. The emigrants generally are represented to be progproceeding from such a source; and in respect to none perous and contented, the country suitable to their wants am I more inclined to do so, than to the House of Repre- and habits, and the essential articles of subsistence easily sentatives. But it will be seen, from the briet views at procured. When the report of the commissioners now this time taken of tbe subject by myself, as well as the engaged in investigating the condition and prospects of more ample ones presented by the Secretary of the Treas- these Indians, and in devising a plan for their intercourse ury, that the change in the deposites which has been and government, is received, I trust ample means of ordered, has been deemed to be called for by considera- information will be in possession of the Government for tions which are not affec'ed by the proceedings referred adjusting all the unsettled questions connected with this to, and which, if correctly viewed by that Department, interesting subject. rendered its act a matter of imperious duty.
The operations of the navy during the year, and its Coming as you do, for the most part, immediately from present condition, are fully exhibited in the annual report the people and the States, by election, and possessing from the Navy Department. the fullest opportunity to know their sentiments, the Suggestions are made by the Secretary of various im. present Congress will be sincerely solicitous to carry into provements, which deserve careful consideration, and full and fair effect the will of their constituents in regard most of which, if adopted, bid fair to promote the efficien. to this institution. It will be for those in whose behalf cy of this important branch of the public service. Among we all act, to decide whether the Executive department these are the new organization of the Navy Board, the of the Government, in the steps which it has iaken on revision of the pay to officers, and a change in the period this subject, has been found in the line of its duty. of time, or in the manner of making the annual appropri
The accompanying report of the Secretary of War, ations, to which I beg leave to call your particular atwith the documents annexed to it, exhibit the operations tention. of the War Department for the past year, and the condi. The views wbich are presented on almost every portion tion of the various subjects intrusted to its administra- of our naval concerns, and especially on the amount of tion.
force and the number of officers, and the general course It will be seen from them that the army maintains the of policy appropriate in the present state of our country, character it bas heretofore acquired for efficiency and for securing the great and useful purposes of naval promilitary knowledge. Nothing has occurred since your tection in peace, and due preparation for the contingenlast session to require ils services beyond the ordinary rou-cies of war, meet with my entire approbation. tine of duties, which upon the seaboard and the inland It will be perceived, from the report referred to, that frontier devolve upon it in a time of peace. The sys'em, the fiscal concerns of the establishment are in an excelso wisely adopted and so long pursued, of constructing lent condition; and it is hoped that Congress may feel fortifications at exposed points, and of preparing and cols disposed to make promptly every suitable provision delecting the supplies necessary for the military defence of sired, either for preserving or improving the system. the country, and thus providently furnishing in peace the The General Post Office Department bas continued, means of defence in war, has been continued with the upon the strength of its own resources, to facilitate the usual results. I recommend to your consideration the va- means of communication between the various portions of rious subjects suggested the report of the Secretary of the Union with increased activity. The method, howWar. Their adoption would promote the public service ever, in which the accounts of the transportation of the and meliorate the condition of the army.
mail bave always been kept, appears to have presented Our relations with the various Indian tribes have been an imperfect view of its expenses. It has recently been undisturbed since the termination of the difficulties grow- discovered that, from the earliest records of the Depart. ing out of the hostile aggressions of the Sac and Fox ment, the annual statements have been calculated to exIndians. Several treaties have been formed for the relinbibit an amount considerably short of the actual expense quishment of territory to the United States, and for the incurred for that service. These illusory statements, tomigration of the occupants to the region assigned for their gether with the expense of carrying into effect the law of residence west of the Mississippi. Should these treaties the last session of Congress establishing new mail routes, be ratified by the Senate, provision will have been made and a disposition on the part of the head of the Depart. for the removal of almost all the tribes now remaining ment to gratify the wishes of the public in the extension east of ibat river, and for the termination of many difficult of mail facilities, have induced him to incur responsibili. and embarrassing questions arising out of their anomalous ties for their improvement, beyond what the current repolitical condition. It it to be hoped that those portions sources of the Department would sustain. As soon as he of two of the Southern tribes, which, in that event, will had discovered the imperfection of the method, he causpresent the only remaining difficulties, will realize the ed an investigation to be made of its results, and applied necessity of emigration, and will speedily resort to it. the proper remedy to correct the evil. It became necesMy original convictions upon this subject have been con- sary for him to withdraw some of the improvements which firmed by the course of events for several years, and ex. he had made, to bring the expenses of the Department perience is every day adding to their strength. That within its own resources. These expenses were incurred those tribes cannot exist, surrounded by our settlements, for the public good, and the public have enjoyed their and in continual contact with our citizens, is certain benefit. They are now but partially suspended, and that They have neither the intelligence, the industry, the where they may be discontinued with the least inconvemoral habits, nor the desire of improvement, which are nience to the country. essential to any favorable change in their condition. Es- The progressive increase in the income from postages tablished in the midst of another and a superior race, and has equalled the bighest expectations, and it affords de. without appreciating the causes of their inferiority, or monstrative evidence of the growing importance and great seeking to control them, they must necessarily yield to utility of this Department. The details are exhibited in the force of circumstances, and ere long disappear. Such the accompanying report of the Postmaster General: has been their fate heretofore, and if it is to be averted, The many distressing accidents which have of lale ocDocuments accompanying the President's Message.
[23d Cong. 1st Sess.
curred in that portion of our navigation carried on by the be immediately felt in the new corps, and will identify use of steam power, deserve the immediate and unremit. them with those previously in service. The military ex. ting attention of the constituted authorities of the coun- perience of other countries, as well as of our own, has try. The fact that the number of those fatal disasters is shown that the system of extension, by which new and constantly increasing, notwithstanding the great improve old troops are incorporated together, is much better calments which are every where made in the machinery culated to produce discipline and subordination, and thus employed, and in the rapid advances which have been to meet the exigencies of a service which does not allow made in that branch of science, show very clearly that large bodies of troops to be kept up in time of peace, they are in a great degree the result of criminal negli- than the organization of separate corps, composed of inex. gence on the part of those by whom the vessels are navi-perienced officers and me i with all their military knowlgated, and to whose care and attention the lives and prop- edge to acquire, and all their military habits to form. And erty of our citizens are so extensively intrusted.
ihis is more particularly true of the staff departments of That these evils may be greatly lessened, if not sub. an army, upon which its movement, its subsistence, and stantially removed, by means of precautionary and penal the economy of its administration must principally depend. legislation, seems to be highly probable ; so far, there. The system established in our service is equally creditafore, as the subject can be regarded as within the consti- ble to the army and satisfactory to the Government, and tutional purview of Congress, I earnestly recommend it may be applied to any necessary extent without any dimi. to your prompt and serious consideration.
nution of that economy and efficiency which have here. I would also call your attention to the views I have tofore marked its operation. heretofore expressed of the propriety of amending the Much advantage is anticipated from the operation of the contitution in relation to the mode of electing the Presi. act passed at the last session of Congress for improving dent and Vice President of the United States. Regarding the condition of the army. Already its effects have been it as all important to the future quiet and harmony of the felt (as the subjoined documents will show) in the depeople that every intermediate agency in the election of crease of desertion, and in the increase of the business of ihese officers should be removed, and that their eligibili- recruiting. The addition to the pay of the rank and file, ty should be limited to one lerm of either four or six the reduction of the term of service, and the improved years, I cannot too earnestly invite your consideration of condition of the non-commissioned officers, pron ise imthe subject.
portant meliorations in the character of the army, This Trusting that your deliberations on all the topics of prospect cannot but be interesting to the Government and general interest to wbich I have adverted, and such others the country. Although the numerical strength of the as your naore extensive knowledge of the wants of our army is comparatively small, it is yet sufficient to excite beloved country may suggest, may be crowned with suc. public solicitude; and this must be increased by the concess, I tender you, in conclusion, the co-operation wbich sideration that the character of our military establishment it may be in my power to afford them.
may hereafter essentially depend upon the measures now ANDREW JACKSON. taken for its moral and intellectual advancement. AlWASHINGTON, December 3, 1833.
though it were idle, in the present state of the country,
to apprehend any danger from the force which is em. Documents accompanying the President's Message. ployed, still, the lessons of experience taught by the
progress of events in other nations ought not to be negREPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR.
lected, nor the possibility overlooked that other circumstances may lead to the increase of our military strength,
and to the diminution of that wise jealousy which is now DEPARTMENT OF Wan,
one of our national characteristics. Moral habits in the November 29, 1833.
soldiery constitute one of the best safeguards against the To the President of the United States:
abuse of military power, and their inculcation bas engaSir: In submitting to you, agreeably to your instruc: ged the attention of this Department during successive Lions, a report of the operations and administration of periods of its administration. Amongst other measures this Department for the past year, it affords me pleasure which have been adopted with this view, you have reto bear my testimony to the zeal and ability of the recently directed the discontinuance of all parades on Sunspective officers at the head of the various bureaus, and day, in order that that day may be exclusively devoted to of those employed to aid them in the performance of the the purposes of instruction and improvement. Certainly, important functions committed to this branch of the Ex. in time of peace, no just reason can exist for converting ecutive Government.
a day of rest and devotion into a day of military parade. A reference to the accompanying report and docu. The act for the better defence of the frontiers, by raisments will show the state of the army, as well with rela. ing a regiment of dragoons, is ir the process of execution. tion to its numbers, and their position and condition, as About six hundred men have been enlisted, and most of to the progress of the various works intrusted to them, the officers appointed, and five of the companies bave and the collection and preservation of the necessary ma- been ordered to proceed to Fort Gibson, upon the Arteriel for offensive and defensive operations, which is in- kansas, where they will be stationed during the winter. dispensable to the safety of the country. The princi- The remainder of the regiment will be concentrated at ple which governed the reduction of the army from a Jefferson barracks this season, and it is intended, in the war to a peace establishment has been found, by subse- spring, to order the whole to proceed through the exten. quent experience, to be salutary, and its practical opera- sive Indian regions between the western boundaries of tion has been to form a body of officers equal in all the Missouri and Arkansas and the Rocky mountains. It is requisites of military knowledge and efficiency to those deemed indispensable to the peace and security of the of any other service which is known to us. The army is frontiers that a respectable force should be displayed in so organized that, should an increase become necessary that quarter, and that the wandering and restless tribes in consequence of those conflicts of interest and opinion who roam through it should be impressed with the power to which all nations in their intercourse with one another of the United States by the exhibition of a corps so well have been exposed, and from which we have no right to qualified to excite their respect. These Indians are beexpect perpetual exemption, any reasonable addition may yond the reach of a mere infantry force. Without sta. be made to it without disturbing its arrangement; and the tionary residences, and possessing an abundant supply of professional knowledge and experience imbodied in it will | horses, and with habits admirably adapted to their use,