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philanthropy, and law against the incubus of politics, and the efforts weakness and depravity of the race. of humane and scientific penologists The author reviews the treatment have been stultified, not only by lack that has thus far obtained of the of knowledge of the best methods defectives and criminals, adducing but by the selfishness of politicians. an array of evidence for his con Dr. McKim certainly has a skilful tention that thus far the efforts of pen, and there is much in his stoic religion, philanthropy, and law for advocacy of death as the remedy the reduction of crime and pauper which wins admiration if not symism have been entirely futile.

pathy. It is undoubtedly true that That the problem is most human life is over-valued in this age, serious one, and that the energy that it is not always a thing sacred expended, especially in charitable and inviolable, and that it is mere and reformatory endeavor, has baseness to hold it despite the broad seemed to be disproportionate to welfare of humanity. Indeed one the results in people made self can almost conceive himself as agreerespecting and moral, and helped to ing in a measure with Dr. McKim's economic efficiency, we have no contention that the irretrievable wish to deny; but that it has been criminal shall be gently put to death, absolutely futile there is every but there is too vast and sacred an reason for denying. The evidence array of evidence in the history of which Dr. McKim cites for his religion, of education, and in the retheory is painfully one-sided, and it cent history of charity—too many is evident that he has not considered myriads of instances of the reform at all other evidence that he might of the vicious, the strengthening of have found in, for example, the

the weak, and the inspiration and reports of charity organization making effective of the spiritless and societies, associations for the im- inefficient, aside from the ineradicaproving of the condition of the ble instinct in the human heart of poor, and other charitable societies the sacredness of life and of the and institutions. Furthermore, the divine possibility of all effort for fact that the measure of success of human good, to make such a suggescharitable effort does not seem pro tion as Dr. McKim's, of the arbitrary portionate to the energy expended destruction of the criminal and weak, does not necessarily impeach the possible of acceptance. .S. H. B. wisdom of such effort, but may rather indicate that the method of

ALMS, CHARITY, AND SUBSTITUTES FOR that effort is imperfect. It would

CHARITY. be strange indeed if what has come to be termed scientific philanthropy,

BY FREDERIC ALMY, or charity, with its few years of

[Introductory paragraphs of a paper on existence and with its limited oppor Public Out-Door Relief read before the Sumtunity of giving scientific training mer School in Philanthropic Work.] to charity workers should have I feel sometimes as if the first become perfect.

commandment of modern charity And this contention is equally were supposed to be “ Thou shalt true with respect to treatment of the not give.' On the contrary, the criminal class. Scientific penology commandment is “ Thou shalt give.” has even more to contend against Give more, not less, but give yourthan has scientific charity, by virtue self instead of alms. Give time and of the fact that it has thus far been thought first, and money if necesutterly unable to relieve itself of the

sary, but as

a last resort. It is

partly because modern charity in these societies are laboring night requires so much effort and labor and day to remove. that it finds followers slowly.

If a man sets his own barn on fire In considering relief, the sharp his neighbors will not do much to distinction between the two classes relieve his poverty and help him to of poverty, voluntary and involun- rebuild. They may even arrest him tary, should never for a moment be instead, for fire is dangerous to the lost sight of. I often

wish we

community and often spreads like a had two different words for the pestilence. Fire is not more dangerpoor, for to use the same word for ous, however, or more contagious, the voluntary and involuntary pov than pauperism, for a willingness to erty leads to false thinking. There ask for alms runs from room to is the poverty of indolence and in room in a tenement and from house temperance. Such poor are poor

to house in a street; and kills by choice and can end their poverty character wherever it

character wherever it goes. Wilful, unaided if they will. The poverty deliberate poverty must be punof ignorance and inefficiency is also ished rather than assisted. to a large extent voluntary. On the Suppose, however, that a man's other hand, the poverty caused by house burns without his fault. His strikes, accident, sickness and old neighbors will toil with him to build age, even though thrift might have a new one, or will give generously made provision for it, is to a large for the same end, but the man himextent involuntary. We must in self must work and supplement their vestigate always if we wish to give effort with the best of his own to the greatest need instead of to ability. the loudest cry, but, as Miss It is not to be assumed, however, Richmond says, “The object of that all houses which take fire must investigation is not to find the poor burn down. Wise towns have fire out but to find out how to help departments to quench the flame, them."

and the wisest of all enact and also A man who has had large ex enforce building regulations, which perience defines pauperis m as do much to prevent fires. This fire

poverty plus charity.” He should department may represent the trained have said " poverty plus alms," for skill of a charity organization society the word charity means nothing

means nothing which seeks to check pauperism be. more nor less than love, and wise fore character is destroyed, and it is love never pauperizes. A wise not a fair criticism either of the fire mother knows when not to give to engine or of the society, that to her crying child as well as when to bring it to the fire costs more than give. There is no positive virtue all the water poured upon the flames. however in the not giving. The It does not cost more than the buildvirtue lies in giving, but as has been ing which is saved, or than the mansaid, in giving yourself.

hood which is restored. Water costs English book Miss Dendy, now little, but it keeps the fire from findMrs. Bosanquet, has well said that ing more fuel. Modern charity gives there are many so-called charitable little, but it keeps willing poverty societies which spend vast sums of from finding more alms. money in gathering about them If we follow this metaphor to the great crowds of indolent, worthless end, we shall find that the wisest loafers whose one hope of regenera- charity of all is represented by the tion lies in the very spur of hunger building regulations which prevent

ich the devoted men and women fire from spreading. Do not let

In an

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poor buildings or poor people be be proud of her fever hospitals as of
crowded too closely together. Re having purified the Chicago river
member that it is easier and cheaper which caused the fever.
to build a house or to train a child Questions of strikes, lock-outs, and
right than to put out a fire or to the hours of labor, of tenement-
check vice after it has made head houses, sweat-shops, and the con-
way. An ounce of prevention is ditions of factory life, touch poverty
worth tons of cure. The patient, at the very root. Even the issues
far-seeing preventive charity which of the tariff, of currency, and of civil
uses the school and church to lift service reform bear upon the problem
character, and which studies causes of poverty.

A good municipal in order to abolish pauperism by re government is apt to mean good moving the conditions which produce schools and clean streets, and to init, is wiser and more effective than crease education and decrease disany charity of relief; and the charity ease is to hit two body blows at of alms, especially of indiscriminate

poverty. alms, is now generally admitted to be dangerous, debasing, and lazy. The St. Vincent de Paul Society Wise charity is not lazy; it requires has issued a short statement of its so much effort that finds followers

work for the year past. There are slowly; it requires you to give more, not less. You must give yourself.

now sixty-five conferences in as We must, of course, have all three many parishes, with a total memalms, charity, and the substitutes for bership of 1,125 members; 7,087 charity which are now engaging so families, consisting of 45,508 permuch attention. We must have

sons, have been relieved, alms for the hungry and naked, though with the ordinary giver it is

expenditure of $49,829, and 41,278 ten to one that alms will do more visits have been made. The special harm than good. Alms are so easy, departments of the society's work and so immediate in their first effect, are the boys' clubs, the employment that even the short-sighted can see bureau, the Catholic Home Bureau, they have done something to help. and the fresh-air work. The long-sighted see that the alms are like drugs which relieve distress Classified Advertisements. temporarily but create an appetite

Advertisements under this head, two lines or more more dangerous than the pain they without display, 5 cents a line. relieve. Pauperism means

a sick will, a diseased character. Alms are


renews its appeals for a monthly pension of $8 a form of relief to be given sparingly to pay rent for a widow with tour children, all

too young to contribute to the family support. and with caution; charity is the care industrious and does all she can, but is crippled by and skill of the nurse and physician,

personal sickness and sickness in her family,

no help from relatives for all are as poor as she. comforting and healing (and some

For $150 wherewith to provide for the pressing

needs of an aged couple. They are respectable and times severe as a surgeon's knife);

The man is too old to work at his pro

fession and his wite is paralyzed. while the modern social work is akin

For $60 to provide shelter for an old woman whom to the services of the board of health age and illness have incapacitated from work, but who

until recently supported herseli. She has no relatives and the biological laboratory. It able to help her.

Any money for these cases sent to the Charity Orattacks the germ, so to speak, of ganization Society, 105 East 22d Street, will be duly and pauperism.

publicly acknowledged.

The society acknowledges the following contribuIt is not so desirable to have good

tions for the widow with four children, and the aged

couple mentioned above: “Cash," $15; N. Witherell military hospitals as to abolish war. and Mrs. William C. Schermerhorn, $ro each; “High

land Falls” and “Omega," $2 each ; J. Gould's Son & Chicago has not so much reason to Co., $1.



She is

She has

well educated.





the Court, the State Board has discontinued inspection of 663 private charitable institutions having 57,571

inmates and over a half-million beneENTERED AS SECOND) - CLASS MATTER AT THE ficiaries of various kinds. The pub

NEW YORK, N. Y., POST-OFFICE. as Issued every Saturday. Five cents a

lication of the Directory of charicopy. Subscription price, one dollar a year, table institutions is to be suspended, in advance. Three dollars a hundred.

the Board possessing no further ADVERTISING RATES. Classified advertisements, 5 cents a line,

power to require reports from the eight words to the line, agate measure. 663 private charities receiving no Display, 5 cents a line, 14 lines to the inch. Full page, 200 agate lines, $10. Half page,

public money.

This is more than 100 agate lines, $5. Quarter page, 50 agate

half of all of the charitable agenlines, $2.50. Special position, twenty-five

cies hitherto visited and inspected per cent additional. EDWARD T. DEVINE, Editor.

by the Board. Referring to these far

reaching effects of the decision, Mr. 105 East 22d Street.

Stewart says:
NEW YORK, JULY 14, 1900.

“All of the inmates or benefi

ciaries of these several hundred The Quarterly Record for June, institutions are now without the 1900, published by the State Board protection which State inspection of Charities, devotes about one hun has afforded them in the past. dred pages to an exhaustive review There is now no regularly constiby Mr. W. R. Stewart, President of tuted department of the State the Board, on the subject of state


having authority inspection of private charitable insti to visit and inspect any

of tutions, societies, and associations. them, investigate their manageThe paper traces the history of the ment where necessary, or, through legislation of the state of New York the order of the Supreme Court, to since the establishment of the State correct abuses and enforce remedies. Board in 1867. President Stewart Must not this condition be regarded points out that the immediate effect as a public calamity ? .. of the decision of the Court of Ap. No important question can be peals is to destroy the system of regarded as definitely settled in our state inspection of all private charit age and land until it has been settled able institutions not in receipt of

for the best interests of the people. public money, a system which has The hands of the clock may be set been the growth of a generation, back, but this does not stay the built stone by stone, in a series of flight of time. clearly expressed statutes, and The great question of the proper capped by the Charities Article of relation of the State to all charitable the Constitution and the State institutions, societies or associations, Charities Law.”

and their inmates or beneficiaries. In obedience to the judgment of has yet to be tried in the enlight



ened forum of public opinion, to when they ought to be making prowhose judgment the Legislature, the vision for the future. Mr. Keller's courts, and all the departments of the plan is that a person of stipulated State government must bow. This age, who can prove that his distress is the tribunal of last resort. To it is due to conditions which interfered the destitute, unfortunate and delin with his sharing in the legitimate quent of our people, needing the results of his own labor for the protection of the State, and all who general prosperity, should be enbelieve that they are entitled to and titled to a dividend from the public should receive it as a matter of right, make appeal.”

Mr. Keller recommends classi

fication of inmates in the almsIn the Arena Quarterly, June, house, deploring that “there is no 1900, appears an, article by Hon. dividing line between cleanliness J. W. Keller on “ Pauperism and

and uncleanliness." We believe that Municipal Charities.” He advocates public sentiment would sustain the the centralization in Blackwell's and Commissioner in changing this state Randall's Islands of all of the chari

of affairs at once. table work in the city and the doing away of the borough system. Only emergency hospitals are necessary, The report for the third quarter he thinks, outside Blackwell's and of its fiscal year of the Cooper Union Randall's Islands. The history of Labor Bureau, under the managethe reform of the Charities Depart- ment of the New York Association ment is traced and all of these for the Improving the Condition of forward

steps are declared to be the Poor, contains some suggestive “the result of successive years of features. It has registered in the study by persons interested in the three months from April i to June general subject of charities, and par 30, 623 men, 200 less than in the ticularly by those interested in the previous quarter. Two hundred and distribution of public moneys for seventy-seven of this number had the relief of the destitute."

satisfactory references, and 224 unIn considering the evil of the lack satisfactory. Eighty-two applications of discrimination of classes in the from employers were received, and almshouse, Mr. Keller suggests a of these many were inquiries regard. modification of the old-age pension ing farm laborers and useful men on scheme. The German insurance gentlemen's country places. The plan does not seem to him satisfac Bureau was unable to do anything tory, in that it entails the giving up with reference to these inquiries, as of wages when money may be most only seven farmers applied, and for needed; and the New Zealand old various reasons

of them age pension plan involves the dan- seemed eligible. Fifty of the eightyger of paralyzing the efforts of men two applications from employers



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