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An important decision with refer- they attest is a will. The court ence to wills has been made by says: “It may be safely affirmed, Judge Gibbons of Chicago. It seems in the absence of any circumstance that the will of Leonard Gould, in which would give rise to a suspicion which he bequeathed $100,000 to six of fraud, that when a person of charitiable institutions,

not sound mind writes a document with signed in the presence of witnesses. his own hands, and also writes the The court has decided that such attestation clause and requests the signature is not necessary, and that requisite number of persons to witthe attesting witnesses need not be ness the document, and this same inlocmed that the instrument which document is found among the papers

was

of such person after his or her death, properly signed, it is safe to con

BOOKBINDING clude that the testator placed his

IN ALL THE VARIETIES OF LEATHER FOR THE signature thereon when he wrote it,

HOME AND LIBRARY. although the witnesses did not see

HENRY BLACKWELL, that part of the document, and did University Place and 10th Street, not know whether it was signed or

New York. not."

Nazareth Steam Laundry

GOOD COUNSEL FARM, WHITE PLAINS, N. Y.

HENRY ARDEN,

JAPANESE ART OBJECTS, NOVELTIES IN SILKS FOR LADIES' USE, Silk CREPES AND GRASS LINENS,

Pillow COVERS, ETC., 38 WEST 22D STREET.

Telephones, 86B and 124 White Plains.

This Laundry is equipped with the best New York Medical College

and Hospital for Women,

19 WEST 1Olst STREET, Between Central Park West and Manhattan Avenue,

and latest machinery.

It also offers the advantage of country bleaching.

No acids are used.

Work is collected and returned in New York and Westchester County by the American Express, without expense customers.

Special rates to Hotels and Families.

to

MAINTAINS : (1.)-The only college in the State exclusively for the education of women in medicine. Dr. M. BELLE Brown, Dean.

(2.)-"A hospital (medical and surgical) for women and children. Patients charged according to ability to pay, or free if necessary; supported by board of patients and voluntary contributions.

(3.)—Dispensary for women and children; open from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. Women physicians only in attendance.

(4.)-Obstetrical out department ; staff of 20 women physicians attend the needy poor women in their own homes during confinement. Cards for free attendance may be obtained from the resident physician.

Mary Knox Robinson, President.

IN CHARGE OF THE SISTERS
OF THE DIVINE COMPASSION.

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WYCKOFF, SEAMANS & BENEDICT, 327 BROADWAY, NEW YORK

CHARITIES

The Official Organ of the Charity Organisation Society of the City of New York.

Vol. V.

JUNE 23, 1900.

No. 4.

I

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THE

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CONTENTS.

First class, in which you pay high

rent for location and appearance of Experience of Life in a Second-Class Tene

house and hallways. Generally the ment. .... Discussion of Outdoor Relief at the Super

rooms are small, but you have bath intendents' Convention.

room, range, and improvements. Organization of the State Conference

Second class, in which you pay RESPONSES TO THE CIRCULAR OF

reasonable rent and get good sized TENEMENT-HOUSE COMMISSION.

rooms, but no improvements and THE SUMMER SCHOOL.

poor location. It is this class I have PREVENTIVE CHARITY..

seen the most of, because I have The Surrey (English) Mirror on the Im

lived in them, and, of course, they portance of Good Housing..

are the homes of the respectable

(or supposed to be) working class; My Experience of Life in a Second-Class

although the classes of people get lenement-Flat House.

all mixed together according to cir

cumstances. If you put on your [The writer of the following article thinking cap, you need not lack is the wife of a stationary engineer work for the brain, and if you occupying a position which enables are observing you need not lack them now to live in better quarters

amusement. But you must have no

nerves, or you live a life of excitethan the average tenement provides.

ment and nervousness. Before I was Before marriage she was a nurse and married I had never lived in a tenegoverness, and it is obvious that she ment flat.

My first experience is a competent observer. During the I felt like a prisoner. I knew I was

free, but I felt as if some power was time of which she writes her husband

keeping me there against my will. was a fireman with irregular work,

After I got used to the life, I began and they lived in a tenement, paying to look around and study things up, $11 per month for three rooms. It and to wonder why I should feel must not be inferred that the writer like that. I began to study my

neighbors, and I found if you want means to condemn the majority of

to live in peace, you must keep to tenement-house dwellers as drunk

yourself. I saw some gossiping and ards and brawlers, but she evidently drinking together to-day, and todesires to show how casily the quiet, morrow fighting; and not content respectable tenants are affected and with fighting among themselves, disturbed by unpleasant neighbors. they draw their husbands into it,

when they come home from work. The article is published as written,

Then there are some who want to without editing.Editor's Note.) borrow all the time from everyone.

Why I say second is there are Then you see men and women, too, three classes, first, second, and third. going for drink as early as 5 o'clock

A. M. The women will neglect their and a voice said in scared whisper, homes, children, husbands, and every- “the house is on fire." I ran into the thing for drink; they never seem room, and slipping on my best shoes sober.

I snatched up my clothes that I had That is where the danger of fire laid on the bed ready to go out comes, with such people; for they after dinner. I took a towel and are not responsible for their actions, wound it round my head and face, or able to control their children. I telling my husband to do the same have seen children playing, running to quickly. I groped my way down and fro with blazing paper. One night stairs and out into the street just as we were preparing for rest when the flames were bursting through there was a smell of fire. I opened under the stairs. I ran up the the room door and saw the hall- street a few houses to where the ways full of smoke and all the people agent's office was, and left my out on the stairs. Two or three of things, thinking my husband was us ran down to the janitor, and we following me with his things, but no. saw black smoke coming from the Then I ran back to find him; he was front rooms on the ground floor. looking for me, and had nothing; We knocked and knocked till at last He said I was so quick that he did an old woman opened the door. She not know what was happening, and was just rags and dirt, and too when he saw the flames he came drunk to speak. The wash tubs down to see if I was out safe; then were full of clothes, colored and he wanted to go back, but the firewhite, all mixed together; she said men would not let him, for the she was washing. There was no fire, house was cleared of every one. but a small lamp stood on the stove The smoke was dense. burning; coal was scattered all over Well, after it was all over we went the floor; the place was upside back. We lived on the third floor, down, and whisky bottles were all and the fire had just begun to come over the window-sill. The place had through under the wash tubs and in such a close smell, no bed made, and the bedroom. All the lower stairs it past 10 P. M. The place was a pic- and ground floor, and first floor back ture of filth and dirt, and yet the was destroyed. It appears that two furniture and other things were weeks before they had let the back good. She said there was nothing basement to a man and his wife with burning there, and we could not find two children ; they had very little where the smoke came from, al- furniture, and four days before the though the room kept filling with fire they had the furniture insured, black smoke. We searched the cellar and on Sunday had filled the ash but no smoke was there. So we had cans full of rags and set fire to it. to retire at that. Lovely sensation The fire marshal had the man arto go to rest with not knowing what rested. Had it been night no one hour you may be awakened by fire! would have escaped. That is one

Another time it was Sunday noon- reason why landlords should have time; we had just set down to tenements fireproof. dinner when I saw smoke up the Another delightful thing is the air shaft. I thought at first it was smell of cooking; you get sniffs fog, then it grew blacker, and I ran of all kinds, sometimes not very into the hallway, and looking over fresh, so that by the time you are the banister I saw the smoke thick ready for your own dinner you have and I heard voices; so I called out, no appetite. “what is the matter down there?" Nice quiet life in a tenement! On

hit me.

one floor you will find two families had to move. Then another family living next door to each other, very came, with two children, a boy of neighborly for a time, going from about eight years, and a girl of about room to room; then they drink six years. Both father and mother together day after day, night after drank; he beat his wife, and she night, until husbands and wives get beat the children; they were bruised all mixed up; then they all fight, and cut all over. I heard the boy tearing and biting each other like screaming, Oh, mamma, please don't animals, and getting knives to each

With that, it sounded as if other. Of course at a time like that she had taken the poker or someall the men, women, and children thing from the stove. She must that are in the house are out on the have hit him, for he screamed more, stairs and in the hallways.

and said, Oh, mamma, mamma, my Over us lived a man and wife with head is bleeding. I was going to two children; they were so ragged and report them to the Gerry society. filthy I was glad when they moved. Then you can watch your neighThen came a young couple; really bors in other houses, and put two they looked boy and girl-he looked and two together and tell what is about twenty-one and she about eigh. happening. I saw husband and wife teen; they were supposed to be mar- so comfortable and happy together ried three months only. Another every morning and evening. One young man used to visit them. For morning I saw the man go out early, two days and nights they danced, and about ten o'clock I heard crying they shouted. I can not call it sing- and moaning. I listened and thought, ing, because they were too drunk to that is not a child; that is a woman sing. Well, it was like bedlam let in distress. I looked and saw peoloose. We could not sleep, for they ple in the room. I thought, somekept it up early and late. We did thing has happened. So later on in not like to say anything, or make a the day I heard he was killed by the complaint, for we thought they were train. After the funeral she having their honeymoon.

moved away. Some one moving in summer time, and every window was and out nearly every day. open, so everything could be heard. The back of the house, in the He would become quarrelsome, and next street, was empty except two they would both swear like troopers. floors. On one floor were two old They were not so innocent as they ladies, so prim and severe looking looked. They kept it up two or they reminded me of New England three times a week for three months. women. On the other floor was man The people began to shout at them and wife. I think the man was a from different houses, to keep quiet musician that played at parties and let people sleep. The answer or in the street; for twice a week they got was: I am an American two men would come and praccitizen. At last people complained tise with him. One played bass to the agent. Then they began to fiddle, and the other a harp, while throw furniture about and hammer he played the violin. After they on the doors. So the agent asked had practised a time they would me if they were as bad as people play dance music, and all the girls said, for he said I must have the and boys in the flats would go in worst of it, as I lived under them. I the yards and dance. How the peoshowed him the ceiling, all broken ple did enjoy that music! Every and cracked all over, so that I ex- one would be at their windows lispected it to come down. So they tening. Sometimes they would play

It was

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