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PUBLIC HEARINGS OF THE TENEMENT-HOUSE
of the greatest evils, as the children COMMISSION.
there receive their first temptation
to vice. As a remedy he suggested The fourth public hearing of the Tenement-House Commission was
the lighting of the halls. He would held in the assembly hall of the
also require a sign over every teneUnited Charities Building, on Wed
ment-house door giving the name of nesday afternoon, November 28.
the landlord or agent, who should be Mr. James B. Reynolds, chairman of held responsible in case of rooms bethe committee on morals, presided. ing rented to immoral persons. The subject under discussion was
Miss Price testified that the in“Vice in Tenement Houses." Among
fluence upon children was bad and those who gave testimony before the becoming increasingly so. She was commission were Dr. Felix Adler,
sure that agents and housekeepers Rev. Robert L. Paddock, Mr. Emil
must know about the conditions in
these houses. Fuchs, Dr. Siegelstein, Miss Ruth Price, and Mrs. Charles R. Lowell.
Dr. Felix Adler arraigned the Mr. Fuchs described conditions in sweat-shop system and the horrors the East Side as having grown much
of the privations suffered by teneworse in the past eighteen months.
ment dwellers as primary causes From personal investigation of the leading to the ruin of thousands. district he was convinced that vice He thought that if the sweat shop had greatly increased. He stated
could be banished to the suburbs on that in the district comprised between
the factory plan, great good would
result. the Bowery and Ludlow street there were not fewer than seventy-five
“It is a mistake to suppose,” he tenement-houses, or about seven per said, "that if political conditions cent of all, in which the condition are improved, the conscience of the was unspeakably bad. The children
The children city may again go to sleep. The in the tenements, he stated, had be- congestion of pauper labor in tenegun to look on certain forms of vice ment districts must be broken up. as a matter of course.
The lives of these people must be Rev. Robert L. Paddock said that made bearable." he had received hundreds of com
He advocated a law which would plaints from people compelled to permit of police inspection and patrol live in the district in which in public hallways, and likened halls the Pro-Cathedral is situated, and and stairs in a crowded tenementdescribed the effect of the im house to public highways. He urged moral conditions prevailing there as
that such a measure would do away terribly demoralizing upon the chil very largely with the immoral condren of the community. The dark ditions that now prevail, would prehalls in tenements he considered one vent crowding of the stoops, assem
bling in halls, and improper exhibi with a contagious disease. 'I must tions from windows and doors. He have the money to buy medicine for proposed also a system of registra- my child,' she replied.” tion of all tenants by the housekeeper Mrs. Nathan gave it as her opinor agent.
ion that no tenement should be used The statement made to the com for the manufacture of clothing. It mission by Mrs. Lowell will appear is not only the cheap garments which in CHARITIES next week.
are finished in tenements; some of
the highest-priced garments are also The Tenement-House Commis
finished in sweat shops. She favors sion, at its public hearing, November
a law making manufacturers re30, took up the discussion of the
sponsible for the conditions under "Evils of Tenement-House Labor,"
which articles sold by them are and the possible remedies for them.
made. The Board of Health and Testimony was given by Mrs. Freder
the Factory Inspection Department ick Nathan, president of the Consum
should be kept in touch. Contagers' League ; Mr. Meyer Schoenfeld, of ious diseases should be reported to the Garment Workers' Union; Rev.
the Factory Inspection Department, J. C. Moran, of the Church Associa
and inspectors should be entitled to tion for the Advancement of the
know for whom any clothing is Interests of Labor; Mr. Henry made; also that all garments made White, secretary of the Garment
in tenements should be marked Workers' Union, and others.
"tenement-made." Mrs. Nathan said that the rooms
Mr. Henry White said that the in which garments are made are al
most crying evils are the sweat ways over-crowded, usually filthy, shops in the rear of tenementand that the hours of labor are ex
houses. These buildings, cessively long. Little children are
rule, are unfit for habitation, and often obliged to help their parents always unfit for workshops. He aswith the work by pulling basting serted that many of the so-called facthreads and sewing on buttons.
tory buildings are simply converted Often it is found that garments
tenements, rear tenements, most of are being made in houses where there
them, and that a law should be is contagion. “In one house," said
passed forbidding the manufacture Mrs. Nathan, "a member of our
of clothing in any building put up league, who is a trained nurse, found
in the rear of a dwelling. He a woman working on garments while doubted whether any substantial her child lay striken with scarlet fever gain could be made in the way on a bed in the same room. The nurse of bettering the conditions of tenetold her she ought not to take gar- ment-house labor until there was ment work while her child was sick some effort to limit the number of
persons permitted to occupy one
THE HEALTH OF NEW YORK CITY. square block, either by limiting the
Dr. Henry Dwight Chapin, chairheight of buildings, or by prescrib
man of the committee on hygiene of ing the amount of light and air
the Medical Society of the County of space to be allowed to each person.
New York, has lately published his Rev. J. C. Moran said that there should be much more stringent of New York city. It is gratifying,
annual report regarding the health regulations with regard to inspection says the Medical Record, to gather of sweat shops, and that the manu from Dr. Chapin's investigationsfacture of clothing in sleeping apart
the data for which were gleaned ments should not be permitted.
from the exhaustive study of the "When Secretary Alger issued an
question made by the Merchants' As
sociation of New York—that the order that all clothing for the army health of New York compares favmust be made in regular factories,” orably with that of the six largest he said, "we were pleased, but our capital cities of the world. Berlin gratification was short-lived. Under has the lowest death rate and St. the second contract made by the War Petersburg the highest, while the Department for clothing for volun- mortality per one thousand of New
York and London are the same. teers in the war with Spain, much
However, the fact must be taken into of the work was done in sweat shops. account that the death rates for New It is my opinion based on my inves York are estimated for the boroughs tigations, that the germs of scarlet of Manhattan and the Bronx only. fever and measles which prevailed Nevertheless, it is a matter for conin the camps were carried to the
gratulation that there has been a
steady decrease in the death rate of camps in this sweat-shop clothing." New York as a whole during the past Mr. Schoenfeld said that the man
Dr. Chapin attributes ufacturers could reform the East this to a lessening of the virulency of Side at once if they would simply influenza, brought about by the betresolve not to give out their work
ter paving of streets, and a more
careful oversight of water and milk there. In his opinion, if the foot- supply. Further improvement in the power machine could be abolished quality of the milk supply is anticitenement labor on clothing would be pated, and with this end in view a impossible, since it would be too committee of the Medical Society of costly to substitute steam or electric
the County of New York has been power for foot power. He ascribed making a careful study of the quesmuch of the physical ill-being of
tion and suggesting practical meas
ures. tenement clothing workers to the use
The greater portion of the reof the foot-power machine.
port is wisely devoted to a consideration of the water supply, which
has of late been attracting the attenOn Tuesday, Mr. B. W. Tice, of tion of sanitarians and citizens of all the Children's Aid Society, took a classes. party of twelve children to Iowa. Dr. Chapin concludes his report
by entering a strong plea for public Mr. Sherman S. Kingsley, in a perownership of water supplies in New
sonal letter, says: York. The plan has been found to
"The placing-out system will, I admirably in Glasgow, Scotland, and in other centres of sity for the homes maintained by the
hope, soon do away with the necespopulation in which it has been given society, the care of children in instia trial. The cost is much less, and
tutions having been the work of the there is not the opportunity—or, at least, there should not be of make society for many years." ing large profits at the expense of the general public as in private
INVESTIGATION NECESSARY. ownership. The sanitarians and
The following article, published medical men of New York should use their best efforts to procure a
in the Children's Home Finder, Noplentiful, pure, and cheap water sup vember, has probably used a fictitious ply.
name in designating the asylum re
ferred to, since there is no such inTHE PLACING-OUT SYSTEM.
stitution as the Brown Asylum, in
New York city. However, assumThe Boston Children's Friend So
ing that the statement is correct, it ciety, in its sixty-seventh annual report, referring to the cases in which
serves to illustrate the necessity for commitment of children to institu- investigation before children are tions is desired, suggests the neces
placed in new homes.
There seems to be no safe way of sity of versatility of method. In the words of the report the circum- accepting the statement of others
relative to the character of a family stances are as varied as human expe which has applied for a child, no rience, and while the applicant may matter how honest and disinterested know of but one remedy—that some the witness may be, unless this tessociety should take the child—the timony is supplemented by personal
investigation by an agent of the socharity worker often finds that some
ciety. The following is a case in other solution is needed. The society
point, and is of value because the inshould stand ready to give new ex stitution in question has claimed that hibitions of usefulness, and should their system was all that could be minister to its applicants in the man
wished. The names are changed for
obvious reasons. ner best suited to their needs, having
On the fourteenth day of July, in mind not only the immediate relief
1899, Miss Mabel Winn, the agent of distress, but the whole problem of of the Brown Asylum of New York the child's welfare as a member of city, placed a little girl in the family the community
of a certain J. S. Wayne at Chicago,
on the recommendation of the pastor This society was one of the first of
of Church, Chicago. The wife its kind in the United States, and has
of this man had attended the church maintained a home for children for and had met the pastor. many years. The general secretary, About the first of February, 1900,
this child was found in the company
FILTRATION SYSTEM RECOMMENDED. of a gang of professional thieves, of whom this J. S. Wayne was a promi
The New York Medical Record nent member, and was taken from advocates the establishment of a filthe gang by the court at Cincinnati,
tration plant for the New York Ohio, and was given into the custody of a children's institution there.
water system, saying that from every An investigation followed resulting sanitary point of view a large and in the discovery of the above facts. comprehensive filtration system is The Brown Asylum was notified, now a public necessity. When such and an agent promptly sent to Cin a plant is in effective operation, the cinnati after the child. The agent question can be practically answered, registered under a false name that
once and for all, as to its necessity, his identity might not be established. The institution had promised the utility, and far-reaching influences Waynes another child and was upon the general health of the public. grateful that the character of the There is abundant testimony to the family was discovered before the sec effect that it is the only remedy for. ond child was placed.
the constantly recurring befoulment The Supreme Court has decided
of our water after every season of that physicians and employés of a
drought. It is comforting to know public charitable institution have
that the municipality has absolute the right to vote and to claim such
control of our extensive water-sheds, place as their residence when they and can guarantee, so far as such live in the institution. The law is possible, against all apparent provides that “an inmate of any dangers of typhoid infection of almshouse or other asylum or in the river-beds or reservoirs. Alstitution wholly or partly supported ready the Health Board, with at public expense, or by charity,” commendable zeal, is inspecting can not register from such an in the entire area with the laudastitution as his residence.
ble intention of quieting public The case as presented was in the
concern on that point, and of still shape of a writ of habeas corpus and
further eliminating the future possicertiorari on behalf of Dr. Albertbility of disease and contamination. Sellening's trained nurses and two Thus it would appear that with a hired helpers at Bellevue Hospital, proper filtration plant, every opporwho were held by Magistrate Deuel tunity can be seized of making the in bail of $100 each on the charge water supply of New York what it of having illegally registered. These ought to be, the best and purest of writs were sustained by Justice its kind the world over. Andrews, and as it was a test case the ruling will affect 143 voters at Classified Advertisements. Bellevue, and 413 in other city institutions. The result of the decision is that 556 persons objected
TIONS : Literary Classes, conducted in clubs to, have the right to vote.
or private houses. 34 W. 18th street, city,
Advertisements under this head, tuvo lines or more without display, 5 cents a line.
ISS M. C. MCNEILL, READINGS; RECITA