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The Official Organ of the Charity Organization Society of the City of New York.

Vol. V.

NOVEMBER 24, 1900.

No. 26.




the conference by Mr. Robert W.

Hebberd, Secretary of the Provi. New York State Conference of Charities sional Committee, and his co-workers. and Correction....


the Provisional Committee detailed NATIONAL HOSPITAL FOR CONSUMPTIVES.. 12

the steps by which the conference FALL MEETING OF THE BROOKLYN BUREAU OF CHARITIES...


was organized and gracefully introThe Annual Meeting of the Charity Organi

duced the speakers at the opening zation Society......

session, reaching a climax of appreThe Public Hearing of the Tenement-House ciative eulogy in the warm tribute Commission. ....

17 with which he introduced the PresiThe Week Ending November 17.

19 dent of the conference, Hon. W. P.

Letchworth. Mr. Stewart said that NEW YORK STATE CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES although the State Board of ChariAND CORRECTION.

ties had initiated this conference it

was not with the desire or intention At the opening session of the that the conference should hereafter State Conference of Charities and have any official connection with the Correction, the Senate Chamber at board. Albany was crowded by an audience Gov. Roosevelt, who was received which was eminently representative with enthusiasm dwelt upon the of the various interests which the value of the aid given to public conference is intended to embrace. officials by those who work at civic There were present workers in pub- and social problems as a labor of lic and private charitable agencies, love. Referring to the correctional in reform bodies and in correctional side of the conference, the Governor institutions. There were profes- emphasized the mischief resulting sional workers and volunteers, state from such sentimentality as prompts and city officials, and private citizens. a community to allow criminals to The Governor of New York, the escape just punishment. With President of the National Conference equal emphasis the Governor conof Charities and Correction, the gratulated the societies engaged in President and members of the State charitable work which keep themBoard of Charities, the Secretary selves free from harmful forms of and members of Lunacy Commission, philanthropy, the effect of which is and the Mayor of Albany were in to pauperize and degrade. attendance. And the writer noticed Hon. Bird S. Coler was prevented at least seventy-five well known from attending the conference by representatives of the charities of illness in his family, but he sent a New York city, though the actual brief paper containing suggestive number was doubtless still greater. statistics of the finances of public There were everywhere evidences of charities in New York city, and askthe thorough preparation made for ing for suggestions regarding the

further improvement of the system a protest in behalf of the solidarity of granting subsidies to private of society. It has almost universally charities. On this subject Mr. John sought to

sought to meet the independent M. Glenn of Baltimore made some poor, and hence it has not conpertinent suggestions based on recent sidered it has a direct work for the experiences of the Maryland Legis- pauper class. It seeks to alter conlature. Mr. Glenn also pointed out ditions which seem to be pauperizthe advantages of conferences of ing. this kind, and extended a cordial In conclusion, Mr. Reynolds said: invitation to the national conference “You, as non-residents, come, perin Washington next May.

haps, with a certain freshness of The meeting closed with a few enthusiasm and keenness of obserwitty remarks from Rev. T. A. Hen vation to the consideration of social drick of Rochester, who is one of the problems which we do not possess. vice presidents of the conference We, living in the midst of our and who alluded especially to the quarter, by daily contact, come to scate industrial school of Rochester. appreciate some minute elements The Wednesday morning session

of environment which the occasional

observer could not perceive. We of the conference was devoted to

are led to feel constantly the overthe consideration of the subject: powering influence of environment “The Care and Relief of Needy and the terrible suction downwards. Families in Their Own Homes." In this close contact, day and night, After the report of the committee

summer and winter, we believe that

our work is unique, is immensely upon this subject a paper, “The

needed, and that it has a value of Need

and Value of Settlement its own." Work," was read by Mr. James B.

The discussion of Mr. Reynolds's Reynolds, head worker of the Univer

paper was opened by Mr. J. Graham sity Settlement, New York.

Phelps Stokes, of New York, who Mr. Reynolds said that settlement spoke upon “ The Relation of Settlework is susceptible of three divisions : First, social investigation ; second,

ment Work to the Evils of Poverty.” the provision of various kinds of Mr. Stokes spoke in part as follows: opportunity in the settlement house; “We are often told that poverty and, third, co-operative work with is due to three chief causes, lack of and for the community in which the employment, vice and crime. Unsettlement is located.

doubtedly these are determining The settlement, from the point of causes, but are they, or is any one view of general social conditions of them fundamental? I wish to has become a necessity. In all our emphasize the fact of the existence cities there is a rich quarter and a of an underlying, predisposing cause, poor quarter. From this separation responsible for the vast majority of has arisen misunderstandings, mutual the suffering that is ascribed to povdistrust and mutual suspicion. Such erty, and to point out the approprisentiments are dangerous to progress ateness and importance of settlement and destructive to democracy.

work as an effective remedial agency. The settlement comes as a counter Undeveloped or defective personplay to relieve the dangers of the ality is the prime cause of all povisparation of classes which has de erty. No measures directed to the

ved during this century, and as reduction of the world's poverty

will ever prove successful unless so family should thus be averted. The devised as to reach and develop the experience of the Charity Organizacharacters of those in poverty or on tion Society of the city of New its verge, and of those through

those through York demonstrates, beyond possible whose greed, neglect or ignorance controversy, the fact that there are poverty has come to others.

many such families and that assistAwakening the personality, and ance for them can be provided. its development along lines of intel 3. If children are removed because ligence and honesty and unselfish their parents are morally unfit ness and thrift, is the prime essential guardians for them, this removal to the overcoming of the evils of should be absolute. poverty, and to the lessening of its 4. If children are removed because extent. The fundamental aim of of their own incorrigible conduct the settlement is to help prepare the expense of their maintenance in children and young people for lives a disciplinary institution should be of self-respecting, self-sustaining, use borne by their parents, and the ful, social citizenship, and the success period of their detention should be of its efforts in this direction is as short as is consistent with the chiefly due to the operation of that objects in view when commitment fundamental principle.

is made. A paper, “The Breaking Up of 5. Orphans, abandoned children, Families," was presented by Mr.

when the whereabouts of the parents Edward T. Devine, General Secre

are unknown, and others who for

any exceptional reason may be tary of the Charity Organization

treated without regard to their Society of the city of New York.

parents or other relatives, may be Mr. Devine spoke at length of the cared for by whatever inethod is removal of the aged and sick from best for themselves. their homes to charitable institu

6. Children of destitute parents, tions, and the proper care of such for whom no adequate private assistdependents.

ance is forthcoming, should be cared Referring to the removal of chil for without transfer of legal guardiandren because of destitution, un ship from the parents. governable conduct, and improper The breaking up of the family by guardianship, he spoke, in part, as

the removal of children for insuffifollows:

cient reasons, the accompanying From the maze of complications loss of a sense of responsibility on and difficulties in which the whole the part of the parents, the failure question of the care of dependent to make even reasonable efforts to children is involved a few principles care for offspring, the desertion of emerge:

families in order to secure commit. 1. Children should remain with ment of children, the refusal of near their parents if the latter are of good relatives other than parents to play character and have sufficient income their part in the carrying of burdens for their support.

of this kind, and the easy-going com2. Parents who are of good char- plaisance of public officials in acceptacter, and who with a reasonable ing as public charges those for whom amount of private assistance can other provision should be madesupport their children at home these are serious evils constituting a should, as a rule, receive such assist public menace of increasing rather ance, and the breaking up of the than diminishing intensity. Fortu

nately there are many forces upon in almshouses, 316; idiotic and which we may rely to combat it. feeble-minded, in almshouses, 1,153; An increased sense of responsibility a total of 13,155 in almshouses. on the part of many officials, and Disabled soldiers and sailors numultimately an increased interest in bered 1,911 ; hospital patients, 8,223; the real welfare of children and reformatory inmates (females) 1,868. clearer appreciation of the social The institutions devoted to the value of the family, may be counted defective classes have largely reas allies in the struggle.

moved a former grave cause of comThe afternoon session, Wednes- plaint, and the adult dependents

have now better care, are better day, was devoted to the considera

housed, and receive better treatment tion of “ The Institutional Care of

than at any other time in our history. Destitute Adults." The report of One thing seems to stand out prom. the committee was presented by Mr. inently—it is not so much additional Byron M. Child, Superintendent of legislation that is needed from this State and Alien Poor. Among other time on, as character, intelligence things, the report considered the

and permanence in the administragrowth of philanthropy in this state, tive staffs of our institutions. especially since the organization of Indigence in this country usually the state board made it possible to springs from one of two causesgather the statistics of public and improvidence or overwhelming misprivate charities, and thus gauge fortune. philanthropic effort. It showed an The various homes for destitute increase of annual expenditures for adults draw the larger proportion of all purposes from about $6,000,000 their inmates from the improvident in 1870, to nearly $30,000,000 in class. This is especially true of the 1899. Besides the almshouses and public institutions, for those to whom other public charities having such misfortune comes somewhat late in inmates under care, there are now life may have friends able to find about one hundred and ten institu them places in homes under private tions under private control which control. This saves

the pride, receive destitute adults. There are although it does not lessen the ultialso a number of others under pri mate burden to be borne by the vate management which take charge public, for it is none the less a of certain of the defective classes, requisition on public wealth. others for the reception of discharged The expenditure for maintenance prisoners, while many are devoted of the destitute ought to be kept to the sick. These institutions in within the narrowest limits con1895, cared for 4,786 persons, while sistent with proper care.

Those the public almshouses had 14,758 able to work, but unwilling, and inmates. In 1899, 82,974 persons

others of vicious character who may received relief in almshouses, and seek a home in the almshouse should 6,853 in the other state institutions. be refused admission. The state

The present year opened with the should send those who will not work figures as follows: In homes for aged voluntarily for their own support to and friendless persons there were a penal institution, and therein by 7,392. In almshouses, exclusive of forced labor compel them to conthose classified below, there were tribute toward their own mainte11,251 ; blind, in almshouses, 341; nance, and thus decrease the public deaf, in almshouses, 94; epileptics, burden.

In the administration of institu institution whose inmates are not tions for the care of destitute adults carefully classified. the points essential to success were A classification to be of reliable stated to be, among others :

result must be so defined that the 1. Competent officials. Character understanding and practical appliis of the first importance. No per

cation of it will be universal. son capable of abusing an inmate Another most important considshould be able to secure place in any

eration is in the study of the cause institution.

of dependency. Inteinperance, di2. Good buildings, and attention

rect or indirect, is one of the printo the vital matters of ventilation, cipal causes of dependency; if it be sunlight, and general sanitation.

direct intemperance, the subject is 3. Discipline. The proper man.

probably a temporary dependent, if

indirect, the dependency is probably agement of the daily routine, and suitable employment for inmates.


The separate classification of tem4. Classification has worked many

porary and permanent dependents is changes for the better, and the more

important, because it is required for completely the inmates are classified, statistical purposes, and because as the more the institution is benefited. complete a separation and distinc

5. When voluntary dependency tion as possible should be made in among the able-bodied becomes in

their management and care. The corrigible, it should be deemed a

opportunities for cure, by educaform of radical depravity, capable of tional methods, among the tempotransmission, to prevent which the rary class are comparatively great, aid of the surgeon should be invoked. and any mixing of the two classes Following the report of the com

in one institution can not but be mittee, Dr. J. T. Duryea, superin. porarily and occasionally brought in

harmful to those who are only temtendent of the Kings County Alms

contact with the atmosphere of de. house and of the Kings County pendency. Hospital, read a paper on “Classi A proper classification more nearly fication."

guarantees proper care for the variAmong the points in this paper thing else, and it provides a means

ous classes of dependents than any. we note the following:

of more justly comparing the work Careful classification tends to of the various institutions. bring each individual condition If the almshouses of this state within the observation of those contained only those rightly belonginterested, and the more thoroughly ing to them (the aged and infirm) this is accomplished, the fewer de there would be ample room for all pendents there will be, because of that class for the next twenty-five many adult dependents could be years, and no additional buildings made self-supporting if their con would be required short of that ditions received individual thought time. The feeble-minded should be and direction.

placed in the special institutions Reliable statistics are impossible, already provided for their care. unless one general classification is The Epileptic Colony should care adopted by all institutions. It is for all epileptics, whether promising impossible to judge accurately of cases or not. The workers, or those the financial management of an dependent because of idleness, should

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