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peculiarity of their advances is that The housing problem in the larger they are repayable, capital and in cities has the lack of space to conterest, by monthly payments. It tend with; in the smaller cities this follows that as these societies receive is not generally the case, and yet in a portion of their capital at once, the smaller cities we find the tenethey are able to make advances ments as a rule huddled together in much larger in proportion to the the worst possible position the cities actual value of the mortgage prop afford. This is the case in twenty erty than an ordinary creditor. The out of thirty of the smaller cities of advantages to persons of small means the east which I have visited, or are very great; the workingman from which I have received accurate earning good wages is able to buy accounts from specialists. his own house, and often becomes I find that in the cities of Conthe owner of it at the end of twelve necticut, New Jersey, Maine, Veryears for a sum very little in advance mont, and Delaware, they are genof what he would have had to pay erally located in the old part of in rent.
the city, and are almost always the In the town of Leeds, England, cast-off residences of the rich of during the past twenty years, 1,800 eighty or one hundred years ago, houses have passed through the residences that in their best days did hands of the Leeds Permanent Build not contain proper sanitary arrangeing Society, the average value of ments, and in which those that have each house being $830. The same been added are cheap and inadequate. amount of business has been done in This applies also the cities Newcastle, Birmingham, and Bristol. of New Jersey, and in fact to all
In Philadelphia it is calculated of the smaller cities of the east. that over 60,000 workingmenown The great trouble in connection with their own homes. A few years ago the majority of these tenements is Philadelphia had deposited savings the inadequate sanitary arrangeamounting to $40,000,000. The ments and the overcrowding which rapid development along these lines necessarily follows. In sixteen out shows a decided tendency on the of twenty-five houses which I personpart of the workingman to own his ally investigated in the cities of own home, and whenever the oppor New Jersey and Connecticut, I tunity is given him he is very quick found that the hall bedrooms were to take advantage of it. In the rented to lodgers; and in the smaller cities of the United States two larger rooms, night and day, this system of purchasing homes has were huddled together anywhere taken deep root.
from seven to ten adults and chilIn the city of Elizabeth, N. J., dren of both sexes. Owing to which is a manufacturing centre and the scarcity of tenements and the a city of over 50,000 inhabitants, high prices paid for rent, the boarder many hundreds of workingmen have is a necessity. In nine out of sixteen built their own homes during the I found three beds in the bedrooms, past ten years. This has led to the generally one made up on the floor. gradual extinction of the small tene The tenement generally found in ments. This same can be said of the small cities is built of wood, many of the manufacturing cities of either single or double, twenty-five the United States. The individual or fifty feet wide and thirty feet ownership is a long step in the di- deep, is three stories high with base. rection of moral and physical im ment. In ninety-two out of the provement.
one hundred which I inspected I
found the basement occupied by specifically, because of the unique foreigners, principally Italians and conditions prevailing here. But reguPoles. Dirt and filth of all kinds, lation is involved in three directions with the dampness from the bad —by two state laws and by city de. drainage, made these places intoler. partment regulations; the state able. They were generally occupied factory law; the city charter; and a by two families of not less than ten miscellaneous lot of rules by the persons.
building, health, and police deThat tenements of this description partments formulated under authorcan be built, so as to prevent the ity of the charter. tenants from using the same hall The amended factory law of 1899, and staircase, has been proved in it is found, is violated in various many smaller cities, such as Elizabeth ways—in the issue of licenses for and Plainfield, N. J., by the con- manufacturing to undeserving perstruction of outside halls with stairs, sons; in the immunity of sweatshops This can be done at no great ex which continue business despite the pense, and will give a privacy which refusal of licenses; in disregard of is generally appreciated by the the legal requirements concerning tenants.
cleanliness, light, ventilation, the There are some suggestions which storage of new clothing in rooins can be made in connection with the used for sleeping purposes; and in the building of small houses.
They occupancy of a manufacturing flat should be built with opportunity giv- by more than one family. en to the tenants to become owners This matter comes within the provby means of annual installments; and
ince of factory legislation because of where the conditions permit it, little its effect upon the interests of labor gardens should be added in the in- outside of sweatshops, and because terest of the workingman and his of the direct peril to the entire comfamily. Plans should be arranged munity in the distribution and sale so that the tenants do not meet on of clothing made in an unsanitary the staircases and landings. All environment. At the same time, tenements should be well lighted. certain conditions are prohibited in There should be a proper division sweatshop manufacture for reasons into three rooms always, in order to which apply with equal force to the permit the separation of the sexes. general subject of tenement-house
reform, in which the primary aim is SIMPLIFY THE TENEMENT LAWS.
the welfare of the tenement popu
lation. The exposure of continued sweat The new tenement-house commisshop evils in this city, despite care sion has not yet taken up this sweatfully framed legislation to suppress shop abuse. It has ample power to them, forces upon public attention do so, regardless of the factory law anew the apparently in harmonious as opposed to the tenement law. Its agencies by which it is sought to power of report and recommendasolve the tenement-house problem. tion extends, after certain specifica
The question is one large enough tions, to “all other phases of the and vital enough, it would appear to so-called tenement - house question the observant layman, to be dealt that can effect the public welfare." with in all its phases in a single com Whatever may be the causes of prehensive statute, applicable either dereliction in the enforcement of the to our cities of the first class, New factory law-whether they be politiYork and Buffalo-or to New York cal influence, incapacity, or bribery,
or all of these-it is to be hoped that their power to so noble a bencfacthe commission will probe this sub tion, or at least that they would do ject to the bottom, with a view to nothing to hinder or discourage it. recommending legislation that will Yet, we are now informed that, uncover, in a single comprehensive der the English law, the Jewish Col. statute, every phase of the tenement onization Association, formed to problem, leave less room for the ex carry out Baron de Hirsch's murciful ercise of departmental discretion in enterprise, must give up to the gov. the formulation of rules, and elimi ernment, as a succession duty, no nate the division of responsibility for less than £1,250,000 of the £8.000,enforcement between state and mu 000 with which it was endowed. nicipal officers.- Mail and Express.
Baron de Hirsch died before our
government took up the rôle of MILITARISM AND CHARITY.
philanthropic militarism, or his gifts
might have been cut down in this One of the most extraordinary, country also ;
country also; but hereafter such and from our point of view, deplor- wealthy individuals as think of doable incidents of the resurgence of ing good to mankind on a large militarism, is the diversion of funds scale will be taught by severe devoted to charitable purposes to penalties to be less presumptuous. the expenses of government. When - Evening Post. we went to war with Spain, Congress at once put a tax, amounting in At the monthly meeting of the many cases to fifteen per cent, on
Chamber of Commerce of Cleveland, bequests to philanthropic institutions although several of the states
Ohio, on May 15, the Board of had already imposed taxes of a
Directors submitted a report calling similar nature. The theory of such attention to the desirability of estabtaxation is apparently that the sub lishing some system of supervision jugation of foreign peoples by war
of the solicitation of money for is philanthropy on the grandest scale, and that private benefactions
charitable and benevolent objects. must be diminished in order to
They have instituted some inquiries further this magnificent purpose.
as to methods of solicitation now in No past experience justifies this
vogue; and they conclude that a theory, nor does anything now taking place in the world support it.
system of regulating the solicitation Not long since the civilized world
of funds would be most effective if was horrified at the expulsion of the
conducted under the auspices of an Jews by the Russian government organization not primarily engaged That government professed to be in benevolent work. They quote a actuated by enlightened benevo
letter from Mr. W. J. Akers, in lence, but its course was generally regarded as barbarous. The
which he says: “There should be late Baron de Hirsch, at all events,
a committee of the chamber on was universally applauded when he charities and benevolent organizadevoted his great fortune to the tions. Worthy charities should be alleviation of the misery caused by presented with a certificate, so that the expatriation of the Russian Jews. It might have been supposed
when they solicit subscriptions that enlightened communities would they can
show their certificate. have hastened to lend all the aid in Business men' have not the knowl.
edge or the time to look up the of which every care should be exworthiness of the solicitors or their pended, the advice and counsel charity. Merchants would soon sought which shall be best calculated learn to ask for these certificates; to assure in every instance the highthis would strengthen the worthy est results it may be possible to obcharities and shut off many of the tain. ... The chief value of wealth needless and unworthy ones. My consists in the opportunities it preexperience as the director of chari
sents to make others contented, to ties and long association with the expend it freely in an endeavor to Beth El Associated Charities, have equalize the accidental differences in convinced me that much good can human life." be done if the chamber will take After the exercises Mr. and Mrs. this matter up and carry it through." Schiff were presented by Mr. MenThe board asks authority of the ken, in behalf of the board of dichamber to appoint a special com rectors, with a loving cup. mittee on charity and benevolent associations to devise and carry out
It is an especially interesting replans to provide some means of
port that the l'nion Relief Associacertifying institutions and insuring
tion, of Springfield, Mass., sends out the public that the money they give
for the year 1900. There are the usual will be wisely used,
statistics for the information of
members of the association and of The new building of the Young others who are concerned; but there Men's llebrew Association, the gift is, furthermore, a particularly sug. of Mr. Jacob 11. Schiff, was dedicated gestive account of the sort of work and opened to public inspection the association has been doing, and Wednesday, May 30. Dr. Leipzeiger accounts of some illustrative cases. and Mr. J. J. McCook delivered ad We note its work, somewhat out of des, then Mr. Aucrbach intro the usual line, of aiding people who luced Mr. Schill to the audience, have a certain amount of property, but When he arose he was greeted with who can not use it to good advantage, a miglily clicer, and the entire audi because of lack of means. An inChcetose in one body: From Mr. stance is given of a second mortgage Schill's remarks we quote the follow made to enable a woman to put in ing: "In by no means so narrow bathrooms in her two tenement as to believe, because a man expends houses which would not rent as part of his means for public or phil they were.
ther were. As soon as the modern Anthiopia papours, that he oliesra improvements were put in, the tene. sponsibility to no one but himself ments were rented, and she now pays On the contrary, I am impressed her interest and other expenses, and that the ability to be of advantage has S a week to live on herself.
(mmunity onsitutes a Anasher instance is of a woman who sad plese on the exercise was is and had but a short time to
live. She had a grown-up daughter Mr. Howland thinks the condition and a young son in school. The following upon the hurricane has father had recently died and left no been most sad in that the action of money with which to pay interest on the government, though only praisea house he had bought—no money worthy, was taken by the people to even for food. A second mortgage mean that when nature refused to was given; the mother was made feed them generously the governcomfortable while she lived, and at ment would supply the deficiency. her death the estate was settled, the The millions of pounds of food that house brought a good price, and the were distributed from public and children had a few hundred dollars private sources were to the native a to live on until the daughter could sort of iinmense overhanging tree, fit herself to become a trained nurse, from which he could pluck, not and the boy could find a place to bananas, but codfish and beans and support himself.
nutritious than bananas. The whole social condi
tion of the island has been hurt, and Mr. E. C. Howland contributes to the Mail and Express of May 14 and
only a merciful sternness which de23, two articles on charitable methods
mands a quid pro quo of labor for and results in Porto Rico. He com
reward can overcome the condition. mends most highly the work of the Woman's Aid Society, a movement
AN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY PHILANTHROPIST. originated by Mrs. Guy V. Henry.
A kind and gentle heart he had, The society begun its work by pro
To comfort friends and foes; viding garments for twenty desti
The naked every day he clad tute persons released from quarantine
When he put on his clothes. after an epidemic of smallpox. A
-Oliver GOLDSMITH (1728-1771). dispensary was then opened; and since the work of the society has
Classified Advertisements. grown rapidly. It has been particu
Advertisements under this head, two lines or more larly successful in aiding the women without display. 5 cents a line. of the island to work for themselves,
HE CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY giving them garments to be made, TH
appeals for $50 towards a fund to be used in the
support of a widow go years old. She is a woman redeeming their sewing machines incapacitated from earning her living and is
wholly dependent upon her friends. The small amount when in pawn, and helping them in asked for will supplement what comes from another
source and provide for the rest of her days. all possible ways to help themselves. The society renews ils appeal for the following A complete system of relief was For a pension of $6.00 a month to supplement the
little that a couple, both over 70 years old, can earn instituted after the hurricane of towards their support. They have no children and no
relatives able to help them, but they are respectable August, 1899, and provisions and people, and the inan has until recently earned good
wages. The wife is crippled by rheumatism: clothing distributed all through the
For $175.00 to keep a consumptive man in the country
place where he has been boarding for a year, and has island. Of all the money loaned by
improved somewhat. His wife is having a hard strug
gle to support herself and i wo children in the city, but the society to poor women not a
she has succeeded in doing so.
Contributions for any of the above cases sent to the
Charity Organization Society, 105 East 22d Street, will penny has been lost.
be duly and publicly acknowledged.