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Chapter vi. takes up the Annexes, the west one containing the Bath which Mr. Curle describes in a fashion entertaining to the most general reader. The Newstead Bath was unique in being surrounded by a rampart apparently for defense, a testimony to the perils besetting continually this advanced outpost. Chapters viI.-XVI. tell of the contents of the numerous pits or wells, about 130 altogether, filled with rubbish and articles hurriedly hidden, almost all of them in the Annexes. In these a black mould seems to have acted as a preservative to leather and basketwork and the glaze of fine pottery, and the brass retains its golden hue. Skulls and shoes prove the presence of women and children in the Annexes. The finds of armor are second only to those of Carnuntum in number, rarity, and importance.

On page 169 there is an interesting detail study in the evolution of dress. The discussion of the beautiful visor-helmets and their use is lucid and convincing. But perhaps the most remarkable part of the work is the study of the pottery. Some exquisite specimens of terra sigillata are shown in their color. Glass was used for the windows and vessels of the fortress. In brief space it is difficult to convey an impression of the whole rich find and of Mr. Curle's lucid and modest exposition. Chapter XVII. sums up cautiously the probable history of “ Trimontium ".

Not only the learned author, but the publishers and the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland under whose auspices the excavations have been carried to success, are to be congratulated on this massive and unrivalled book. Perhaps to the 1300 plans and plates might have been added a good map of Roman Britain for ready reference to places like Ardoch and Inchtuthill by the general student of classical history, who no less than the specialist in British antiquities may be attracted by such a work. The index is good.



Annals of the Reigns of Malcolm and I’illiam, Kings of Scotland,

A.D. 1153-1214. Collected, with notes and an index, by Sir ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL LAWRIE, LL.D. (Glasgow: James MacLehose and Sons. 1910. Pp. xxxvi, 459.)

So meagre is the material for Scottish history before 1286 that it would seem almost hopeless to provide anything like Jahrbücher for that period. Still Lord Hailes did something of the sort, and quite recently Mr. Anderson has dealt with the period from 500 to 1286. Now Sir Archibald Lawrie, whose Early Scottish Charters the Review noticed not long ago, offers a series of extracts covering sixty-odd years and two reigns only. The work has been patiently and carefully done, but the result, in proportion to the labor and pains that have gone to produce it, must be regarded as rather disappointing. The only contemporary chronicles available are those of Melrose and Holyrood, meagre enough in themselves and only very cautiously to be extended from Fordun and Wyntoun. In these circumstances the greater part of the material has to be derived from English writers, chiefly Hoveden, the Gesta Henrici Secundi, William of Newburgh and Jordan Fantosme. These are of course first-rate authorities, and the fact that they are now all available in excellent editions is no disparagement to Sir Archibald Lawrie's work. The difficulty lies in the fact that to illustrate Scottish history chiefly from English writers is, to a certain extent, to falsify or distort that history.

The development of the Scottish nation was accomplished, as in the other countries of Western Europe, by the formation of a royal government. But there were certain differentiae in the growth of Scottish royalty which if they hampered and even offered to check that growth were in themselves particularly interesting. Among these were the geographical and racial division between the highlands and lowlands and the corresponding difference in social structure, appearing in relatively unrestrained feudalism among the Normanized Teutonic population of the lowlands and the strong tribal survivals among the Keltic people of the northwest. This situation was further complicated by the presence of a Scandinavian element on the western coast. Clearly the strength of the crown lay in the southeast, and, it will be remembered, there was still good hope of a considerable extension of the kingdom southward. But here, although the border was not definitely settled, there was the vigorous and rapidly developing Angevin mənarchy to be reckoned with. Finally, the Scottish crown could and did rely upon the Church.

Now of all these matters only the relations of Scotland to England and of the Scottish Church to the northern province of England and to the papacy, can receive anything like adequate illustration from English writers. For these reasons the present work, interesting and valuable as it is, must be regarded as disappointing and in a sense misleading

This criticism is, however, no disparagement of the work of the painstaking scholar who has made the compilation. Indeed Sir Archibald Lawrie has quite clearly recognized and expressed the disadvantages under which he labored.

One is glad to have the document (no. LII.) relating to persons accused of theft made easily available for comparison with the assizes of Clarendon and Northampton, from which it shows an interesting variation. If, besides the accusation by the reeve and three lawful men of the vill, the testimony trium hominum seniorum can be had, the accused person is to be hanged without further to do. One wonders whether there is not perhaps some tribal influence to be discerned here?

Some points suggest themselves for criticism. One is surprised to find that on the vexed question of the Scottish homages Sir Archibald refers only to Palgrave and Miss Norgate. Dr. Wyckoff's Chicago dissertation may well be unknown in Scotland, but it seems impossible that Sir James Ramsay's full and temperate treatment of the subject should be. The citations from Stubbs to illustrate the problem of scutage (p. 42) are unfortunate, and in view of the following quotation from McKechnie, superfluous; reference to Round, Maitland, and Baldwin would have been more to the point. In his use of proper names Sir Archibald shows an irritating disregard alike of ordinary usage and self-consistency—thus he uses Roncaille and Roncaglia, Gaufrid and Geoffrey, Waldeve and Waltheof indifferently, and surely it is rather late in the day to be writing of Benedictus Abbas and Matthew of Westminster. Misprints, not of a very serious character, occur on Pp. 16, 32, 33, 95, 109, 138, 302; on p. 21, line 18, nostri protectionis should probably be nostra protectione; on p. 232, line 20, an eo seems to be wanted, and on p. 249, for Julius, read Lucius.

There is a copious index and the book is well printed on light paper that makes it pleasant to hold.


Types of Manorial Structure in the Vorthern Danelaw.

By F. M. STENTON. Customary Rents. By N. Neilson. [Oxford Studies in Social and Legal History, edited by Professor PAUL VINOGRADOFF, volume II.] (Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1910. Pp. iv, 96; 219.)

The two papers included in this second volume of the scholarly series edited by Professor Vinogradoff refer to a period that lies midway between the two essays in the earlier volume. One of those papers concerned itself with the later Roman Empire, the other with the eve of the Reformation. These belong in the Middle Ages proper. They are on closely allied topics. Although one purports to be a description of certain types of rural organization in northern England, the other an explanation of various customary rents paid by tenants, they reduce themselves alike to studies in the terminology used in the records of medieval manors.

Such studies are very laborious to the writer, but most useful to other students. They require minute and prolonged investigation, skill in analysis and comparison, and a sustained enthusiasm to carry through what must at best be a meagrely rewarded task. And yet such accurate studies lie at the basis of all subsequent constructive work, if the work is to be solidly founded. It was the great distinction of the late Professor Maitland that he performed both functions with equal effectiveness. It can hardly be considered derogatory to Mr. Stenton to say that he does not show a skill in presentation or a power of imagination that gives his work great constructive value, and that it must be estimated on the basis of its contribution to our knowledge of detailed facts.

The “ Danelaw” to which he refers is the six modern counties of York, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Leicester, and Rutland. In this region the author makes a careful study of the meaning and connotations of the terms, " berewick" and "soke ”, as used in Domesday and


other early documents, and finds marked differences from the social conditions characteristic of other parts of England. The classes of men and their duties, as described in the Rectitudines, for instance, which probably refers to southern England, bear no real or close correspondence to what is found in the Danelaw. The second part of Mr. Stenton's essay is devoted more particularly to the meaning of the word “manor" itself as used in his district, or in varying senses in different parts of his district, and there is much of suggestive interest in his analysis, though it can hardly be even summarized here. In their bearing on the greater problems of early English history, Mr. Stenton's researches seem, to the reviewer at least, clearly to look toward the greater rather than the less freedom of the peasantry in earlier times; and to minimize the influence of the Norman conquest, except as it hastened and somewhat modified changes already in progress.

No living student probably is better fitted to compile a glossary of manorial terms such as forms the second paper in this volume than Miss Neilson. Her former studies of the manors of Ramsey Abbey, and others, were marked by insight and power of comparison, as well as tireless industry, and this enumeration of various kinds of customary "rents " paid by medieval manorial tenants shows the same qualities, and is drawn from an astonishingly large group of sources, printed and manuscript. The word "rents" as applied to these varied payments, however convenient, seems to us unwise The modern suggestion of that word is entirely different, laying stress rather on simplicity than on diversity of payment; nor as a medieval term has it that recognized technical meaning. The almost infinite variety of manorial payments cannot, as this essay proves, be simplified by applying a single name to them. Apart from this general name, however, we have in this list the first extended, inclusive, and authoritative classification and definition of these terms, and it will be of the greatest service in manorial study. Some six or seven hundred such terms are defined, or at least discussed. Many of these innumerable forms of "silver”, “penny", "gavel ”, “ Scot”, “ bote ”, and “geld ” are doubtless the same payments under different names, but even with this deduction their number and variety are striking. Miss Neilson, in addition to defining them as far as possible as they are used in contemporary documents, has introduced some degree of simplicity into the mass by classifying them according to their origin, as payments made primarily to the landlord, to the king and the Church, and subordinately to this, according as they arose from the agricultural duties, the servile status, the duties of purveyance, church responsibility, piety, contract, or other source. As a result there are few aspects of the life of a medieval peasant that do not come under review as a result of this enumeration.



The Frankfort Book Fair: the Francofordiense Emporium of Henri

Estienne. Edited, with historical introduction, original Latin text with English translation on opposite pages, and notes, by JAMES WESTFALL THOMPSON. (Chicago: The Caxton Club. 1911. Pp. xviii, 204.)

A SUMPTUOUS book this and a handsome, with its handmade paper, its bold humanistic type, its wealth of illustration from the masterpieces of sixteenth-century engraving. Nor could the Caxton Club of Chicago well have hit on a theme more seductive to book-lovers than the story of the great fair which for almost two centuries was the central book-mart of Christendom.

The booklet which forms a text for the volume has, indeed, as its editor frankly recognizes, no very serious historical worth. The great Genevan publisher's tribute to the capital of publishing is of the genus Laudatio, and belongs to the history of literature more than to the literature of history. What it really tells about the Frankfort fair could be put into a page. It was waste of labor to run down in the cyclopedias all its rhetorical allusions. The real account of the fairfilling, and deservedly, two-thirds of the volume-is the historical introduction of Professor Thompson. Beginning with the very invention of printing, this traces the whole course of the German book-trade and of Frankfort's part in it from its rise in the fifteenth century to the transfer of headship from Frankfort to Leipzig in the late seventeenth. It is almost precisely the period covered by the two published volumes of the great official history of the German book-trade; and it is on the solid basis of these researches of Kapp and Goldfriedrich that Dr. Thompson's study mainly rests. But his industry has laid under tribute a multitude of other sources, and to excellent purpose.

With all his industry, his work, alas, shows many marks of haste. Misprints are not few, and especially in proper names. Repetitions abound, and the repetition is not always faithful. Thus, on page 29, we are told, in two successive sentences, that the fairs of Leipzig and Augsburg had catalogues by 1580 and that the one had its first catalogue in 1595, the other in 1598. A few slips are more serious. Reuchlin was of course not the author of the Epistolae Obscurorum Virorum, nor Duke George of Saxony an elector. Frankfort's woman publisher, the widow of Jonas Rosa, would hardly recognize herself as * Rosa, widow of Jona”. George Willer is made the author, now of “the first catalogue of books for sale at a fair", now of "the first trade list of books appearing at all the fairs ”; and both are ascribed to 1564. What Willer published in 1564 was a catalogue of his own stock, old as well as new; and the “ first catalogue of all the fairs ”-i. e., of all the Frankfort fairs from 1564 to 1592—was the work of Nicolaus Basse (or Bassaeus—Professor Thompson writes “Baseus "), though compiled from Willer's lists. That Christian Wechel was condemned by the Sorbonne and driven from Paris is no longer believed; it was only his


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