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may meet with sudden and deep humiliation, if national preparation for defence is neglected, and the spirit of self-sacrifice for the national good subordinated to the desire for individual comfort, individual ease, and so-called individual freedom. The evil effect of pure individualism is, we may gladly admit, more and more fully recognized by Anglo-Saxon democracies as regards the internal life of a nation, but it is still obstinately ignored as regards its external relations, especially and above all as regards the duty of that personal military service, upon the performance of which the continuance of the existence of the nation may depend.


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ADDENDUM The articles concluded above, by a British military officer of high rank, having been confined to the consideration of books printed, either originally or as translations, in the English language, effort has been made to supplement them by such information as American readers are likely to desire, concerning the most important of those books which at present exist only in Japanese and Russian.

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By the kindness of Lieutenant-Colonel Kazutsugu Inouye, I. J. A., and of Commander Tokutaro Hiraga, I. J. X., Military and Naval Attachés respectively to the Imperial Japanese Embassy in Washington, the managing editor is able to add the following notes respecting the Japanese publications upon the great war.

1. It was the custom of the imperial government, for the information of the general public, to publish after each battle or important military operation an official report which, while naturally not disclosing data regarded as confidential, could be relied upon to be correct so far as it went. These reports were presently made up into four thin volumes, printed in Japanese, under a title which may be translated Collection of Official Reports on the Russo-Japanese War, and published in Tokyo by Shinbashido-Shoten.

2. The reports from the front by correspondents who were allowed to accompany the Japanese armies were subjected to an inspection which, while it resulted in the withholding of certain information, at any rate gave guarantees against amateurish errors. A series of these, in twenty-four small volumes, under a title which may be translated Stories of the Russo-Japanese War, has been published in Tokyo by Hakubunkan, and is perhaps the best of the unofficial or publishers' histories of the war.

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3. The General Staff of the Japanese army has in preparation a work much more important than these, called The History of the Russo-Japanese War (Army), which will be chiefly documentary in character, will extend to about fourteen volumes, and will probably begin to appear at some time in 1911.

4. Meanwhile publication of The Naval History of the RussoJapanese War, prepared by the Naval General Staff, has already begun by the issue in 1909 of three octavo volumes of narrative text (Tokyo, Shunyodo), embracing many illustrations and excellent maps. This work, which is now being translated into English, will be completed by the addition of four more volumes consisting chiefly of documents. As no

As no war correspondents were allowed upon the Japanese ships, this official history of course stands alone.

5. Without knowledge of Japanese, students and readers may derive great enjoyment from inspection of The Russo-Japanese War: taken by the Photographic Department of the Imperial Headquarters (Tokyo, K. Ogawa, or the agents Kelly and Walsh, 1904), published in about twenty quarto parts, each containing about twenty-eight large and fine photographs of war scenes and operations.

II. A similar statement respecting untranslated Russian works upon the military history of the war having been requested of Colonel Baron de Bode, I. R. A., Military Attaché to the Imperial Russian Embassy in Washington, he has been so kind as to provide, after consultation with authorities on this subject in St. Petersburg, the following notes upon such works-notes supplementary to the article printed above.

1. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, written by the special War History Board of the General Staff. (St. Petersburg, 1910.)

This work is strictly official and documentary. It embraces the whole land campaign and contains the description of military operations, of the organization of the bases, and of all the logistical and administrative measures taken during the different periods of the

The work gives only facts without criticisms. It consists of nine “volumes ”, published in fifteen parts. The work is very voluminous, some of the parts having as many as 800 pages, with more than 2400 words on each page. The appendix contains more than five hundred maps, plans, etc.

2. History of the Russo-Japanese War of 1901–1905, written at the request of the Board of Directors of the Society of Students of Military Science by A. N. Vinogradsky.

The first volume of this work was honored with a prize by the


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Scientific Board of the Imperial Nicolas War Academy of St. Petersburg (War College). The whole work will consist of four volumes of about 1000 pages each (more than 2000 words on each page) and about 100 maps and plans printed in several colors. The history is strictly based on facts. Much place is given to the operations of the Japanese. The military operations of both sides are combined together and worked out in one common narrative. The different events are discussed from a critical point of view. The author has had access to all the inedited archives of the society mentioned. Volumes I. and II. have already appeared, in 1908 and 1910 respectively. Volume III. will appear shortly, and volume IV. in the autumn, which will give a full description of the war. The work deals mostly with military operations on land; the naval operations, administration, and logistics are only approached. The siege of Port Arthur will appear, if circumstances favor, in the form of a fifth volume.

3. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, written by A. Svetchin. (St. Petersburg, 1910.) This volume, based on official data of the work of the War History Board and other sources, is a private publication which in 400 pages gives a concise history of the whole campaign, together with a criticism of the different events.

4. The Russo-Japanese War. Lectures on the subject in the Nicolas Academy of the General Staff (War College). (St. Petersburg, 1906–1907.) Collection of narratives of the principal events of the war.

All four of the works named above comprise the history of the whole war.

The following works deal with particular periods and reflect the subjective impressions of their authors.

5. Galkine, The Four Days' Battle of the Second Manchurian Army at Heigoutai-Sandepou. (St. Petersburg, Berezovsky, 1910; about 350 pages.) This is a very valuable work and written in a very thorough manner. The book is accompanied by many maps and plans.

6. A. von Schwarz and G. Romanovsky, The Defense of Port Arthur. (St. Petersburg, 1908, two volumes.) The work is fundamental; it is well published.

7. Narrative of the Military Operations of the Armies of Manchuria around loukden from February 4/17 to March 4/17, 1905. (Moskow, 1907, four large volumes.) Based on official sources and original documents, and written, by order of the late Commander-inChief, Aide-de-Camp General Kouropatkin, by the Quartermaster Department of the Headquarters Staff.

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8. M. Groolev, At Headquarters and on the Fields of the Far East. (Two volumes.)

9. K. Droujinin, Reminiscences of an Officer who took part in the Ilar.

10. Id., The Operations and Combat of Bensichoo.

II. L. N. Sobolev, The Strategy of General Kouropatkin (Sha-ho and Voukden).

12. E. I. Martinoff, The Combat at Liandiansian and the Battle of the Sha-ho.

13. Id., Reminiscences of a Regimental Commander.

All these last books are evidently more or less subjective, though in parts they are based on documents. Nevertheless they help to illuminate events.

14. Annals of the Russo-Japanese War. Edited by Colonel Doubensky in the form of a weekly magazine with excellent illustrations, published in handsome form.

15. The work of the Naval General Staff giving a full description of the naval operations of the war will appear not before this autumn or rather the spring of 1912. The work is to be very thorough and exhaustive.



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The secretaryship of the Interior established in 1849' is the last of the principal administrative offices which went back for its inception to the notable decade of 1780–1790—the epoch during which the Constitution was drawn up and ratified. The particular circumstance which forced the need of its establishment on Congress was the enormous burden of work that rested on the shoulders of the Secretary of the Treasury, a burden partly due to the war with Mexico which involved such resulting acquisitions of territory by the United States as New Mexico and California. Then too the Oregon country, added in 1846 by treaty, brought additional administrative burdens.

Although the ideal which the statute of 1849 made effective was considerably older, the statute itself was the indirect result of suggestions on the part of presidents, statesmen, and others familiar with administrative needs, which had been expressed from time to time since the days of Madison's presidency.



I. When Pelatiah Webster printed his remarkable pamphlet in 1783 entitled A Dissertation on the Political Union and Constitution of the Thirteen United States of North-America, he then proposed in his scheme of government that there should be a "Secretary of State”, an official who, as he phrased his thought,“ takes knowledge of the general policy and internal government. . .. I mention a Secretary of State", he added, “because all other nations have one . the multiplicity of affairs which naturally fall into his office will grow so fast, that I imagine we shall soon be under necessity of appointing one."2 Four years later, in his project of a Council of State presented to the Philadelphia Convention, Gouverneur Morris arranged for a secretary of domestic affairs whose business it should be to "attend to matters of general policy, the state of agriculture and manufactures, the opening of roads and navigations and the


19 Statutes at Large, 395 ff., March 3, 1849.

? Essays (Philadelphia, 1791), pp. 213-214. First printed at Philadelphia and published February 16, 1783.

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