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been corruptly accumulated rests entirely upon unproved assumptions and defamatory allegations. It is such weaknesses as these that invalidate the book and render it unsound as history.
EMERSON David FITE.
The Indian and his Problem. By. Francis E. Leupp. (New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1910, pp. xiv, 369.) Mr. Leupp has produced an interesting study of the Indian and a trustworthy exposition of his problem. For the serious student the first half of the book is of value and much more important than the second, which is general in character.
The keynote to the book and to the problem of to-day is how to make of the Indian a self-supporting, honest citizen, able to stand on his own feet. Indians are no longer treated en masse but individually. The Dawes Severalty Law (1887) and the Burke Act (1906) illustrate the difference between the old idea and the new. According to the former an Indian, on taking up land, received a patent-in-trust and became a citizen, while under the latter provision citizenship is postponed until the patent-in-fee is issued, and that is not done until the Secretary of the Interior has reason to believe that the applicant is qualified for the new duties and will make good use of his land.
The educational policy has also undergone some changes. As against the idea of taking the Indian child from the reservation, implanting within him a hatred for things Indian, teaching him a white man's occupation or profession and finally losing him among the white people, the present policy believes in keeping him on the reservation and training him in some occupation which he can use in making a living.
Friends of the Indian appreciate the good that Mr. Leupp has done; but they must differ with him on many points. One meets “my programme ” and “my plan " so often that the impression is left that Mr. Leupp is the originator of the ideas which he put in practice. Some of them were advocated by other men before he came into office, especially the school policy. In one place he says that government schools accomplish far less than mission schools, "as proportioned to outlay". One would like to know what standard and what mission schools he has in mind. This serious and sweeping charge is supported not by facts but by mere opinions which are far from convincing. When he comes to the question of Indian treaties he takes a view which is, to say the least, interesting. Mr. Leupp denies that treaties were ever broken and goes on to explain “ that most of the sins of the Government in this respect went to no greater depth than its omission to volunteer to the Indians suggestions which it would never have thought of volunteering in a similar transaction with people of any other race". His attitude seems to be that the object to be kept in view is the good of the Indian and the keeping of a promise is of minor importance.
F. A. GOLDER.
My Friend the Indian. By James McLaughlin, United States Indian Inspector. (Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910, pp. xiii, 417.) In this book Mr. McLaughlin, Indian agent and inspector since 1871, gives the inside workings of an agency, portrays Indian character, and throws light on the Indian policy of the past and present. Sitting Bull, Chief Gall, Crazy Horse, Chief Joseph, and other well-known red men Mr. McLaughlin has met and talked with and he is therefore unusually well qualified to present the Indian's side of the case. It is for this reason that his chapters on Custer's Last Fight and other Indian campaigns are of importance.
The other great value of the book lies in that it gives the agent's point of view of the Indian question; for the author does not always see or appreciate the other side. His mind unconsciously refuses to admit that anyone not officially connected with the service knows or has a right to speak of the Indian. Having no conception of the scientists' methods of investigation he ridicules these men by referring to them as “the learned gentlemen who have provided the Indian with a system of theology and rich mythology” which he did not have before. The historian is slurred at in a somewhat similar way.
His enthusiasm and confidence lead him to make sweeping statements difficult to explain and still harder to prove. “I believe the Indian was a man before outrage and oppression made him a savage.” Virtues which apply to one or two tribes are stretched to cover all Indians: the Indians “hold nothing more sacred than the purity of a maiden”. The Indian's virtues are judged by the white man's standard, his vices by the Indian's, which is almost the same as saying that he has no vices. The book is an important one but its conclusions must be compared with other studies and other opinions before they can be accepted.
F. A. GOLDER.
Autos de Fe de la Inquisicion de México con Extractos de sus Causas, 1646-1648. [Documentos Inéditos ó muy Raros para la Historia de México, publicados por Genaro García. Tomo XXVIII.) (Mexico,
. Bouret, 1910, pp. 275.) The present is the twenty-eighth volume of a very useful series of Documents relating to the History of Mexico. Like its predecessors it is well printed, contains facsimiles of the titlepages of the rare early books whence its material is derived, and has the merit to the student of being inexpensive. It records in all about one hundred cases finally dealt with by the Inquisition of Mexico during the years 1646-1648. Of these, thirteen were offenses against the Church or morality-exercising priestly functions without having taken orders, etc. One culprit, Alejo de Castro, was a follower of the sect of the “accursed Mahomet", and another—a free mulatto woman-had " made a pact with the Devil”.
The overwhelming majority of cases—eighty-four in number—were
those of Jews, variously called new Christians, Judaizers, observers of the laws of Moses. This comparatively large number of Jews gives the key to the activities of the Inquisition not only in Mexico but in the other states of the American continent in which the “ Holy Office" flourished.
A body of material is gradually being made available for the history of the Inquisition in Mexico and light is being shed on the considerable part played by the Jewish exiles from Spain and Portugal in the development of Spanish America. Some of the accused Jews were even the children of these exiles and were natives of Peru and other American countries. The intimate relation between Mexico and the Philippines at an early period is apparent from the evidence given in these trials.
Landmarks of British History. By Lucy Dale. (London and New York, Longmans, Green, and Company, 1910, pp. x, 256.) The story of the development of the British Empire could hardly be better set forth for young readers. Few books so consistently compel the reader to understand the facts of history; fewer still give such a unifying impression of connected and inevitable progress. With rare commonsense, changes in British history are traced to fundamental forces, the pressure of common human needs and desires, the clash of strong personalities, the drive of human aspirations. Throughout, economic forces, expressed in non-technical terms—the division of labor, the shifting of industries with the discovery of new producing areas and new markets, the improvement in standards of living—are made the key to political and social progress.
The style is easy, familiar, natural. It is marked by felicities of expression and happy generalizations, provocative of thought. “The Tudors had a gift for knowing when to stop.” “The Puritan soldiers were a particularly tiresome kind.” “ It is no use making laws when the facts are against you.” Nelson's plan of aggressive defense was " like locking up the burglar instead of locking up your house". Such expressions are mordant. They illuminate history.
Errors of fact are rare. It was not Saint Augustine who preached to Ethelbert (p. 23). Cadiz harbor was not “ destroyed” by Elizabeth's fleet (p. 134). Richard III. “ seems to have spent nearly the whole of his two years' reign in murdering people” (p. 112) sounds like Dickens.
The chief fault of the book is its lack of emphasis. “ Landmarks": should stand out in the landscape, and the great crises in British political history, such as Magna Charta and the Revolution of 1688, should receive fuller treatment. The total effect would be less hazy if there were paragraph-headings, or at least subdivisions within the chapters, and succinct summaries. Still more unfortunate is the lack of an index.
Albert PERRY WALKER.
NOTES AND NEWS
AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION
The annual meeting of the American Historical Association for 1910 will be held in Indianapolis, December 28–31. The headquarters will be at the Claypool Hotel, and nearly all the sessions will be held there or in the immediate vicinity. Successive periods on the morning of Wednesday, December 28, have been set apart for meetings of committees and of the Council; the presidential address by Professor Frederick J. Turner of Harvard University will be delivered on the evening of the same day. In recognition of the semi-centennial of Secession, two sessions will be devoted to the United States in 1860, one group of papers dealing with the South and one with the North. There will also be one or two general sessions on European history. The conferences of workers in special fields which have been a prominent feature of the programme in recent years will be continued with some changes. The conferences of archivists and of state historical societies, and those on ancient, medieval, and modern European history, respectively, will be held as last year. Two additional conferences have been planned, one on diplomatic history and South American relations, and one for teachers of history in teachers' colleges and normal schools. Arrangements have also been made for the meeting in Indianapolis during the same week of three important sectional societies, the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, the Ohio Valley Historical Society, and the North Central History Teachers' Association.
The Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association will hold its next meeting on November 18 and 19, at the University of California,
The illness and death of Professor Garrison have delayed the printing of volume II. of the Annual Report for 1908 (Texan Diplomatic Correspondence, II.), but it may be expected in the winter, volume I. having been distributed in September. The Annual Report for 1909, one volume, is ready for the printer.
The International Congress of Archivists and Librarians, in the organization of which the American Historical Association participated through its Public Archives Commission, was held in Brussels, August 29–31. The Association was represented in the section of archivists by four delegates: Messrs. Gaillard Hunt, A. J. Van Laer, Dunbar Rowland, and W. G. Leland, Mr. Hunt being also the official delegate of the United States government. Papers were read by Mr. Hunt on the principles which should govern the transfer of records from govern
mental departments to the archive depot, having especial reference to the transfer of such material to the Division of Manuscripts in the Library of Congress; and by Mr. Leland on the work of the Public Archives Commission of the American Historical Association Papers were also presented by Mr. Henry E. Woods, Public Record Commissioner of Massachusetts, on the measures taken in that state to ensure the preservation of local records, and by Mr. Dunbar Rowland, on the centralization of national archives. A full report of the congress, with especial reference to the points brought out in the discussion that are of interest to American archivists, will be presented by Mr. Van Laer at the Conference of Archivists to be held in December in connection with the annual meeting of the Association.
In the series Original Narratives of Early American History the volume of Narratives of Early Varyland, edited by Mr. Clayton C. Hall, is published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons early in October.
Professor Goldwin Smith died at Toronto on June 7, at the age of eighty-six, having retained to the last, almost unimpaired, the extraordinary vigor of mind and the literary gifts which had so long made him a figure of commanding influence in both Canada and the United States. Born in 1823, and educated at Oxford, he was regius professor of modern history at that University from 1858 to 1866. Resigning on account of his father's condition of health, he came to the United States in 1868 and taught for two or three years at Cornell University, with which he long maintained a connection. Living in Toronto from 1871 to the end of his life, he wrote extensively on historical and political themes, always expressing himself with perfect independence, with great incisiveness, and in a style seldom surpassed in clearness and force. His chief historical works were, Three English Statesmen (1867), A Brief History of the United States (1893), The United Kingdom (1899), and Irish History and the Irish Question (1905). But so wide was his range, so varied and keen his intellectual interests, so clear and forcible the workings of his mind, that he will have a high place in the records of this generation not solely as an historian but as an essayist, a publicist, and a university reformer. He was president of the American Historical Association in 1904-1905.
Léopold Delisle, general administrator of the Bibliothèque Nationale from 1874 to 1905, died at Chantilly July 22, aged eighty-three. He had been connected with that library for more than fifty years, and had been since 1857 a member of the Academy of Inscription and Belles Lettres. Unsurpassed as a student of manuscripts, he contributed to historical and philological science several hundred articles and several books, mostly bearing on the medieval history of France, the books being chiefly documentary volumes or catalogues of manuscripts.