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ish Part, and a Letter written by the Agent to the President of Santo Domingo inviting him to deliver it up directly. The Motive assign'd in both these Instruments for demanding Possession is, that Negroes are still carried from the french Part of the Island and sold in the Spanish. Adjutant General Agé, Chief of General Toussaint's Etat major, is appointed to proceed without Delay from Jacmel to take possession with a Body of white Troops. Chanlatte is continued in Power until further Orders. The greatest Respect is directed to be paid to the Religion of the Spaniards, and to their Manners and Customs. The Negroes are not to be suffer'd to quit the Plantations, and the Persons and Property of the Inhabitants are to be rigidly respected. In fine no Change is to be made in the Laws or Usages of the Country, until a peace takes Place.

It is uncertain whether the President" will Give up the Possession; or, if he does, whether the Spaniards will assent to it. I am rather inclined to imagine that some Opposition will be made, and that a civil War may be the Consequence. I do not think it prudent or politic to demand Possession of this extensive Part of the Island at so critical a Moment. But Genl: Toussaint has been in some Degree driven in to the Measure from a Report that has prevail'd here of the Arrival of 2 Frigates and I Ship of the Line at Guadaloupe with 15000 Troops and the Abbé Gregoire. It is said they are destin'd for Santo Domingo, and he has hurried this Business to prevent them from getting a Footing in the Colony. I write in great Haste, at present, but shall give you the Remainder of these Transactions Tomorrow. With great Respect and Esteem I remain

Dr: Sir

Your most obdt. Servt.

The Honl: T. Pickering etc: etc: etc:
[Endorsed:] Ed. Stevens. 27th. April dated
24 May received


CAP FRANÇOIS May 24th: 1800.

Dear Sir

I have the Honor to enclose you (No: 1) the Address of the national Guards and Inhabitants of Cap françois to the General in Chief, and the Arreté of the national Agent (No: 2) for taking Possession of the Spanish Part of St: Domingo. I mentioned these Instructions in my Dispatches of the 19th. and 27th: of April, but was then unable to send you Copies of them.

I also enclose you an order (No: 3) issued by the General for taking Possession of the Property of all Absentees, and a Proclamation (No: 5) for blocking up all the Ports of the South under the Jurisdiction of Rigaud.

These Events confirm more and more the Opinion I lately express'd to you respecting the political State of the Colony, and the Intentions of the black Chiefs. The Arrival of the Officers sent out by the new Don Joaquin Garcia, president of the audiencia of (Spanish) Santo Domingo.

37 Of Spanish Santo Domingo.

Government to restore Tranquility to the Colony, and occupy important Places in the Administration of it, has removed the Veil, which conceal'd the real Views of the military Government. These Officers, so far from being well received, have been insulted and ill treated. Most of the Passengers that came out in the Frigate have been imprisoned, and the black Chiefs now talk loudly and openly against having any Connection, in future, with the Mother Country. The General in Chief has received a Letter from the Minister of the Marine, Forfait," which has displeased him highly. The Minister tells him that the first Consul has confirmed him as General in Chief of the Army of St: Domingo, but in doing so, that he expects that these Forces will never be employed against any other than the English, the Enemies of France; that he ought to recollect that the Man who stains himself with the Blood of his Fellow Citizens will bring down upon his Head the Malediction of Man and of Heaven; and that he therefore, expects, by the first Dispatches he sends from St: Domingo, to be informed that he has made Peace with Rigaud, and restored Tranquility to the Colony. In reading this Letter to me he express'd the utmost Displeasure, and all his subsequent Acts shew that he is determined to throw off all Kind of Subordination to the french Government. The Agent does nothing, at present, but what he is desired to do. The whole Machine of Government, both civil and military, is regulated and guided by the General in Chief.

Since my last the District of Miragoane has fallen into Possession of General Toussaint; and his Army was pushing on to invest Acquin on the South, and Jeremie on the North. The Details respecting the Capture of Petit Goave etc: etc. etc. I send you in No: 4.

By a Vessel which sails Tomorrow I shall have the Pleasure of addressing you more fully. The present Opportunity being sudden and unexpected prevents me from writing as I could wish.

I have the Honor to remain in haste, with great Esteem and Respect Dr: Sir

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Since my last of the 24th. Inst:, which I had the Honor of transmitting by the Brig Ruby, Capt. Wrigley, nothing very important has occured.

The President of Santo Domingo has received Genl. Agé with great Civility, and consented to deliver up the Spanish Part of the Island, as soon as he can obtain a sufficient Number of Vessels to carry off the

38 Forfait, the marine engineer, Bonaparte's first minister of marine, 1799

spanish Inhabitants that may wish to depart. This Operation will require, at least a Delay of 6 Months to execute. He has availed himself of this Circumstance, and written to his Government for fresh Orders. Several of the french Inhabitants have also written to France and made strong Remonstrances against taking Possession, during the present unsettled State of Things in the Colony. It is, therefore, imagined that immediate Directions will be sent out, by the new Government, to suspend the delivery of the Spanish part, until some favourable Change shall take Place. Should such orders be given it will be impossible for the General in Chief to take Possession, even 'tho' he should wish to do it by Force. The Spaniards are too numerous, and too much opposed to the Domination of the Blacks, to render such a measure practicable. Genl. Toussaint, supposing that there would be no Difficulty in obtaining the immediate Delivery of Santo Domingo, had sent an armed Schooner from the Cape with 70 white Soldiers, to serve as a Garrison for that Place, under the Command of Genl. Agé. This Vessel being met near Porto Plata by his brittanic Majestys Frigate Alarm, was captured, and the Troops put on shore at Monte Christi. This Accident will serve as another Retardation of the General in Chief's Plans. The Troops cannot march in Safety by Land, and as the English have now got Intelligence of his Designs on the Spanish Part of the Island, that Portion of it will be so closely invested, that nothing will be suffered to pass to it by Sea.

I have not had the Honor of receiving any of your Dispatches since those dated Jany. 18th. As considerable Alterations have taken Place in the Sentiments and conduct of the leading Chiefs, as far as relates to France, I would wish to have your Instructions how to proceed. I have the Honor to remain with the most perfect Respect and Esteem,

Dear Sir

Your most obedt: Servt:

The Hon. Timothy Pickering

etc: etc: etc:

[Endorsed:] Edward Stevens. 28 May 1800.


Recd. 20 June



CAPE FRANÇOIS August 2d 1800.

I have the honor to inform you that recent official Accounts from General Toussaint announce the entire Pacification of the Southern Parts of this Colony.

Rigaud having been vanquished in every successive Engagement, his ammunition and military stores being entirely expended and the important District of Jeremie having declared in favor of the General in Chief, he has listened to the terms proposed to him and consented to retire from the Island in a short time. A suspension of Arms has of course taken place and General Toussaint is by this time in possession of Aux Cayes, and every part of the Western Peninsula. This Intelligence is of so much importance that I lose no time in communicating it to you for the President's information. The termination of the destructive Civil War which has so long raged in this Colony will open

an additional number of Ports to the American Commerce. Should the President deem it expedient to renew the Intercourse with those ports of the Island of St. Domingo which are not included in his late Proclamation, I beg leave to assure you, Sir, that it may be now done with safety and advantage.

As soon as I shall receive positive Information of the departure of Rigaud and the reestablishment of Tranquility in the Department, he formerly commanded, I shall not fail to give you the earliest Intelligence of it.

I have the honor to remain with the highest Respect and Consideration,


Your Most Obedt. Servt.


[Endorsed:] Edward Stevens. 2 Augt. 1800. Recd. 8 Septr.


CAP FRANÇOIS Sep: 10th: 1800.


Since I had the Honor of addressing you last the most perfect Tranquility has been restored to this Colony. The Cultivators of the South have been recalled to their respective Plantations, the various civil Administrations reorganised, and the most effectual Measures adopted for the future Peace and good order of that Department. Agriculture and Commerce begin to revive. The late civil War being totally extinguished, the Attention of the General in Chief has been, altogether, turn'd towards the Establishment of such wise and salutary Regulations as must, eventually, tend to promote the Happiness and Prosperity of St: Domingo. He is extremely desirous that the Commerce of the U. States should be extended to the Ports of the South, and has earnestly entreated me to urge the President to open these new Sources of private Emolument and public Revenue, which are now offer'd to America. I have already taken the Liberty to suggest the Utility of such a Measure, and I beg Leave, Sir, to repeat, that should the President see no Impropriety in acceding to it, I think it may be adopted, not only with Safety but Advantage.

As General Toussaint has been invested by the Inhabitants of this Colony with the supreme Power, both civil and military, and has always evinced the most freindly Sentiments towards America, I should imagine that the present Moment is very favourable for obtaining from him such additional Privileges as would place our Commerce on a permanent and advantageous Footing. I shall be happy, Sir, to be honor'd with your Instructions on this Subject, and beg Leave to assure you, that they shall be executed with Fidelity, and that I shall let no Opportunity escape of promoting as far as I am able the real Interests of the U. States. I have the Honor to remain with the highest Consideration and Respect

The Hon: General Marshall


Your most obedt: Servt:


[Endorsement of duplicate:] Edward Stevens. 10th. Septr. 1800

etc: etc: etc:

Recd. 13th. Octr.






Geschichte der Meder und Perser bis zur Makedonischen Eroberung. Von JUSTIN V. PRÁŠEK. Band II. Die Blütezeit und der Verfall des Reiches der Achämeniden. [Handbücher der alten Geschichte, Serie I., 5 Abteilung.] (Gotha: Perthes.

1910. Pp. xii, 255.)

THIS volume forms the sequel to the author's recent book which had brought the history of Media and Persia from the earliest times down to the reigns of Cyrus and Cambyses and the usurping sway of the False Smerdis. Like its companion-piece it is a work of genuine importance, even if it has its limitations and though the critic be obliged to make strictures on some of the views which it sets forth.

As its title implies, it deals with the period of Persia's greatest glory, under the Achaemenians, and of its decadence, culminating in the conquest by Alexander the Great. One-half of the volume-and with perfect fitness-is devoted to Darius. We can follow in detail, and with abundant references to sources and authorities, the early events of his reign from the moment when he first had to engage in putting down insurrections against his power and suppressing rebels who laid claim to the throne.

Darius was above all an organizer-“huckster ", he was called; but he simply gave Persia what would be termed to-day a businesslike administration. It is appropriate, therefore, that Professor Prášek should devote thirty pages (pp. 44-74) to showing how the great king's genius came to the front in that manner as soon as the reins of government were once firmly in his hands. The two long chapters on Scythia, the Scythian campaign, and the invasion of Greece, will be of special service to classical scholars; and, in this connection, mention may be made of the four pages devoted to "Dareios und Aegypten ".

But now for a warning! The whole of the eleventh chapter-an important one, on Darius and the Zoroastrian religion-is marred by a most unfortunate conception into which the author, who is not an Iranian specialist, has been led by following misguided authorities. He should have checked his view by conference with a broader number of scholars, who would have been glad at least to comment in advance on some of the positions taken, for they appear to command too limited a horizon. The point is this:

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