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The American Short Line Railroad Association is a nonprofit, unincorporated association of 253 common carriers by rail representing an investment of over $1.6 billlion and operating over 14,000 miles of first main track. During 1962, the last year for which statistics are available, the member lines of this association earned gross operating revenues of $493 million, employed about 38,900 persons who were paid $243 million in wages, and paid taxes of about $64 million.

No business activity is more affected by time than is that of conducting transportation. Inasmuch as the starting point and destination of travel and transport is frequently in separate jurisdictions, wherever standards of time differ, it is imperative that there be complete understanding between the customer, the carrier, and its employees as to the standards of time which prevail. In addition it is highly desirable, to avoid confusion and unnecessary expense, that there be as few standards as possible, that the zones be well defined and that there be no temporary or permanent tampering with these standards except for good and sufficient reason.

For a number of years and most recently at the 50th annual meeting of association members in Edgewater Park, Miss., on October 2, 1963, the representatives of these members adopted as a desirable legislative objective and I quote "amendment of Standard Time Act so as to fully occupy the legislative field with respect to standards of time to be observed throughout the Nation."

This legislative policy of the association has existed for over 15 years and was occasioned by reason of communities not conforming to the prescribed standard time zones, the nonuniformity with which daylight saving time was observed and the frequent difference in dates at the beginning and ending of daylight saving time periods. All of this resulted in the inability of the railroads to render the best possible public service for which they have been subjected to criticism. These difficulties and problems were impossible of solution by reason of the nonuniformity of the time being observed in two or more areas concerned.

This legislative plank has been continued by the association members in view of the continuing nonuniformity of time. The fact that the problem is still with us indicates the need for Federal legislation.

Other witnesses have discussed in detail the differences and possible effects of the various bills being considered before this subcommittee. I shall not repeat any analysis of the bills, but from our legislative plank it is evident that we support the position of time uniformity and urge Federal legislation to fully occupy tie field.

I am acquainted with the statement of Mr. Park M. Roeper who has appeared at this hearing as a witness for the Association of American Railroads. On behalf of the member lines of the American Short Line Railroad Association, I concur in the statement of Mr. Roeper and draw your attention to the similarity of the action taken March 1, 1963, by the AAR board of directors favoring uniformity of time and the legislative policy of the Short Line Association.

Most member roads of the Short Line Association are exclusively freight carriers, but those members that are passenger-carrying railroads are faced with the same problems, with regard to the operation of passenger trains, as described by the previous railroad witness.

While the examples of inconvenience and confusion are more colorful and descriptive as they relate to pasenger service, the problems that exist in rail freight operations may in total be more serious due to the much greater portion of railroad operation involved in freight handling.

Many of the short line railroads are faced with a situation at the beginning and end of the daylight saving time period when the changeover in time is not uniform across their territory. For example, they start train operations in a daylight saving time area and move into an area operating on standard time with the result that their usual schedules are not satisfactory to the customers as the train is arriving at too early an hour. You will readily see how the reverse is the case at certain times and under certain circumstances with the train arriving at too late an hour. Such circumstances lead to complaints from customers.

To alleviate some of the difficulty, it is sometimes necessary for railroad forces, as is the case with other industries, to start certain of their employees to work an hour earlier to coordinate with adjacent communities which have daylight saving time, or which start daylight saving time at an earlier or later date. These situations are confusing, oftentimes inefficient and, though established to meet the convenience of the customer, frequently result in confusion to the shipper and receiver.

At the present time it is difficult and expensive to find out the standard time that prevails in any but the larger communities, and much time is wasted in attempting to contact people by telephone, to schedule meetings and appointments so as to conform to local custom and still make travel possible without uudue waste of time and energy.

We have been a member of and have cooperated with the Committee for Time Uniformity since its formation. Our position is entirely compatible with that of the committee. I have previously testified before committees of Congress in a similar respect as have my predecessors over a number of years.

On behalf of the 253 member roads of this association, I want to again state our support of uniformity in time, whether it be standard or daylight.

It is the hope of this segment of the rail carrier industry that Congress may properly conclude that uniform time within standard time zones is needed and will provide therefor.

Mr. Long. We have one additional gentleman I understand, that would like to pursue a similar course of action.



Mr. McMULLEN. That is right, Mr. Chairman. My name is A. B. McMullen. I was scheduled to testify this morning, and if it is agreeable with the chairman I will submit my statement for inclusion in the record together with a copy of a resolution that I make reference to in my statement. It is a resolution which was adopted by the National Association of State Aviation Officials on the matter of time uniformity at its annual meeting in 1962 prior to the introduction of the bills that are now being considered and raises several points that have not been incorporated in any of the bills that have been introduced, such as the 24-hour clock, for example, which we think would help standardize this time problem and which, we believe the committee and the Congress should consider at the same time the matters that have been included in the bills are being considered.

Mr. Long. Mr. MeMullen, we have a pretty good bull by the tail here now without taking on the problems of the 24-hour clock.

Mr. McMULLEN. If the studies we are recommending are going to create that kind of problem—we realize very well they could—we would prefer you proceed with the revision, and clarifying, and adoption of a good bill of the type that has been introduced rather than introducing this other matter at this time.

Mr. Long. Fine. We will receive your statement and make it a part of the record and if as a result of study of the record we have any additional questions we would like to ask you we might prevail upon you a little later on to come back and visit with


Mr. McMullen. Mr. McMULLEN. I will be pleased to meet at any time at the convenience of the committee.

(The information referred to follows:)


TION OF STATE AVIATION OFFICIALS My name is A. B. McMullen. I am executive vice president of the National Association of State Aviation Officials.

Forty-two State aeronautics commissions and departments constitute the membership of NASAO. Being officially responsible for aviation and air transportation development and service in the various States, NASAO members have been deeply concerned over a long period of time about the inconvenience, the confusion, and often the additional expense, the air carriers and other forms of transportation, the traveling public, and the shippers are caused by the variation in dates and areas that daylight saving time is adopted each year.

Even in local communities or trade areas as small as a single county, the air traveler and shipper are often inconvenienced and confused because there may be two or more geographical areas or political entities within the county which adopt or operate on different time.

The expansion of rail service over relatively long distances, as the railroads extended their lines farther westward in the United States, first focused attention on the problems associated with the lack of time uniformity. Today, as the speeds and normal operating range of aircraft are increased, the problems caused by the lack of time uniformity are increased even more.

After having made a careful study of the many problems created by the rather ridiculous situations which result from changing time on different dates in various States, and different counties and towns within individual States, NASAO adopted a resolution during its annual meeting held September 27, 1962, petitioning Congress to determine whether legislation was required to eliminate or reduce these time-wasting situations. A copy of this resolution is being presented for the record. You will note that it was adopted prior to the date any of the bills under consideration were introduced.

In brief, the resolution recommended that necessary congressional action be taken to assure that all changes from standard to daylight saving time be made on the last Sunday of April, and changes from daylight saving to standard time be made on the last Sunday of October each year.

We are happy to note that several of the bills pending before this subcommittee would accomplish this objective, and it is our sincere hope that Congress will see fit to take immediate action to assure uniformity in dates for the changeovers in standard and daylight saving time. This is a problem that requires an immediate remedy.

However, this is only a partial solution to the overall problem of time uniformity, and we hope that once this is accomplished, the committee will investigate the several other uniform time problems that will still remain. These include the 24-hour clock, which is utilized by some governmental agencies, particularly the military, and by some commercial organizations; and the use of Z” or Greenwich time, which the U.S. Weather Bureau and some American transportation and communications companies engaged in international operations now utilize.

While no single system of time will completely satisfy the requirements or accommodate the convenience of everyone, many persons, including myself are of the opinion that a careful study should be made of the advantages that would result from complete abolition of daylight saving time, and permanently advancing the standard time by 1 hour uniformly throughout the United States. This would eliminate the confusion and expense associated with changing to and from daylight saving time each year, while providing all the advantages afforded by daylight saving time. This same principle is embodied in two of the bills before this subcommittee, except that standard time would be observed year round, rather than daylight saving time.

The above recommendations were also included in the resolution adopted by NASAO.

Enactment of any of the 10 bills being considered would be a partial step in the right direction, and Members of Congress who have introduced them are to be commended for their interest in this problem.

Based on our understanding of the various bills, however, we believe that adoption of H.R. 4702, H.R. 7891, or H.R. 11483 would be most acceptable of the 10 introduced.



Whereas many States, counties, and/or municipalities change from standard to daylight saving time in the spring, and return to standard time in the fall, on dates that vary from State to State and among sections or communities within some States; and

Whereas the widespread variations in standard daylight changeover dates, complicated by frequent time zone boundary disputes and an assortment of local community options, create bewildering uncertainty and confusion in the minds

of the traveling and shipping public, and in communications, business, and social activities; and

Whereas the nonuniformity of time changeover dates results in the extra expenditure of large sums of money each year by railroads, bus companies, and airlines for the revision, printing, and distribution of system timetables; and

Whereas many airports serve large geographical areas, often extending across State or political subdivision boundaries; and

Whereas it is highly desirable that the time be uniform within these areas to minimize the confusion, frustration, and missed flights that often result in the loss of business, and delayed or broken social or other appointments and engagements : Therefore be it

Resolved, That where necessary, legislation should be adopted or such State directives or proclamations should be issued by the Governor as may be required to assure that all changes from standard to daylight saving time and from daylight to standard time will be made by all States and local jurisdictions on the same dates each year; and

That transfers from standard to daylight time shall take place on the last Sunday of April and from daylight to standard on the last Sunday of October each year; be it further

Resolved, That the Congress of the United States be petitioned to conduct or order such studies and investigations as may be necessary to determine whether existing Federal legislation on the subject should be amended or repealed; and

(a) What action, if any, is necessary at the Federal level to assure uniformity in dates for changing from standard to daylight saving time and back to standard time each year;

(6) The advantages and disadvantages of officially adopting the 24-hour clock in the United States, as many European and South American countries have already done;

(c) The advantages and disadvantages of officially adopting “Z” or Greenwich time by U.S. Federal agencies, international transportation companies, and others;

(d) The advantages and disadvantages of advancing the standard time by 1 hour in each of the time zones in which the United States is located and discontinuing daylight saving time entirely.

Adopted September 27, 1962.
Mr. Long. Thank you.

Any further business to come before the subcommittee! There being none the subcommittee is adjourned.

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p.m., the subcommittee was adjourned subject to the call of the Chair.)




Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met at 10 a.m., pursuant to recess, in room 1333, Longworth House Office Building, Hon. Harley O. Staggers (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Mr. STAGGERS. The subcommittee will come to order.

The subject today is the uniformity of time. We had started hearings on this and had to adjourn them, so we are taking up now where we left off, and as our first witness today we will hear the Honorable Kenneth J. Gray, the very able Congressman from the State of Illinois. We welcome you to the subcommittee this morning, Mr. Gray.



Mr. Gray. Mr. Chairman, I deeply appreciate the opportunity of appearing before your committee in behalf of legislation I introduced sometime


H.R. 2335, to amend the Standard Time Act so as to provide that standard time shall be the measure of time for all purposes.

Mr. Chairman, before I begin my remarks in behalf of H.R. 2335, I would like to thank you and the members of the committee for scheduling these hearings. I realize this legislation has been somewhat controversial because many people like fast time for the convenience of playing sports during the daylight hours and for other reasons. However, I believe that the extreme hardship, loss of life, and other factors are more impelling reasons for adopting a standard time in this country. Yes, Mr. Chairman, I say loss of life, because many people, trying to meet the schedules of travel or of meetings, find that the time has advanced in another city and not having allowed themselves an extra hour or two, rush unnecessarily. I have heard of instances that resulted in the loss of life.

I believe the greatest inconvenience being placed on our citizens is that being placed on our schoolchildren of America. Thousands of young boys and girls are forced to stand out on the rural roadways of America, before daylight, waiting on the schoolbus to pick them up. To me this is much more important than having an extra hour for someone to play golf in the afternoon.

Mr. Chairman, the national chairman of the Citizens for Standard Time comes from my congressional district, Mr. H. H. Horner, Route


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