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March 2.-BYRON, Rt. Hon. George Anson Among his numerous published volumes may Byron, seventh Lord, an admiral in the British be mentioned his "Universal Mythology. Navy, successor to the title of Lord Byron, the “Shores and Islands of the Mediterranean," poet, died in London. He was born in 1789, “Christian Politics,” “ Preachers and Preactentered the navy as a volunteer in 1800, and was ing," "Echoes of the Universe," and "Crailer advanced to the rank of commander in 1812. the Twin Giants,” besides several translati
, za His last appointment was to the Blonde frigate, from Lamartine, Calmet and others. He is to convey from England the King and Queen of also a frequent contributor to the periuli... the Sandwich Islands. A full account of this literature of the day. His taste for nu ivoyage was published in 1826, under the title matics resulted in a choice collection of con " Þoyage of Her Majesty's Ship Blonde to the which recently sold for a large sum. ¥. Sandwich Islands in 1824–25.” He was for Christmas was a member of several science several years Lord in Waiting to her Majesty. bodies in his own and other countries. He was made rear-admiral in 1849, vice-ad March 11.-VANDER HOEVEN, Professor a. miral in 1857, and admiral in 1862.
an eminent naturalist, Professor of Geologie March 3. OLARTE, General VINCENTE, the University of Leyden, died there. 5: President of the State of Panama, New Gra- was born at Rotterdam in 1801, and was Fu nada, died at Panama, of yellow fever, aged low of many learned societies of his own ! 40 years.
He was a native of the State of other countries; among the rest, the LigneSantander. In 1865 he went to Panama, and Society of London. took up arms in favor of the constituted au March 15.-LEE, Rev. ROBERT, D.D., Pthorities, against one of the rebellions which fessor of Biblical Criticism, in the University frequently disturb the tranquillity of the Edinburgh, and an author of high repute. State. Leading the Government forces in at Torquay. He was born at Tweedmos several successful engagements, he quelled the North Durham, in 1804, studied at St. 1insurrection. For this service he was named drew's from 1824 to 1832, and was elect commander-in-chief of the State forces. In a minister of a chapel-of-ease at Arbrosth. 1866 he was elected President. His term had 1833, from which he was translated to the x seven months to run when death finished his ish of Campsie, in 1836. In 1843 he berabe career. He was a man of undoubted bravery minister of the Grey Friars Church, ES and resolution, and the terror of his name was burgh, and on the institution of a chats a check upon the machinations of scheming Biblical Criticism and Biblical Antiquities : revolutionists.
the University of Edinburgh, in 1846, T7" March 8. — TUCKER, EDWARD, an eminent pointed the first professor. As a preache English botanist, died at Margate, aged 58 and orator in the church courts he hell years. He was born in Stodmarsh, Tha- high reputation, and his learning and all net. While yet very young he evinced a strong gave him a wide influence among the Four. * desire for the attainment of knowledge, and clergy. Among his published works are "T: was particularly interested in the study of Theses of Erastes," translated in 1844. " botany, which he followed through life. He Handbook of Devotion" (1845), “Thouart Per acquired a world-wide reputation, by his dis- a Discourse on Infallibility” (1851), and via covery of the oidiüm, or microscopio fungus letters, sermons, and papers. Dr. Lee causing the grape-disease.
dean of the chapel royal, and a chaplain in 2 March 10.- NEAVE, Sir RICHARD DIGBY, an dinary to ber Majesty in Scotland. English scholar and author, died in London. March 27. - Feller, Madame HEXEIITIL He was born December 9, 1793 ; graduated at an accomplished and devoted missionary frSt. Mary's Hall, Oxford, in 1815, and suc- Switzerland to the French-Canadian Cat ceeded his father in the baronetcy in 1848. lics, died at Grand Ligne, Canada, aged an He was a man of highly-cultivated mind, an 80 years. She was a native of Switz accomplished draughtsman, and a valuable land, of a highly-educated and distinguis... member of the Geographical Society. He was family, and, after enjoying for years the plan the author of a work entitled “Four Days in ures of cultivated, intellectual society, resale Connemara."
soon after the death of her husband, to sistMarch 11.- CHRISTMAS (or NOEL-Fearn), don her native land with all its advantages : Rev. HIENRY, an eminent English scholar and carry intelligence and Christianity to the ipauthor, died suddenly in London. He was rant and benighted French-Canadians. She come born in that city, in 1811; graduated at St. to Grand Ligne, Canada, in 1835, and image John's
College, Cambridge, in 1837, and, hav- diately commenced a school and mission. F ing been ordained the same year, served some many years she was persecuted and maltreza minor appointments in the Church, and then by the people she came to bless
, her boas accepted the position of librarian and secretary burned,
her property destroyed, and even of Sion College. Subsequently he was elected life endangered. But her gentleness
, her de Professor of English History and Archæology nevolence, and her strong faith and con to the Royal Society of Literature. He was prevailed over all opposition. The miss a fine classical scholar and mathematician, and grew
and increased ; several French Protester a most popular lecturer on a variety of subjects. clergymen became connected with it, and
the schools, and Madame Feller for years past pirates in 1836-37; was promoted commodore has been recognized by both Catholics and in 1844, and Superintendent of the Royal NaProtestants as the benefactor and friend of the val College at Portsmouth from 1844 to 1854. Canadian French of all that region. She had In that year he attained the rank of rear-adsacrificed her own private fortune in the work miral; was fourth and finally third in comlong since, and it has been sustained, in part, mand in the Baltic; was nominated K. C. B. for many years by contributions from persons in 1855. He was subsequently commander-in of different religious denominations in the chief of Cork; became vice-admiral in 1858, United States, who had known her and her and admiral in 1863. In 1865 he was nominabundant and self-sacrificing labors. Even to ated G. O. B., and retired on a good service her last moments her interest in her mission pension. continued, the ruling passion, strong in death." April 7.—MOGEE, Thomas Daroy, an Irish
March 28.- JESSE, Edward, an eminent Eng- political leader, journalist, and orator, a memlish naturalist and voluminous author, died in ber of the Canadian Cabinet since 1864, born Brighton. He was born in the county of in Carlingford, Ireland, April 13, 1825; assasYorkshire, January 14, 1780; was educated sinated by an Irishman by the name of Whelan under a clergyman at Leicester, and under a or Whalen in Ottawa, Canada. His father was French Protestant at Bristol, and in 1798 was a custom-house officer in Wexford, Ireland, appointed to a clerkship in the San Domingo and in that town young McGee was educated. office. Subsequently he was private secretary In 1842 he emigrated to the United States, to Lord Dartmouth, held some important mil- and obtained a position on the
Boston press. itary commissions, and was appointed deputy At the commencement of the Young Ireland surveyor of the royal parks and palaces, besides movement in 1848, he returned to Ireland, and holding other offices under royal patronage. as one of the editorial staff of the Nation He was the author of many works upon natural newspaper was active in the Young Ireland history, among which were “Favorite Haunts party. When this émeute was quelled, hē, and Rural Studies," "Scenes and Tales of more fortunate than most of his comrades, Country Life," and "" Lectures on Natural His- eluded the British detectives, and made his tory."
escape again to America. Here he founded March-Hashem, General, chief of the Tu- and edited a journal which he named the nisian embassy, which visited the United States American Celt, and for some years advocated, in 1864, died in Tunis. He was a man of with great zeal and brilliancy, the claims of good education and fine intellectual ability. Ireland to an independent nationality and a
March —-MONNAIS, EDOUARD, a French Republican form of government. During the Iramatic author, died in Paris, aged 70 years. Know-Nothing movement of 1854–56, his He had in his day filled the post of dramatic views underwent a change, and he became an ritic to several journals. His best known ardent royalist, and the sympathies of his plays were “Le Demande en Mariage," "Le countrymen being turned against him, and jecret d'Etat,” “Un Menage Parisien,” “Sul- their leading men denouncing him publicly, ana," and "La Veuve Grapin.” He wrote he removed to Canada, where he was very Iso several miscellaneous works, including cordially received by the royalists, to whom * Esquisses de la Vie d'Artistes,” « Ephéméri- his fiery eloquence, and his brilliant abilities es, " etc., and was the author of innumerable as a writer and politician, were of great value. antatas. In 1849 he was created Chevalier of In 1857 the citizens of Montreal chose him as he Legion of Honor.
their representative in the Canadian Parliament. March-VIRIVILLE, VALLET DE, an eminent In 1864 he was appointed president of the rench archæologist and author, died in Paris, Executive Council, and held that position till ged 53 years. He wrote much upon educa- 1867, when he was reëlected to the Parliament on, and was the author of “Historical Ar- of the New Dominion of Canada, and was hives of the Department of Aube and Dio- appointed Minister of Agriculture in the new ise of Troyes," "Memoir upon the Conquests Cabinet. He was also Chief Commissioner
Egypt," " History of Public Instruction in from Canada to the late Paris Exposition, as urope and especially in France,” “Histoire he had been to the previous one and the Đubonography of France," etc.
lin Exhibition. He was the author of several April 7.-CHADS, Sir HENRY DUCIE, G. O. works, the most important of which were
an Admiral of the British Navy, died at . " Lives of Irish Writers,” and “Popular Hisathsea, Hants, aged 80 years. He entered 'tory of Ireland.” He had been bitterly hostile e Naval Academy at Portsmouth in to the Fenian movement from its inception, 00, the navy in September, 1803; distin- and his assassination was probably due to this ished himself as lieutenant at the conquest hostility. the Isle of Bourbon in 1810; was appointed April 8.-WETHERALL, Sir George Argusthe command of the Arachne in 1823; took TUS, G. C. B., Governor of the Royal Military rt in the Burmese War, was made post-cap- College at Sandhurst, and late Adjutant-Genn and C. B. for his services; forced the eral of the English Army, died at Sandhurst. ssage of the Boca Tigris in China in Septem- He was born in 1788, educated in the Senior r, 1834, and cleared the Straits of Malacca of Department of the Royal Military College, and
entered the army in 1803. He served in the Canon of Wells Cathedral, died at West Cape; in the conquest of Java, as aide-de-camp Malvern, aged 74 years. He graduated at to his father (General Sir F. Wetherall); was Caius College, Cambridge, in 1816, after military secretary to the Commander-in-Chief which he became principal of Codrington Colof Madras, from 1822 to 1825; was Deputy lege, Barbadoes. Subsequently he was a Canon Judge Advocate-General in India in 1826; aid- Residentiary and Prebendary of Wells Cathe ed in suppressing the insurrection of 1837–38 dral, and principal of Wells Theological College in Canada, for which service he was made a which latter office he resigned in 1865. He Companion of the Order of the Bath ; and was was the author of a volume of "Sermons a Deputy Adjutant-General in Canada from 1843 the Common Prayer," "Sermons on the Ordito 1850, when he was appointed to that office nation Services," "Sermons on the Holy Days at headquarters, and in 1854 was made adju- of the Church," " Expository Discourses ca tant-general
, which post he held until, in 1860, the Epistle to Timothy," and some lectures he took command of the northern district. At April 18.-SIMPSON, General Sir James, G. the expiration of his services in 1865, he was C. B., late Commander-in-Chief of the English appointed Governor of the Royal Military Army, died at Horringer, near Bury St. ElCollege at Sandhurst. He was created a K. mund's. He was born in 1792, educated at O. B. in 1856, and a G. O. B. in 1865.
Edinburgh, entered the service in 1811, to April 12.-SALISBURY, JAMES BEOWNLOW an active part in the Peninsular War, and in WILLIAM GASCOYNE CECIL, second Marquis 1813 was promoted to the rank of captair
. of, died at his residence, Hatfield House, Herts. After recovering from a severe wound received He was born April 17, 1791, was Lord-Lieuten- at Quatre Bras, he served on the staff in Irant of Middlesex, and represented Weymouth land, and subsequently held an important conin the Conservative interest from 1814 to June, mand in the Mauritius, where he won a bize 1823, when he succeeded his father as second reputation as a meritorious officer. He served marquis
. He served in the Herts militia, was under Sir C. Napier throughout the India appointed a Deputy-Lieutenant of Argyleshire campaign of 1845, receiving commendation in 1859, and, upon the death of Lord Dacre, from the governor-general. On the outbreaks was unanimously elected chairman of the of the Crimean War, in 1854, he was sent et Herts Quarter Sessions. In 1852, under the as chief of staff, and subsequently
, apart first administration of Lord Derby, he was his own inclination, was appointed successo Lord Privy Seal, and in 1858–59 Lord Pres- to Lord Raglan as commander-in-chief, ident of the Council. The marquis was a for his services was promoted to the rank of stanch and consistent Conservative, and a bold general, and made a G. O. B. Soon after ze defender of the agricultural interest. He was resigned, and in 1863 was appointed choca made D. O. L. at Oxford in 1834, and a Knight of the 29th regiment. Shortly after the cl. of the Garter in 1842.
of the Crimean War he took up his residente April 13.-BENTLEY, SAMUEL, an English in Horringer, where he lived in retiremos publisher, editor, and author, died at Croy- until his decease. don, in the 83d year of his age. He was April 23. — COPLEY, Miss SUSANNAH, *-* educated at St. Paul's School, and afterward second daughter and youngest child of JA as a printer, which business he followed suc- Singleton Copley, R. X., a celebrated paine cessfully until 1853, when the partial failure of the era of our American Revolution, ali of his sight induced him to relinquish it alto- sister of the late Lord Lyndhurst, died in Legether. He was a man of good scholarship don, aged 94 years. She was born in Bois and refined taste. Among the many impor- Mass., but her father migrated to Engleza tant works by which he will be remembered when she was but an infant. She enjoral is the “ Excerpta Historica,” the contributions every advantage of education, and was of Sir Charles Young, Sir Harry Nicolas, Mr. woman of remarkable talent and culture
. Hardy, and others, which were edited by Mr. retained her faculties to the last, and her ce Bentley with peculiar care.
versation was interesting, from her vivid re April 14.- ROMER, Miss, a celebrated operatic lection and interesting reminiscences oỉ thë singer of the English lyric stage, died at Mar- scenes and associates of her youth. gate, aged 52 years. She made her début April 23.-HEREFORD, Rt. Rev. Rexy Diet at Covent Garden Theatre, October 16, 1830. son HAMPDEN, Lord Bishop of, died in Loada. Her range of parts was perhaps greater He was born on the Island of Barbaders in than that of any other singer, her voice a 1793, where his father, Renn Hampdel, sweet soprano, and her acting excellent. She military officer, resided graduated at Orki was particularly successful in Bellini's “ Son- College, Oxford, in 1813, with firstaus nambula,” Weber's "Favorita,” Rossini's honors, and the following year was elected " William Tell,” Barnett's “ Mountain Sylph," a fellowship. He was thus brought into Ed Balfe's “Bohemian Girl," and Benedict's mate associations with such men as Key “ Crusaders.” For several seasons Miss Romer Newman, Pusey, Davidson, Whately, and a was directress of the English Opera Company nold. Vacating his fellowship by an es at the Surrey Theatre.
marriage, he resided for a short time at Buiten April 16.--Pindar, Rev. JOIN HOTHERSALL, and subsequently held the curacies of Neptun
faringdon, and Hackney. In 1828 he returned May 19.—GUINNESS, Sir BENJAMIN LEE,
Oxford and undertook the college tutorship. Bart., M. P., a wealthy, liberal citizen of Dubn 1829–30 and again in 1831-'32 he was ex- lin, died in London, aged 69 years. He inminer in the schools, and in 1832 was selected herited great wealth, which was increased by a
preach the Bampton Lectures. His subject long and successful mercantile career, and was ras "The Scholastic Philosophy considered liberally dispensed for the good of the public. 1 its Relation to Christian Theology.” The In 1860 he entered upon the work of restoring ctures were learned, deep, and abstruse, but St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, fitting it for ery few ever read them, even of those who the imposing ceremonies of the inauguration of absequently protested against their ortho- H. R. H. the Prince of Wales; the labor exoxy. In 1833, Dr. Hampden was nominated tending over a period of five years, and the Lord Grenville Principal of St. Mary's' expenses, amounting to £150,000, being met all
, Oxford, and in 1834 appointed University from his own purse. In recognition of this he rofessor of Moral Philosophy, and delivered was presented by Lord Derby with the honor very able course of lectures on that subject. of a baronetoy. 1 1836, against strong opposition, Lord Mel May 22.-HALFORD, Sir HENRY, Bart., an purne appointed him Regius Professor of Di- eminent classical scholar and writer, died in inity in the university, and he retained this England, aged 71 years. He was for nearly thirty osition, though unpopular, both from his sup- years the Conservative member of Parliament psed Liberal tendencies and the heaviness of for South Leicester, and during that time did is lectures, until 1847, when the See of Here- much for the amelioration of the condition of rd becoming vacant, Lord John Russell nom- the working-classes in his country. Since his ated him to it, and he was consecrated retirement from public life, he had devoted much şainst the protest of many of the bishops. time and research to the history of the French
was studious, quiet, reserved, but never Revolution. He was familiar with the works opular as a bishop. His published works of the chief French and German political phiad his numerous contributions to the Ency- losophers, economists, and historians, and was opædia Britannica, all indicate his profound a correct composer in the Latin language, both id varied learning, and are exhaustive of in verse and prose. jeir respective subjects, and sometimes, per May 22.-PLUCKER, JULIUS, F. R. S., a Gerups, also of their readers.
man physicist, author, and professor at the April —-LE SAINT, Lieutenant a University of Bonn; died there, aged 67 years. rench geographer and explorer sent out by Nearly his whole life was spent in scientific le Geographical Society of Paris to explore research and professional duties. His writings le White Nile district and penetrate thence embraced mathematics, chemistry, mechanics, rough Darfoor into Bornu and the Fellatah and magnetism; his latest works being three apire, died at Abou-Kouka, one hundred papers published in the "Philosophical Transid twenty miles north of Gondokoro, Sennaar, actions," "On the Spectra of Gases and Vapaludal fever, aged about 30 years. He was pors,". On a new Geometry of Space," and brave, accomplished, and enthusiastic
travel- * Fundamental Views regarding Mechanics." 1, and had undertaken his perilous journey He was a member of the Royal Society, from ith high hopes of rendering large service to which, in 1866, he recived the Copley medal. ience. The communications which he had al May 24. - MUHLFELD, J. M. D., an ady made to the Society were full of interest. Austrian jurist, philosopher, and statesman, May 15.-ABYSSINIA,' WOIZERO TOURNISH, died at Hitzing, near Vienna, aged about 54 leen of, widow of Theodorus, died in the years. He was a thorough liberal in his politiglish camp, in Abyssinia, of consumption, cal views, hostile to the temporal power of the ed 25 years. She was said to have been á Pope, and bitterly opposed to the Concordat, man of grace, wit, and beauty. Her only which he aided in abolishing, but was at the ild, the boy prince, was brought to England same time a very exemplary Roman Catholic. be educated.
He had already attained distinction as a lecMay 15.-ANDREA, H. E., Cardinal d', an turer on law in the University of Vienna, when, ulian ecclesiastical dignitary, died at Rome. at the time of the revolution in 1848, hé
was a native of Naples, and was descended was elected by the students of the university ma wealthy patrician family of great politi- to the Frankfort Parliament, and took an acinfluence. He was liberal in his views, and, tive part in the movements for German unity uile consistently discharging his high duties under
the leadership of Austria. The reaction Cardinal of the Church of Rome, strongly which followed this revolution substituted for red the reform of abuses, and was friendly a time despotism for law, and, finding that his the new kingdom of Italy. This made him avocation was gone, he became a barrister, and Iny enemies, and subjected him to constant very soon the first lawyer in Vienna. Meanrsecutions and indignities, which hastened time the reaction had run its course, and more
death. Some months before his decease liberal counsels prevailed. Under the influence obtained leave of absence from Rome, and, of these, Muhlfeld was again elected to the th the consent of the Pope, took up his Reichsrath, or Austrian Parliament, and by ode in Naples.
several constituencies. His liberal views and VOL. VII.--38 A
his high character for integrity were, however, was a strong supporter of the Conservative not popular in a Parliament so venal as the party, but never won any distinction. On his first to which he was elected, but in subse- father's death in 1849, he succeeded to the quent years he made his influence felt in favor earldom of Talbot. In 1857, on the death of of liberal reforms. The Concordat, which he Bertram, seventeenth Earl of Shrewsbury
, Earl had so long fought, was abolished on the day Talbot laid claim to the earldom of Shrewshe was buried.
bury, and in 1858 this claim was recognized May ----BURNET, John, an eminent en- by the House of Lords. As Earl Shrewsbury graver, and author of works on art, died in he was Premier Earl of England. London, aged 84 years. He was a native of June 14.—SMITH, Major Henry, Royal VScotland, and relative of Bishop Burnet, of rines, an accomplished antiquarian, botanist
, Salisbury. Removing to London, he devoted and amateur actor, died at Southsea, Hants himself to the art of etching and engraving, aged 75 years. He was born in the Isle of and rapidly rose to fame and independence. Wight; entered the Royal Marine Corps towart His engravings of Wilkie's and Rembrandt's the close of the war between Great Britain pictures in the London National Gallery were and France, and held repeated commands especimens of a high order of artistic skill. He der Sir Charles Napier, whose friendship ke was the author of a work entitled “ Practical ever maintained. Repeated appointinents ta Hints on Painting."
the Mediterranean station enabled him to ellMay --CORMENIN, Louis MARIE DE LA ploy his leisure in antiquarian excursions sei Haye, Vicomte de, a distinguished French in the study of music. As a botanist be
jurist and publicist, died in Paris. He was earned considerable reputation, and for matı born in Paris, January 6, 1788, and was edu- years was engaged in the compilation of cated for the law. In 1810 he was appointed work somewhat
on the plan of Paxton's “ Ba auditor of the Council of State, and drew up tanical Dictionary.” He also left in manaseveral of its most important reports. In 1828 script a vocabulary of words peculiar to th
: he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies, Isle of Wight. He had some dramatic talent and was reēlected from that time until 1846. which was developed by amateur performance His extensive knowledge of jurisprudence, and in some of the chief Italian cities, and also in of the practical affairs of government, and the England, by which large sums were raised ir clear and logical force with which he could charitable purposes. present his ideas, either by speech or writing, June 16. -CRISP, Rev. T. S., D.D., an Ens secured him an 'immense influence in public lish Baptist clergyman, died at Cotham, Bris affairs. After the revolution of 1848 he had tal, aged 80 years.
He was educated in si the honor of being elected to the Chamber by independent college, and in one of the t.. four departments, and was nominated presi- versities of Scotland, but subsequently, bars dent of the commission for remodelling the adopted Baptist views, became joint tatxo constitution. In this capacity he strongly ad- the Baptist College in Bristol, and was id vocated universal suffrage. After the coup pastor with Dr. Ryland in 1818. (pont L'état he was appointed member of the Coun- demise of Dr. Ryland, Dr. Crisp became pres cil of State. In 1855 he was elected a mem- dent of the college, and in this relation, as. ber of the Institute. Besides his many pam- that of Broadmead Church as co-pastor
, he phlets, Cormenin was the author of "Études was associated with such illustrious met sa sur les Orateurs Parlementaires” (two vol- Robert Hall, John Foster, and Dr. Summer ames), and a valuable work on the administra- The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferre tive law of France.
upon him by an American college. Dr. Crisp June 4. - WARD, NATHANIEL BAGSHAW, was a man of fine scholarship, but of sintti F. R. S., an eminent surgeon and botanist, died in modesty and even diffidence. London. After some years of devotion to his June 16.—PonsonBY, Colonel ARTHCE ET professional duties, he retired therefrom, and an officer of the British Army, died of cholera pursued his favorite study of natural history. at Jubbulpore. He was born at Valeta i He was the inventor of the "Wardian Cases," 1827, while his father,
Sir Frederick Ponsesin which the beautiful ferns of tropical climates by, was Governor of Malta; entered the army are transferred to other countries. His ex- in 1852, and served on the mountains and quisite "Fernery” was at one time one of the the kloofs of Kaffirland. sights of London.
transferred to the Grenadier Guards, and 1 June 5.-SHREWSBURY, HENRY JOIN CAET- employed in the Crimea on the staff of & WYND TALBOT, eighteenth Earl of, and third George Brown and Sir W. Codrington. 4 Earl Talbot, an admiral of the British Navy, the conclusion of the war, he was appointe died at Shrewsbury,
England. He was born aide-de-camp to Sir G. Buller in the locie in 1803, entered the Royal Navy in 1817, took Isles. In 1864 he was in command of 3 OTT
" part in the battle of Navarino in 1826, was stationed in Kildare, where he had the oppe. made a captain in 1827, and at the time of his tunity of carrying out a favorite idea of er death was an admiral on the reserved list. As ploying soldiers in industrial pursuits as a member of the House of Commons, from best mode of preventing vice. In further 1830 to 1832, and again from 1837 to 1849, he of this object, he established a military
In 1854 he