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KLINGENBERG, G. Electric Lighting in Germany: Paper describes introduction of new illuminants and discusses their commercial value. The question of rates is discussed as connected with the new high-efficiency lighting competing with gas. Under heading "Incandescent Lamps" are discussed the Nernst, osmium, tungsten and Osram lamps, and their characteristics are described. Introduction of metal-filament lamps will have the effect of increasing business, even though the consumption per candle-power be cut down, on account of larger candle-power units and new customers secured. Comparisons are made between systems employing 2 x 110 volts and 2 x 220 volts, and favor the higher pressure. In three-phase installations a four-wire system is to be preferred to a three-wire system. Arc lamps for small currents not entirely successful. Flame-arc lamps developed to point where they can fulfil nearly all conditions of service. Progress of mercury-vapor lamp abroad. Appendix B, 3 to 15
LIEB, J. W., JR. Report of Sub-Committee on Publicity and Popular Education: Recommends a more active policy in educating the public on matters relating to electric lighting and power possibilities, especially as to the fallacy of municipal ownership. Commends to members a wider appreciation of the Company Bulletin or House Organ for the education of the public. Expresses appreciation of work of the Co-operative Development Association, and suggests even more active support from the members of this association. Co-operative publicity of great advantage to the fraternity, but to obtain best results it should be handled through the proper committee of the association. Importance of canvassing and advertising departments can not be too much emphasized, and the various companies are complimented on the results obtained along those lines. Appendix A, 93 to 95 LITTLE, G. M. New Developments in Arc Lamps and High-Efficiency Electrodes: Paper treats of development of so-called magnetite electrodes, and a lamp suitable for burning them. Comparisons made with carbon-arc lamps. General outline of manufacture and operation given, with recital of difficulties overcome. Illustrated by diagrams and photographs.
237 to 245 LOZIER, ROBERT T. Gas Engines and Producers for Central-Station Work: Paper deals with gas engines, both in theory and in their application to central-station work, and presents reasons to show why the gas engine is more economical than prime movers employing steam. Figures from many sources are given in regard to operation here and abroad, and tabulated comparisons are presented. Repair costs for gas engines not greater than for steam. Speed regulation of gas engines may be kept within two per cent, but angular velocity is not so good as with steam. Data on various kinds of gas presented and commented upon. The author takes up three hypothetical installations and works out the necessary layouts for each, making necessary comparisons with similar installations using steam. Conclusions reached are that conditions best suited to gas-engine operation are those of high load-factor, because under such conditions engine can effect its greatest saving and offset the somewhat high interest and depreciation charges. Illustrated by drawings, tables, diagrams, and curves.
Discussion by Ferguson, Keilholtz, DeCamp, Martin, McCabe, Sands, Lozier. 404 to 423
LÜPKE, PAUL. Accidents: Paper opens with definition of the word "accident." Not recognized by Nature. Accidents especially disastrous in central-station work. How to foresee and control. How to profit by experience and prevent repetition. 74 to 78 MARTIN, T. COMMERFORD. Report of Committee on Progress: Report reviews recent developments in the art. It is subdivided as follows:
General Statistics of Growth; Foreign Data and Conditions; Newer Central-Station Work; Rates, Regulations and Franchises; Variation of Street-Lighting Methods; Transmission and Distribution; Illuminating Engineering; Central-Station Employees; Old and New Lamps; Developments in Arc and Other Lighting; Motor Business; Heating and Cooking; Miscellaneous Uses of Energy; Insurance and Other Questions. 12 to 72 MCCALL, JOSEPH B. Report of Sub-Committee on Industrial Insurance, Rewards and Pensions: No profit-sharing plans have been adopted in this country except in a few cases in the form of dividends on employees' wages. Beneficial associations are being inaugurated by many utility companies along lines adopted by the large railway companies. In the case of small companies, that could not employ such elaborate systems as described, it is suggested that they do all possible to promote the health, happiness, and comfort of their employees. In an appendix to the report figures and tabulations are given showing in detail the working of profit-sharing plans, beneficial societies and superannuation and pension funds as adopted by the large companies here and abroad. Appendix A, 39 to 92 NEWBURY, F. D. Power-Factor Correction by Synchronous Motors: Author points out effects of low power-factor, and shows how they may often be overcome by application of synchronous motors. Two serious results of low power-factor are (1) unproductive current and (2) poor voltage regulation. Power-factor not sufficiently considered in rating prime movers and electrical apparatus, resulting in unequal load and poor service and affecting revenue of station. Possible extent of poor voltage regulation, due to low power-factor, in each part of electrical system. Application of synchronous motors as corrective. When justifiable to use them overexcited, without load, as synchronous condensers. Explains their action, and how to find their required rating. They may be made to act as voltage regulators. Electrical characteristics of synchronous condenser. Illustrated by tables and diagrams. 79 to 97 NIXON, LEWIS.. The Future of the Gas Engine: Author states that the gas engine is not a power of the future, but is to-day developed to a point where it outclasses even the steam turbine in economy. Theory of the gas engine simply described and comparisons made between steam and gas, much to the advantage of the latter. On the point of durability, the author claims the superiority of the gas engine, and cites instances where producer plants have run for eight years, during which time fire was never out. Most American coals and lignites can be used for producer gas, as quoted from United States Geological Survey report. As to adaptability to marine use, arguments are produced to show gas to be in every way superior to steam. The engine is also taken up and enlarged upon in regard to use for farming and suburban traction, and prediction is made that gas engines linked with electricity will yet cause the wonders of the past decade to fade into insignificance. 374 to 379 NORMAN, E. A. Efficiency of Various Methods of Illumination: Paper deals with illuminating problems as met with by the engineer. Presents table showing effects of colored lights, methods of installation, and results of tests made upon installations typical of the direct and indirect methods. Conclusions are drawn, showing wherein each system is most advantageously used. Illustrated by photographs.
Discussion by Lansingh.
314 to 326 RICE, H. H. Opportunities for the Sale of Current for Charging Electric Automobiles: Sphere of usefulness of electric automobiles not
limited by mileage, as all makes to-day can run from 80 to 100 miles. By proper encouragement the central station can greatly aid in the sale of electric vehicles in its territory; and by selling current for charging, either to public or private garages, can obtain a profitable, almost entirely off-peak load. Central stations should push sale of electric vehicles with as much spirit as they would the sale of any other current-consuming apparatus, such as motors and signs. Almost all charging is done at night, between the hours of eleven o'clock and morning. If desired, a time restriction can be made in contracts, but is not necessary, as the load is naturally an off-peak load. Many central stations employ electric vehicles for their own use, which is of great benefit in promoting their general adoption. Reference made to cities where electric light companies have made a success of charging and where some are even selling the vehicles. It is urged that central stations have definite rates and policy for this class of service, in order to encourage the use of these vehicles and profit by the revenue derived therefrom. Illustrated by photographs. 496 to 507 RUSHMORE, D. B. Recent Developments in Protective Apparatus: Paper opens by classifying lightning (1) as external, caused by atmospheric conditions, and (2) internal, having its origin in the generated power. Describes the cause and effect of the various forms. General recommendations regarding the placing of lightning arresters on different systems. Theory of multi-gap arresters is given, and data on proper metals for cylinders. Ionization of air described. Effect of frequency on breakdown. Use of arresters on Y systems with grounded neutral. Aluminum cell, liquid electrode and horn arresters described and commented upon. Use of choke-coils. Author urges the keeping of records of lightning troubles. Illustrated by tables and diagrams. 213 to 234 SCOVIL, SAMUEL. Report of Sub-Committee on Public Regulation and Control: To secure relief from evils of regulation by competition, public opinion has been led to demand state regulation or municipal ownership. It is shown that in the end the consumer pays all the costs of additional burdens imposed by special taxes and regulations, and conclusions reached are that the association should favor proper supervision; that commissions, if appointed, be made free from all political and local bias or dependence, and that power be vested in them to control granting of franchises, to protect users of service against unfair discrimination, to enforce a uniform system of accounting, and to provide for publicity. In case, however, of the state providing for public accounting, it should also take steps to safeguard capital investments that might otherwise be jeopardized. Appendix A, 27 to 30 SEMENZA, GUIDO. Methods of Charging for Electric Motive Power: Paper deals with the various aspects of current supply in Italy, and traces back to the beginning the present development in the distribution and sale of motive power. Schedules are presented, showing rates charged by the various companies for certain classes of service. Wright demand indicators used in connection with meters. Because of local conditions it became necessary to plot rate curves for certain cases, and these curves are taken up and described. Methods of computing bills under the Wright demand and the Manchester-Hopkinson system shown, and comparisons made between the two systems from the viewpoints of the consumer and the central station. Illustrated by curves and diagrams.
Discussion by Ferguson, Sands, Junkersfeld, Dow, Torchio, Rollins, Geiser, Hartman, Dion, Hale. 520 to 540
SHERIDAN, MISS S. M. Some Electric Power Experience: The central station referred to in this paper has in two years and four months
added to its power load 5965 horse-power in alternating and 3862 horse-power in direct-current motors; and in twelve months has increased its day load 50 per cent. Much of this increase is attributed to the renting and lending of motors for trial instalments. In about 100 factories it was found that the actual load was but 50 per cent of the installed horse-power. Individual motors not advised unless they can effect a saving of 20 per cent or more. Instances of saving effected by individual motors. Machinery such as large blower fans, air-compressors and centrifugal pumps should be carefully inspected, as they will often be found operating at a higher speed than is necessary, thus consuming power out of proportion to the work done. Careful attention should be paid to belting and shafting, and, wherever possible, roller bearings substituted for other kinds. Advise gas for short-hour factory lighting, and thus avoid unprofitable peak business. 484 to 488
SKINNER, C. E. Report of Committee on the Fire Hazard of Electricity: Continuation of report presented in 1906. Statistics of fires in Manhattan and the Bronx, New York city, brought down to date, showing causes and losses by fire. Report also gives statistics of fires in Chicago, Los Angeles and Baltimore. Tabulated answers to seven questions asked of members of the association and of underwriting interests. Suggestions received as to further work of this committee. Eleven tables. 108 to 140
STEINMETZ, DR. CHARLES P. Lightning and Lightning Protection: Paper describes lightning phenomena in the clouds, and presents figures showing breakdown point of air, to serve as basis for computing voltage of a lightning flash; also method of computing energy of flash by means of illumination given. Lightning flashes usually occur within clouds, and seem to be due to equalization of potential difference rather than to discharges between oppositely charged bodies. Results of calculations tend to show the frequency of lightning flash to be about half a million cycles; the average energy of discharge about 10,000 kilowatt-seconds. In electric circuits the high-potential phenomena may be classified as: Steady electrostatic stress; impulses or traveling waves, and standing waves or oscillations or surges. These phenomena described in detail, and different forms of protective apparatus are also described in detail, according to their individual suitability. 381 to 401
5 to 10
WHITING, S. E. (See KENNELLY, A. E.) WILLIAMS, PRESIDENT. Address of the President: The president compares the present membership with that in 1894-the date of former meeting in Washington; also treats of central-station development since that time. Recites work done throughout the year by various committees. Refers to present status of movement toward municipal socialism; to methods of charging for electric current; to relations with insurance interests; to removal of offices of the association. WOOD, C. D., JR. Electrical Heating Without Special Concessions from the Central Station: Paper deals only with heating and cooking without special rates. Recommends specially-designed utensils for best economy. Describes flat-iron as "but ambassador of electric heat," and tells how best to introduce it into the home. Various appliances for the home and workshop, and general operating data and strong selling points of each. Specifications given for heating and power circuit in a residence, and cost of installation given. Tables and photographs.
Discussion by McCabe, Woodbury, Geiser.
299 to 312
PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTIETH
NOTE.-Authors' names will be found in the authors' index, as also briefs of the papers and reports presented. Reports of committees are under the chairman's name.
Accidents. 72 to 78.
safety devices to prevent. 70.
Accounting, uniform system for electric-lighting companies, report on. 144 to 188.
Address of General Harries. I, 2.
of H. B. F. MacFarland, president board of commissioners, District of Columbia. 2 to 4.
Appliances, electric heating, sale and operation of. 299 to 312.
Arc, electric, for cutting metals. 65.
lamps. See Lamps, arc.
Arches for street lighting. 30 to 32.
Arresters, lightning, proper use of, for protection of electric circuits.
395 to 401.
lightning, recent developments in. 213 to 234.
lightning, types of. 395 to 401.
Automobiles, electric, sale of current for charging. 496 to 507.