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BETTS, GEORGE WHITEFIELD. Legal Justification for Differential Rates: Author cites legal decisions in actions between municipalities and lighting or other public-service corporations; differentiates between electric lighting and other public service; treats of differential rates, resolved into two classes: (1) those based on constancy, and (2) those based on quantity of consumption.

Discussion by Freeman, Geiser, Scovil.

189 to 205

BIBBINS, J. R. Application of Gas Power to Central-Station Work: Author has not attempted to work out complete power-plant problem, applicable to but one set of conditions, but brings out points encountered in power-plant practice. The paper deals with the subject under such heads as: Power-Plant Arrangement; Floor Space; Auxiliaries; Foundations; Building; Clearance; Parallel versus Opposed Units; Exhaust; Anthracite versus Bituminous Plant; Low-Grade Fuels; Relative Value of Spaces; Overload Capacity; Automatic Load Regulator; Automatic Gas Regulator; Typical Plant; Operating Efficiency. The appendix contains notes on power-plant arrangement, describes various installations, and shows layouts. There are also a comparison between anthracite and bituminous plant, and table showing fuel prices. Paper illustrated with drawings and diagrams. 343 to 373 BLOOD, W. H., JR. Progress Report of Committee on Grounding of Alternating-Current Circuits: Refers to appointment of committees from leading electrical bodies to consider revision of Rule 13A concerning grounding of secondary alternating-current circuits. General feeling seems to be in favor of grounding, and report quotes opinions of several eminent authorities.

Discussion by Eglin, Kemble, Junkersfeld, Blood.

512 to 515

BLOOD, W. H., JR. Report on Insurance and Kindred Matters: Report is a summary of work performed by Mr. Blood during the year as Insurance Expert for the association. 103 to 107 BRADLEY, S. R., JR. Report of Committee on Relations with Local Associations: Report states that at the present time there are, so far as can be ascertained, nineteen local organizations representing states or groups of states. The purposes of these organizations are usually not very clearly defined, and to some extent they duplicate the work of the National association. The committee suggests that these local associations be urged to accept a list of subjects presented by the committee, tending to confine their efforts to smaller but more useful fields, and that purely technical questions be left to the National association. 508 to 511

Burdett, EvereTT W. Report of Committee on Public Policy: The following sub-committees were appointed: On Public Regulation and Control; on London Sliding Scale as Applied to Electricity; on Taxation and Franchises; on Industrial Insurance, Rewards and Pensions; on Publicity and Popular Education; on Rates and Methods of Charging. These sub-committees submit their individual reports to the committee, and the report contains elaborations on points brought out in sub-reports, and makes suggestions for improvement of certain


conditions referred to therein. Synopses of reports of sub-committees
will be found under names of chairmen of sub-committees.
Discussion in Executive Session.

Appendix A, 5 to 95

CADY, F. E. (See HYDE, EDWARD P.) CONRAD, FRANK. Commercial Development of the Mercury Rectifier: Author describes some of the latest developments in mercury rectifiers, and explains their operation. Efficiency as compared with motorgenerator set. Describes outfit designed for operation of the new high-efficiency arc lamps.

No discussion.

206 to 212

CROUSE, J. ROBERT. Report of Committee on Membership: Report presents figures showing increase in membership between 1905, 1906 and 1907, and percentage of gain in each class of membership. Proposes plan for campaign for new members, and recommends that some provision be made to pay a commission on new members obtained. Committee asks for appropriation of $2,000 to pursue the work, also proceeds from new members obtained up to the time of the next convention. Committee believes that carrying out proposed plans will double membership shown by 1906 records. Tables.

No discussion.

490 to 495

DAVIS, ERNEST H. Report of Committee on Amendments to Freight Classification of Electrical Apparatus and Goods: Report deals mainly with answers received from associate members in reply to letter of inquiry relative to differences in freight classification in different territories. Conclusions reached are that the aid of the association should be lent toward a movement for relief from present unfair classifications; but great care should be exercised that action be taken only in cases where the justice of the claim is beyond doubt. Committee recommends that a resolution favoring universal freight classification be forwarded to the Interstate Commerce Commission. 424 to 427

DAVIS, ERNEST H. Report of Committee on Standard Rules for Electrical Construction and Operation: No complaints regarding Underwriters received from member companies during past year, and it is believed that the two interests are on a more harmonious footing than heretofore. Report refers to proposed meeting of committees from certain associations to consider Rule 13A. For further information as to action of these bodies in this regard, refers to reports of Committee on Grounding of Alternating-Current Secondary Circuits and W. H. Blood, Jr., Insurance Expert. 540, 541

DOHERTY, HENRY L. Report of Sub-Committee on Taxation and Franchises: Franchises, to insure good service and proper equipment, must be perpetual. Short-term concessions defeat their own ends by the addition of the political factor and the non-protection to capital investment. Valuation of franchise not to be considered the difference between the actual physical value of the property and the total value. Taxes for use of streets by gas and electric companies are unfair, and produce no good results. Public-utility corporations, as a rule, pay greater general tax than other corporations or private individual wealth. Appendix A, 35 to 38 Dow, ALEX. Report of Committee on Protection from Lightning and Other Static Disturbances: Report explains method of collecting and classifying data, and gives extensive tabulations showing losses incurred by central stations, with kind of protection used. Presents figures as to burnouts of arresters, transformers, meters and generators, and

methods of protection proving efficacious. Use of ground wire. General satisfaction with present protective apparatus. Results of investigation of methods of protecting long-distance transmission systems given and commented upon. General conclusions. 288 to 297 Dow, ALEX. Report of Sub-Committee on Municipal Ownership: Municipal ownership is seemingly losing strength. This is attributed to a great extent to the scheme of state regulation of public-service corporations. From results of recent elections and campaigns, both here and abroad, it seems evident that municipal ownership can be effectually combated at the polls by properly showing the voter the effects of such ownership as it directly concerns him. Reference is made to printed matter made use of in the London and Chicago campaigns. History of the Chicago campaign for "immediate municipal ownership" presented and commented upon. Appendix A, 20 to 26

EDWARDS, H. M. Report of Committee on a Uniform System of Accounting for Electric Light Companies: Report treats of the following subjects: General Accounts, with Form of Balance Sheet; Construction Accounts; Operating Accounts, with Form of Expense Report; Income Accounts, with Form of Summary of Operation Report. The committee recommends close analysis of all disbursements and shows advantages of complete records of past transactions. Recommends subjects for future consideration by the committee. Presents classifications of accounts and forms.

Discussion by Smith, Dame, Gardiner, Gulick, Baker, Coughlin, Dow, Wickham, Burdett, Hartman, Tingley, McCall. 144 to 188 ELLIOTT, E. LEAVENWORTH. Indefinite Candle-Power in Municipal Contracts: Paper deals with the misunderstandings arising from indefinite and ambiguous phrasing of contracts for lighting. Erroneous rating of 2000-cp lamp, and its common acceptance in most contracts, with reference to case at Colorado Springs, and the decision reached there. Street lighting should be based on illumination, regardless of candle-power. The rating of incandescent lamps by watts instead of by candle-power is described as bad practice, and recommendation is made that foot-candle unit be substituted for the many other too ambiguous terms now used. Lessons learned from the Colorado Springs controversy are summed up, to show what terms should and should not be used in lighting contracts. 246 to 252

EMMET, W. L. R. Recent Steam Turbine Developments:

Paper deals

mainly with the Curtis turbine, its theoretical and operating conditions, under such headings as: Aims; Small and Large Machines; Characteristics; Overload Economy; Vacuum; Turbine versus Reciprocating Engine; Mechanical Condensers and Generators. These points are all taken up at length and supplemented with reports of tests made under varying conditions of service. Paper is illustrated by curves and tables.

Discussion by Mason, Kemble, Richards, Bibbins, Bullock, Josselyn, Sands, Manning, Emmet. 428 to 443 FARRAND, DUDLEY. Report of Committee to Consider Specifications for Street Lighting: Report takes up the old definition of 2000-cp arc, and goes on to show how the introduction of more efficient lamps, both arc and incandescent, has rendered it valueless and of no meaning in present-day practice. Deprecates the practice of rating illuminants on an energy basis, and assumes that rating should be based on illumination produced rather than on apparatus employed. Average illuminating power of each unit employed "should be comparable with and have a value equal to a known standard at proper relative dis

tance." Gives exact specifications for ordinary conditions of street lighting.

Discussion by Steinmetz, Ferguson, Lansingh, Ryan, Spencer, Willcox, Hyde, Kennelly, Dow, Weston, DeCamp, Witherby, Torchio, Gilchrist, Burleigh, Engel, Lockwood, Millar, Wills, Farrand.

258 to 287 FLOY, HENRY. Indefinite Obligations in Municipal Contracts: Paper opens with the statement that an explicit and perfectly drawn contract does not necessarily insure its fulfilment, but one that is indefinite is likely to result in confusion and worse. Importance of clear understanding of the subject, as well as of the wording of the contract. Usual causes of controversy explained. Moral obligations of corporations in addition to contract obligations. Advantages of full station records shown in Colorado Springs case. Necessity for keeping track of line losses, leakage, and so forth; also careful attention to lamps, carbons and globes. Contracts should be based upon illumination rather than wattage. 254 to 257 FRANKENFIELD, B. Balancers versus Three-Wire Dynamos: Paper describes various types of machines intended to supplant the twomachine Edison unit, and brings out the good and bad points of each. Shows that parallel operation of three-wire compound dynamos necessarily entails complications at switchboard, which is to be avoided. The balancer is suggested as the practical remedy for voltage regulation. Chemical and dynamo-electric types of balancers described and commented upon. Description of balancer switchboard is given, with information on methods of rating, proper sizes, types, operation, regulation and compounding of balancers. Comparison made between three-wire dynamos and two-wire dynamos with balancers for different classes of service. Illustrated by diagrams.

444 to 461 HYDE, DR. EDWARD P., AND F. E. CADY. The Effect of Frosting Incandescent Lamps: Results of frosting classified under three heads: Change in Absorption; Change in Distribution; Change in Life. Apparatus and methods employed described. Six different types of lamps were used in the experiments. Methods of frosting were acid-etching and sand-blasting. The results of a long series of tests are presented in the form of tabulated data, supplemented with notes and comments. One of the conclusions reached is that by increasing the surface of frosted bulbs much longer useful life may be expected. Diagrams and tables. 462 to 483 INSULL, SAMUEL. Report of Sub-Committee on the London Sliding Scale as Applied to Electricity: Purpose of London sliding scale is to allow corporations to increase dividends in proportion as they decrease rates. The scale has been adopted by some gas companies in England and this country, and seems entirely successful. The report deals with the question as to whether or not it would be successful in the more complicated supply of electricity. Conclusions are that the system presents great possibilities as a deterrent of municipal ownership with its attendant financial and economic risks. Appendix A, 31 to 34 KENNELLY, DR. A. E., AND S. E. WHITING. The Frequencies of Flicker at Which Variations in Illumination Vanish: Paper outlines results of experiments to show at what frequencies flickering of light appears and disappears. Describes apparatus employed and manner of making the measurements. Results of observations are set forth at length. Illustrated by curves and diagrams.

Discussion by Keilholtz.

327 to 341

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