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ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OP THE TEAR

1 8 7 9.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS: PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,
SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

NEW SEKIES, VOL. IV.

WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XIX.

NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

1, 3 AND 6 BOND STREET.

1885.

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PREFACE.

The "Annual Cyclopaedia" for 1879 has grown into a larger volume than usual from the multitudinous events of a year unusually prolific in legislative action and political changes, and teeming with vitality in the various fields of scientific progress and mechanical development, religious activity, industrial advancement, and commercial transition, which come within the scope of a work which aims to be a complete record of the current history of the United States and of the world, and a register of every fact or occurrence which forms an influential factor in modern civilization.

The articles on the States are lengthened beyond their usual compass by exceptionally important legislation transacted and pending upon the regulation of railroad, insurance, and other corporations; upon temperance, convict-labor, tramps, Chinese immigration, and the different elements of the labor question; upon the regulation of the ballot and the question of the Federal control of elections; upon the question of paying or not paying State and municipal debts, and other subjects of moment. The Legislatures of the individual States are the arenas in which most of the socio-political questions, which in other countries make the great national issues, are fought out; and as the " Annual Cyclopredia" is the only full and comprehensive chronicle of this most momentous portion of the country's history, it must not allow any important acts of legislation, nor any decision of the courts concerning them, or subjects of political agitation, to pass unrecorded. Full and interesting data are given this year upon the industrial and agricultural condition of many of the States, as well as the usual reports of public affairs, statistical information, and record of party action. In California a synopsis of the new Constitution is found. In Maine and in Public DocuMents the documents relating to the election difficulty are given at length. In Tennessee, Alabama, and Virginia, the debt questions are unfolded; in MinNesota and Florida, the question of railroad land-grants; and in other States, whatever subjects are uppermost in the public mind. In separate articles the Exodus Of The Colored People and the Yellow Fever are thoroughly discussed. In Congress the debates on the anti-Chinese and election investigation bills, and the conflicts over the army and judicial appropriation bills in their successive phases, are very fully reported, with the entire texts of the President's vetoes. The National Board Of Health is explained in a timely article.

The high value and authority of the exhaustive monographs on the Marine Hospital Service, the Signal Service, the Resumption Of Specie Payments, and Refunding The Public Debt will be appreciated by every reader. Every

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