Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Secondly , the taxing powers delegated to the municipality were very limited , so
that it always remained heavily dependent on central government funding .
Thirdly , the limited powers of the Gemeente did not even extend over the full ...
Even then , urban kampungs on private estates remained exempt ( see below ) .
Until the collapse of civilian government in 1942 , the municipality therefore
remained a patchwork of authority rather than a true citywide government .
... even if gonorrhea remained virulent because of the unevenness of treatment
and the emergence of resistant strains . ... to minimize its spread but , despite
evidence of increasing incidence among sex workers , official policy remained ...