Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Governments collect economic data at a highly aggregated level : even provincial
- level data merge the city with its rural hinterland . This is no problem for city -
states , such as Singapore and Hong Kong , or for capital cities , such as Jakarta
The provincial Housing ( Affairs ) Office ( Kantor Urusan Perumahan ) took over
management of these houses on behalf of ... to the Municipality , although it was
another five years before the provincial government implemented the decision .
provincial decrees on water quality , in May 1989 the central government ' s
Clean Rivers ( Prokasih ) Program was proclaimed in East Java ( SP , 21 / 10 / 89
; Koffel 1994 ) . Yet for all this bureaucratic activity , at the end of 1994 it had to be