Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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Politics had degenerated from the euphoria of independence into madness and
fear . ... organizations backed by Islamic and Christian groups and encouraged
by the army held mass demonstrations calling for political and economic reform .
The middle class was denied political rights but by education and occupation
could enjoy prosperity and participate in ... General Ali Murtopo ' s “ Aoating mass
” strategy denied the people ( rakyat ) access to politics because they were seen
Besides these economic cycles there has also been a political cycle . The late -
colonial era was typified by what would now be known as economic development
combined with political repression . While the Indies were rapidly being ...