Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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The plantations were the key to the revival of the export trade , and hence the
capacity to import . The flaw in the Dutch military strategy was that many of these
plantations were located in the countryside , or even in the mountains , where
Thus it was not merely East Java ' s plantation exports but its entire export
economy that had collapsed . The engine had ceased to operate . Despite
artificially cheap inputs of land and labor , many of East Java ' s plantation
companies could ...
... in the 1980s but a hundred years earlier in the form of agro - industrial
plantations oriented toward the world market . ... already vigorously applied in the
second half of the nineteenth century in a transition to a capitalist plantation