Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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In East Java , construction began simultaneously in 1953 on a cement factory , a
caustic soda plant , and a gunnysack mill , all located within the immediate
hinterland of Surabaya ( table 5 . 4 ) . The cement plant , the largest industrial
A plant had been mooted during World War I and plans were revived in the late
1930s , when war again loomed ; in the 1940 emergency program East Java was
the favored location because of the salt works of Gresik and Madura and the ...
When seized in 1958 , the plant of most former Dutch enterprises was already
dated , of interwar scale and technology . After a decade of disinvestment , poor
maintenance and inexperienced management under military supervision , the