Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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However , the dispersal of mills meant that this first wave of the Industrial
Revolution transformed neither town nor countryside ( Dick 1993c ) . The most
direct impact of the sugar mills on Surabaya was rapid growth of a private
Many mills were small , with fewer than 15 looms , but there were also some
giants . The Martak mill , owned by an Indian merchant at Cermee , near Gresik ,
was reported in February 1938 to have installed 2 , 000 hand looms and 350 ...
Most of them were sugar mills that crushed the cane from the adjacent private
estates , with one or two surviving arak ... mill , a distillery , and the Bagong mill ,
all three along the narrow strip backing onto what is now Jalan Sumatra ; about