Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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In the four main sugar - growing regencies of the Lower Brantas ( Sidoarjo ,
Mojokerto , Jombang , and Kediri ) , the proportion of irrigated land planted to
cane fell from about 27 . 5 percent to less than 5 percent ( based on Levert 1934 ,
By the mid1990s floor area was more equitably distributed than expenditure in
both Surabaya and Jakarta but — surprisingly — less so in Surabaya despite
cheaper land . Floor and land area have remained extremely small for most ...
white - collar categories of clerical and professional ( including managers ,
supervisors , and proprietors , the professionals in education , health , and law
and the armed forces ) accounted for less than 13 percent of the poorest two