Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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This performance was rather disappointing , for after the 1988 ban on export of
raw rattan , Surabaya had been designated a center for labor - intensive
manufacture of furniture and other wood and rattan products . Also disappointing
was the ...
Its industry therefore bore the brunt of a high exchange rate that cheapened
imports but implicitly taxed labor - intensive exports . The large devaluation of
November 1978 was intended to promote non - oil exports and boost labor
A frontier economy in which land was abundant and labor scarce was
transformed into one of abundant labor and scarce land . In such circumstances ,
continued growth of export crops required either rising productivity of land or