Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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an Indonesian as native adviser with responsibility for kampung affairs ( SGS
1928 , 108 - 10 ) . ... waiting for the matter to be settled , in 1924 the Municipality
had taken its own initiative on kampung improvement ( kampongverbetering ) .
These works were carried out without central government subsidy . In the
following year , however , municipal finances felt the full force of the world
depression and for the next few years expenditures on kampung improvement
were minimal .
KAMPUNG IMPROVEMENT Kampung improvement was revived in 1969 , on the
initiative of the Municipality , to demonstrate that development was beginning to
bring tangible benefits to ordinary people ( Silas , interview , 3 / 10 / 87 ) .