Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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In the meantime , kampung dwellers were left to follow their traditional methods of
burning and burying garbage ( more difficult as the density of housing increased )
, throwing it in the river or canal , or leaving it to rot . In those days before ...
As part of their increased status , members of the Yellow Force were also given
bylaw powers to fine people for littering offenses . As its contribution , the
Municipality increased the workforce of street sweepers from 400 to 650 . It
As established in 1906 , the municipality had been just 43 square kilometers ,
which increased to 53 square kilometers in 1911 and 63 square kilometers in
1924 ( SGS , annual ) . 7 . In the mid - 1990s the official area was increased to