Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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The first firm to take up land was the engineering firm Braat , which privately had
purchased an adjacent fifteen - hectare site and in 1919 ... By the end of 1919
another fifty hectares had been allocated on long - term lease to sixteen firms ...
and 1922 – 23 , the turnover of the six largest firms about halved ( Vreede 1926 ,
4 ) . Cutthroat competition ensued and by 1922 – 23 most firms were operating at
a loss and could no longer pay dividends . Several well - known firms went out ...
Firms in metals and machinery had a good deal of work , especially in
rehabilitating rice mills , though plantation orders , the mainstay of the industry
before the war , continued to be held back by the insecurity of the hinterland (
Hardon 1948 ...