Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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paign of takeovers of state enterprises , most hitherto under army control . This
led on the eighth to army intervention and two days later to the occupation of
SOBSI headquarters ( Crouch 1978 , 146 ) . The risk of armed conflict remained
A directive of 14 December specified that there should be joint trade union and
military management but a military officer was placed in charge of each
enterprise and trade unions were kept under tight rein . As Dutch managers and
the largest enterprises , leaving the rest to regional offices ( see appendix ) .
When the legal nationalization process had been completed , this division was
formalized by Law 19 / 1960 , which created separate categories of state