Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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However , the central government took no risk of inciting an outburst of
democratic enthusiasm . Surabaya ' s first council was fully appointed : the
majority was both official and Dutch ( 15 European , 5 Indonesian , and 3 “
Foreign Orientals ...
A socialist central government could hardly ignore this crisis . There were models
in the interventionist housing programs of European governments busy with
postwar reconstruction . In August 1950 the national government convened in ...
The central government had provided no more funds after 1962 . Repayments on
... Remaining funds were used to pay off the original central government loan ,
now much devalued by inflation , but that left almost nothing for new construction