Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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In 1936 the government established small industry centers ( centrales ) to
upgrade technology and management . In East Java these centers involved yarn
spinning ( Surabaya ) , copper - and ironwork ( Bangil , Sidoarjo ) , furniture (
Pasuruan ) ...
branch ran southward through Sidoarjo , toward Pasuruan and Malang ; the other
ran southwest , toward Mojokerto , along both banks of the Brantas River — some
of these plants later caused bad water pollution ( chap . 4 ) . These ribbons ...
Pasuruan , which lay closest to Surabaya , ceased to be a deep - sea port of call .
Probolinggo and Panarukan remained open in season for the shipment of
tobacco . After 1987 tobacco was shipped by container through Surabaya ,