Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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For some ethnic groups , such as the Madurese , it was a matter of defending
their religion . Among the middle class and intelligentsia , it was widely believed
that a PKI victory would have resulted in their blood being spilled . For the
On the edge of the mainland of Java and adjacent to the off - lying island of
Madura , the city has always been an interface between two distinct indigenous
cultures , the Javanese and Madurese , each having its own very different
Itinerant by necessity , the Madurese were also prominent as traders , especially
in tobacco , cattle , and cloth . These seasonal movements were facilitated by the
building of tramways in the 1890s and 1900s . When the province of East Java ...