Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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In the four main sugar-growing regencies of the Lower Brantas (Sidoarjo,
Mojokerto, Jombang, and Kediri), the proportion of irrigated land planted to cane
fell from about 27.5 percent to less than 5 percent (based on Levert 1934, app. Z).
Apart from Malang (7463), Madiun (1,681) and Kediri (1,028), no other town in
East Java contained more than one thousand Europeans (Census 1930, vol. 6).
The political and economic power of the Dutch was thus not only urban based but
the dry lands of Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Bojonegoro to the west of
Surabaya, while another quarter of migrants had been born in the fertile Lower
Brantas Valley (including Kediri and Nganjuk). These are all traditional sources
of labor ...