Surabaya, City of Work: A Socioeconomic History, 1900-2000
Ohio University Press, 2002 - 541 halaman
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy. Not until the export boom of the 1990s did Surabaya regain prominence as Southeast Asia's leading non-capital-city industrial area.
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As in 1939 , so in 1980 the diversity of East Java ' s exports bore witness not to
economic development but to the small size and continuing weakness of the
export base . The prolonged stagnation in East Java ' s export base has to be
seen in ...
The main source of better export performance , however , was the growth of
manufactured exports . In 1980 manufactures were just one - fifth of East Java ' s
exports ; by the 1990s their share had increased to three - quarters . A
perspective on ...
investment in import - substituting manufactures , but East Java missed many of
the opportunities because of the shrinking plantation sector and the consequent
weakness of purchasing power . What investment did occur was heavily biased ...