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for his labour. The best woodmen sixty miles, to the thriving town of are found to be the Irish. After a Woodstock. On all these rivers there year or two of location in this or any is an abundant fall of water, the value other portion of North America, the of which is incalulable to the colonist. native of Ireland is found to be a most Every few miles along their banks valuable settler. Change of diet small communities are being formed, increases his physical powers; and availing themselves of this power for change of scene and occupation trans- manufacturing and other purposes. forms him into a totally different be- First in order generally rises a sawing from what he was whilst vegetat- mill, to aid the operations of the luming upon the soil of his birth. His berman. A flour, or, as it is termed bearing is more manly, and more in the colonies, a grist mill, rises next worthy of his physical formation. He in order; then a store-wooden in may cling to his Roman Catholicism, general—a few dwellings, and, when a but he is no longer the bigoted slave small body of population has been of his religious priesthood. Parties drawn together, a church or chapel who have visited British America re, and a school-house. From the census port emphatically upon the change in of 1851, we find that there had been the Celtic character. It cannot be established in this way throughout conceived that the Scotsman is in the entire province, ferior to the Irishman in adaptation Establishments. Number. Hands employed. to the business of a backwoodsman. Saw-mills,

584 4302 He is generally found, however, to Grist-mills, 261 betake himself at once, on arrival, toTanneries,

125

255 purely agricultural pursuits. The Founderies,

242 great fishing-stations of New Bruns Breweries, wick are located on the islands of Weaving and card) Grand Manan, Campobello, and West ing (5475 hand 52 96 Isles, in St John's harbour, and in

looms), Cumberland Bay. On these stations

Other factories, 94 953 an aggregate of five hundred vessels The difficulties and hardships of a are found fishing during the season; settler's life, the fear of which deters and there are reared in the pursuit 80 many from trying their fortune some of the hardiest seamen to be in our colonies, are very materially found in the world. Upon the sub- smoothed down by the rapid formaject of the fisheries, the Commissioners' tion of these small communities in Report, from which we have already every eligible site, wherever the forest quoted, remarks :

has fallen before the woodman's axe, " The rivers, lakes, and sea-coast and the soil been brought under cultiabound with fish. Along the bay of the vation. The formation of railway Chaleur it is so abundant that the land routes from St John's and Miramichi, smells of it. It is used as a manure ; and by the aid of which the tide of emiwhile the olfactory senses of the traveller gration may flow direct to the proare offended by it on the land, he sees out vince, must, within a very few years, at sea immense shoals darkening the sur-, render New Brunswick one of the face of the water.”

most flourishing colonies belonging to A rapidly-increasing internal trade the British crown. is carried on by means of the rivers The province of Nova Scotia next St John, Peticodiac, Richibucto, Mira- claims our attention, by the rapidity micbi, and some lesser streams, which of its recent growth in commerce and are navigable for a considerable dis- population, the latter of which is extance from their respective harbours tensively Scottish, both in origin and on the Bay of Fundy and the Gulf of in religion. In 1817 the population St Lawrence. The St John, which is of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton four hundred and fifty miles in length amounted to 91,913. Its subsequent from its mouth, will accommodate growth has been as follows:ships of one hundred tons and large

1827. 1838. 1851. steamers for ninety miles, to Frederic

142,578 208,237 276,117 ton, the seat of government; and small steamers ply farther upward for Showing an increase of 32} per cent from 1838 to 1851. Excluding Cape richest and most prolific portion of BritBreton, whose population decreased ish North America. Nothing can exdaripg these years, Nova Scotia has ceed their enduring fertility and fruitfuladded to its inhabitants nearly 40 per ness, to which there seems no reasonable cent. Its principal religious denomi

limit. nations, from which we gather a fair These marshes are said to contain idea of the origin of the population, an area of upwards of 40,000 acres, were, in 1851,

valued at about 60 dollars per acre.

Persons. The improved land was about 800,000 Church of England, . .

36.482 acres in 1851. Nova Scotia, however, Roman Catholics, . . 69.634

69,634 although as yet behindhand in its Presbyterians,

agriculture, is rich in its fisheries, and Kirk of Scotland, .

18,867 in the possession of minerals. In 1851, Presbytery of Nova Scotia, 28,767 the number of vessels employed in Free Church of Scotland, . 25,280

the fisheries was 812, with a burthen Baptists, · ·

42,243 .

· Methodists,

: :

of 43,333 tons, manned by 3681 men. 23,596

The number of boats engaged was The progress of the province, both 5161, manned by 6713 men. The in population and in wealth, has been total value of the products of the fish materially aided by its chief port, and oil was estimated as greatly exHalifax, being adopted as a calling ceeding a million of dollars. The coalstation for the Cunard line of mail mines of the province are situated at steamers between this country and Pictou, on the Gulf of St Lawrence, the United States; and this progress in Cape Breton, and at the head of must be materially aided when the the Bay of Fundy. The main seam railwaycommunications projected from at Pictou is thirty-three feet in thickits Atlantic seaboard, to join those ness, with twenty-four feet of good which are in progress from Lower coal, of which thirteen feet are fit for Canada to the westward, are carried exportation, and the remainder valuout. This must eventually be done, able for furnaces and forges. The as the splendid harbours which Nova principal exportation is to ports in Scotia possesses point her out as des, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, tined to provide a route for a large with a small quantity to New York. portion of the traffic, both passenger The quality is bituminous; and the and merchandise, between the Atlan amount shipped to the United States tic and the Far West. It is stated alone was estimated, by the Hon. S. on reliable authority that, between Cunard, the general agent for the Halifax and Cape Canso, there are mines, to have been, in 1850, 62,954 twelve ports capable of receiving chaldrons of coarse, and 8518 chalships of the line, and fourteen others drons of slack. Cape Breton is also of sufficient depth for merchantmen. rich in minerals and in its fisheries. Unlike most other portions of British It contains a noble sea-water lakeAmerica, the province has not as yet the Bras d'Or-considered to have developed a large amount of agricul- been formed by some volcanic eruptural resources. Some of its high tion, upon which fisheries of every lands are rocky and sterile ; but even kind are carried on with great sucthese, when the surface is cleared cess. It has two entrances from the away, are found to possess an under- sea, one of which is twenty-three soil of great fertility. The portion miles long, and the other twentybest adapted for cultivation is its

five miles. The shores of these ennorth-eastern section, which is thus trances, we are informed,

trances, we are informed, "are settled described :

by Scotch Highlanders and emigrants "Its most valuable portion is upon the

from the Hebrides, who prosecute the

fisheries in boats with much success." Bay of Fundy, where there are deep and

In several of the large bays conextensive deposits of rich alluvial matter, thrown down by the action of the extra

nected with the Bras d'Or, large ordinary tides of this extensive bay.

timber ships from England receive These deposits have been reclaimed from their cargoes at a distance of forty to the sea by means of dikes : and the 'diked sixty miles from the sea. The coal marshes,' as they are termed, are the deposits of Cape Breton extend over

about 120 square miles, containing dred miles, in breadth. The soundings on good working seams of bituminous it are from twenty-five to ninety-five coal of the best quality.

fathoms. The bottom is generally coverNova Scotia, including Cape Bre

ed with shell-fish. It is frequented by ton, has also made great progress in

immense shoals of small fish, most of

which serve as food for the cod. Where the number and extent of its manufacturing establishments. In 1851

the bottom is principally of sand, and the

depth of water about thirty fathoms, cod it possessed 1153 saw-mills, em

is found in greatest plenty ; on a muddy ploying 1786 hands; 398 grist-mills,

bottom cod are not numerous. The best employing 437 hands; 237 tanneries, fishing-grounds on the Grand Bank are employing 374 hands; 81 weaving between latitudes 42° and 46° north." and carding shops, employing 119 The deep-sea fishery is prosecuted hands, and containing 11,096 looms, on this bank in vessels of considerable with other manufacturing establish size; but the shore fishery is carried ments of a miscellaneous character. on by the humbler portion of the inThe increase of its imports and ex- habitants, in boats, or vessels of a size ports has been very striking during corresponding with the means of those the past few years, the total having who use them. The shore fishery is been, in 1849, 7,728,925 dollars ; the most productive, both of fish and 8,637,495 dollars in 1850; and oil. Herrings frequent the coasts in 9,069,950 in 1851.

vast shoais, but are not regarded as One of our most singular colonies, worth taking, except for bait. The to a European, is the island colony of most profitable fishery is that for Newfoundland. Viewed from the seals, which has been increasing sea, it has a wild and sterile ap- during the past few years, and empearance, covered with three different ploys a considerable amount of tonkinds of vegetation, the districts con- nage. In 1851 there were engaged taining which are classed as “woods," in the seal fishery throughout the * marshes," and "barrens." The island of Newfoundland 323 vessels, trees of Newfoundland consist prin- with an aggregate tonnage of 29,545 cipally of the pine, spruce, fir, larch tons, manned by 11,377 men. The (or Hackmatac), and birch. Some population, by the census of 1845, lighter woods are also found in the was 96,295 souls. On the 1st of colony. The timber is generally of January 1852, it was estimated at small growth. In the valley and the 125,000, of whom 30.000 were enlow lands are found open tracts or gaged directly in the fisheries. The marshes. These are very fertile. produce of these, including oil, was The "barrens ” occupy the summits estimated in 1851 at over £900,000 of the high lands, and produce little sterling. The coast of Labrador, beyond shrubs and herbs of various north of Newfoundland, is also the kinds. One of the most remarkable resort of a large amount of tonnage features of the country is the abun. and fishermen, chiefly from New. dance of lakes or ponds, which cover foundland and Nova Scotia. The its surface, and are to be found even value of the quantity of seals and upon its highest bills. The island fish caught is variously estimated at contains no river, and scarcely any from £600,000 to $800,000 sterling streams. Its area is estimated at per annum. 23,040,000 acres.

When we come to regard British The great staple of Newfoundland America as a whole, there are some is its codtish, the pursuit of which is considerations with respect to its either undertaken in large vessels in future which forcibly strike the mind. the open sea, upon the Grand Bank Throughout the various provinces of Newfoundland, or else in boats there was in 1851 a population of near the coast of the island. The close upon two millions five bandred Grand Bank is thus described in the souls, owing allegiance to the British report of Mr Andrews :

crown, extensive consumers of Brit«The Grand Bank is the most extensive

ish products, and employing a large submarine elevation yet discovered. It amount of

amount of British capital and shipis about six hundred miles in length, and ping, which promises an amazing inin some places five degrees, or two bun- crease, when, in the course of a few

years, the great works now in course from the Crown Lands Department, of formation are completed. It must dated “Quebec, 6th August 1852," be obvious to the most careless ob- the price of land east of the county of server that the progress of this new Ontario, within Upper Canada, was people in commerce, in wealth, and fixed at four shillings per acre ; in in numbers, is only just commencing the county of Ottawa at three shilThe vast resources of the soil which lings; and in some districts as low they occupy cannot be said to have as one shilling per acre, payable by been as yet developed to more than instalments. There is timber upon the merest fraction of their real ex- such new lands which will generally tent, whilst the natural advantages of cover the expense of clearing it. its position, climate, &c., have been There is no opportunity for investvery partially made use of, and indeed ment upon terms like these in the are scarcely comprehended. Of one United States. The German exodus, of the most valuable portions of the as it may with truth be called, has territory of Canada–the valley of the increased since 1852 ; and during the Ottawa-a very small area only has past few months the streets and been explored; yet it is ascertained quays of our ports of emigration have that this territory, possessed of fer- been thronged with these strangers. tility equal to the valley of the Mis- The following extract from a Liversissippi, is capable, when cleared and pool paper will furnish an idea of the brought under cultivation, of sup- rapid rate at which the movement porting a population treble in number towards the New World is progressof that which is now spread over the ing : whole of the different provinces. Such “The total number of emigrant ships population, too, from their position, which have left Liverpool during the must become directly tributary to past month (May) for all foreign ports, Great Britain as consumers of her has been fifty-seven, of an aggregate tonmanufactured products, whilst they nage of 64,425 tons, and having on board can supply her markets with pro- a total number of 27,128 passengers, of ducts of the forest and of agricul

whom 5270 were English, 1611 Scotch, ture to an almost unlimited extent,

13,722 Irish ; 6287 natives of other counand afford vastly increased employ

tries, chiefly Germans; and 238 firstment for her shipping and her sea

cabin pascengers. Of these, thirty-six

ships were for the United States, with men. We have not, moreover, to 18,405 emigrants on board, composed depend for the peopling of this or any principally of Irish and Germans, there other portion of British America upon being upwards of 10,000 of the former emigration from the parent country. and 4000 of the latter. The exodus of Germany is sending forth the most the Germans, indeed, seems to increase energetic and industrious of her po- in intensity with every month, the lodgpulation to the new soils of the West. ing-houses devoted to them during their In the seven years from 1846 to 1852, brief sojourn in Liverpool being continuaccording to a report of a Hamburg

ally crowded." society, 725,132 persons emigrated, In fact, the only bar to a still fureither direct from Continental ports ther amount of emigration, both from or through British ports; and of this this country and from Europe, is the number, all except a mere fraction want of means of conveyance at a reaproceeded across the Atlantic, and sonable rate, the passage-money at the bulk of them went to the United present charged being from 50 to 60 States' ports. We know, however, per cent higher than it was two or that, although taking this route, the three years ago. ulterior resort of a considerable por- Another influence which must tend tion of this population is the western to promote the growth both of Britportion of Upper Canada, bordering ish America and the United States is upon the great lakes, as, from the the additional use of steam as a prorise which has taken place in the pelling power for ships. We have price of land in the United States, now crossing the Atlantic six different the prospects of a settler there are no lines of steamers to these countries ; longer so encouraging as in British viz., the Cunard mail-boats, touching America. For example, by an order every alternate week at Halifax, Nova Scotia ; the Collins' line of American nery and science are increasingly apmail steamers; a line of screw vessels plied to promote their development; to Portland and Quebec; a line from and the time is probably not far disHavre and Southampton to New tant when the interests of British York; a line of screw steamers from America and the United States will Liverpool to New York; and a line become commercially identical. of screw steamers from Liverpool to But, it may be asked,- What would Philadelphia. The settler in our colo. be the result of a hostile collision benies is thus placed in constant com- tween two nations, thus intimately munication with the mother country connected, and adjoining each other? and with Earope; and what is im. We have heard a great quantity of portant, as bearing upon the future blustering talk about annexation by progress of emigration, means are the United States of the British posafforded him, which are both expedi- sessions in America. But this talk tious and easily available, for the re- has come almost entirely from sources mittance home of his savings, for the not American — from the organs of purpose of enabling his friends or Irish patriots (?) thirsting for an opkinsmen to join him in his new portunity of converting ~ England's country. The extent to which emi. difficulty” into “ Ireland's opportugration, from Ireland especially, is nity," for revenge and bloodshed. The paid for by remittances from the really valuable and estimable portion United States and British America is of the United States people scout the surprising, and at the same time thought of a quarrel, to be decided by most gratifying, as illustrative of the arms, between the British and the inexistence of a kindly trait in the Cel habitants of North America and the tic and Anglo-Saxon character.

great Republic. Nothing could be so A most important consideration wicked, so damaging to the best intewith respect to the future of British rests of both parties, and of the entire America, is the position which she human race, as such a fratricidal occupies towards what may be regard quarrel. British America, however, ed as the great Transatlantic power is not so powerless as may be imaRegarded commercially, British Ame- gined to resist aggression from the rica occupies a position which renders United States, and she is not at all her of infinite advantage to the com- likely to invite annexation. In the merce and greatness of the mother first place, her position is one of great country. Her territory extending natural strength to resist such aggresalong the frontier of the United States sion. An American writer says of from north-east to south-west, from it :Maine to Michigan - a distance of “ Among the prominent features of from fourteen to fifteen hundred miles Canada, her military position is worthy -effectually checks the adoption by of notice. She is the most northern American statesmen of a prohibitory power upon this continent; and in confi. policy, or high tariff duties, against guration upon the globe she presents a British productions. The enforcement triangular form, the apex of which forms of such a policy would be utterly im

the extreme southing, and penetrates the practicable, even if the attempt could

United States frontier ; while the base is be seriously entertained for a moment.

remote, and rests upon the icy regions of

the north. No system of customs could effectu

Flanked by the inhospitable ally guard a frontier so extended,

coast of Labrador upon the east, and by

the almost inaccessible territories of the and especially one composed of lakes Hudson's Bay territory on the west, she and navigable rivers common to the can only be attacked in front ;' when, shipping and commerce of two coun- retiring into more than Scythian fasttries, having different systems of taxa- nesses on the Ottawa and Saguenay, and tion. The United States, however, keeping up communication with the strong are yearly becoming less dependent fortress of Quebec, she can maintain of a customs revenue to meet the ex

strong and powerful resistance against penditure of their government. Their foreign hostile invaders." public debt is rapidly diminishing in In the second place, the population amount; their manufactures and pro- of Upper Canada, where the chief duce require less protection, as machi- source of danger from a hostile colli

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