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abundant and excellent armament of the most perfect modern system.

I must give similar recommendation on behalf of our youthful navy, which has already given so many proofs of its competence and love of science-a sure guarantee of all that the nation can expect from its intelligent services. The Naval School, and that of naval apprentices, have been reorganized with the object of making more practical the instruction of the youths entering the service after having studied in them.

A regulation issued for the administration of the Arsenal Department has systematized the accounts and whatever concerns the economic service of the navy.

A lighthouse has been established on the coast of Valdivia; and to facilitate navigation, the most dangerous banks and points in the Straits of Magellan and the rest of the coast of the Republic have been buoyed.

A careful study of the whole of our coast has been made, with the object of forming a complete plan of maritime lighting, and another for buoying, which may be gradually carried out. The first plan is finished and published; and the second, also finished, will be published shortly.

The bar of the Maule is being studied by an experienced by draulic engineer, brought from Europe with that special object, and we shall shortly obtain a definite plan of the works which it will be advisable to execute.

The plan for the formation of a dry dock, indispensable for the national marine, will be confided to the same engineer who has made the preparatory studies on our coast. With this work is connected that of the marine warehouses, which will naturally be erected in the same port as the dock.

As the advisability of proceeding systematically with the hydrographic works was evident, in May 1874 a special office was established, annexed to the Ministry of Marine, to which was entrusted the direction of all matters concerning that interesting branch of science. The office has fufilled perfectly the objects for which it was created, and during the two years of its existence it has published important works in the "Annuario" printed for that purpose.

From 1871 till now, the national vessels have explored more than 700 geographical miles of our coast; the archipelagos of Guaitecas, Chonos, and Taitao, consisting of hundreds of islands and channels; and many rivers, before unknown, of those southern regions. Many other important regions of Patagonia and the north of Chile have also been studied. Concerning these studies have been published many pamphlets and books of considerable interest to the advancement of the geography of the country, no fewer than 50 charts and

plans, and a great number of illustrations of importance and real utility to navigators.

Our fleet comprises to-day two iron-clads, four corvettes, five steamers, a schooner, and a hulk; they mount 50 guns, measure 11,000 tons, and are manned by 1,500 men. The acquisition of all this material and its maintenance imposes costly sacrifices on the State, but they are more than compensated for if we take into consideration that they import a guarantee of peace and honour to the Republic.

Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and of the Chamber of Deputies,

Taught by the experience that one acquires in the exercise of five years of government, on the point of returning to private life, and inspired only by the purest motives, I now direct a few words to the Representatives of the people, in whose hands are entrusted to-day the destinies of the nation.

During these last five years important modifications have been introduced into our political institutions. The Constitution of the State has received considerable reforms, in the organization and attributes of the various public powers, in the limitation of the excessive authority conceded to the President of the Republic by reason of a declaration of a state of siege or of extraordinary powers, and in the express authorization of certain political rights which, like those of association and meeting, have been elevated to the category of constitutional rights.

The Press Law of July 17, 1872, has sanctioned the amplest liberty in the publication of thought; and although lately the excesses of the press have been most lamentable, there exists no good reason for the adoption of repressive measures. It is much better to tolerate these painful consequences of an exceptional and transitory period than to endeavour to restrain the exercise of so precious a liberty, Tyranny will ever be impossible where reigns absolute freedom of the press; and to conspire against the other liberties and rights of the citizen, it will ever be necessary to commence by exterminating that freedom.

The Electoral Law of the 12th of November, 1874, has effected a truly radical reform, introducing universal suffrage without any other limitation than that of knowing how to read and write, trying practical means for the representation of minorities, and altering substantially the bases of the organization of the electoral power.

These important reforms have been carried into effect, and are now in uninterrupted operation, and without their having produced the slighest alteration in the orderly and progressive march of public affairs. It is grateful to me to bear such flattering testimony, because it is the most eloquent proof of the progress of the country,

and the vanity of those fears which, until lately, have been inspired by the noble ideas and the natural aspirations of reform and improvement entertained by lovers of liberty. It is in this field that the country has a right to expect the most from your labours, because it has entrusted its representation to you in a most propitious epoch for the progress of the people. In fact, no more favourable occasion than the present can be offered for the decisive continuation of a prudent reform in our institutions, giving to the important questions awaiting your enlightened decision a liberal solution that may affirm for ever the existence of precious social rights, at present unfor tunately uncertain and disputed.

May God enlighten you, and give you the necessary aid, that your labours may be fruitful in honour and benefit for our beloved country!


Santiago, June 1, 1876.

DECREE of the Argentine Republic, suppressing the British and French Postal Agencies.-Buenos Ayres, January 29, 1873.

Department of the Interior,


Buenos Ayres, January 29, 1873. CONSIDERING: that by Decrees of the 1st February and 25th September, 1858, of the Government of Buenos Ayres, concessions were granted to the steamers of the English Royal Mail SteamPacket Company and of the Messageries Impériales of France, in virtue of which there has passed through the English and French Consulates the correspondence not only for the intermediate ports, the object of the concession, but also a large portion of that intended to be conveyed by these steamers to Europe:

That the Republic being to-day in very frequent communication by the sea-route with that part of the world as well as with the Empire of Brazil and the Pacific Republics, the motives which gave origin to that concession have now ceased:


That the sale of English and French postage stamps, as well as those of other nations, is made not only by the respective Consulates, but also by many commercial houses, so that the complete prepayment of over-sea correspondence can be made with facility and without prejudicing commercial interests by the discontinuance of the concession referred to:

That postal receipts are a source of national revenue, and consequently should be collected in accordance with the laws:

In view of the explanations given by the Minister of Foreign

Affairs in his Memorandum of the 4th September last, as well as those given by the Postmaster-General and the National Advocate, the President of the Republic decrees:

ART. 1. The concession by the Government of this Province. above referred to is cancelled.

2. All correspondence which may leave the Republic, or be received therein, shall be under the charge of the postal authorities, subject to the laws and regulations affecting the same.

3. As the law does not prohibit the use of foreign postage stamps for the forwarding of letters beyond the Republic, the Post Office will receive and forward to its destination all correspondence delivered to it in this form, provided always that it bears the corresponding national stamps, and until such time as the respective Postal Conventions are arranged.

4. This Decree to come into force on the 1st of July in the present year.

5. Communicate, publish, and insert this in the "National Register."





CONSULAR CONVENTION between Bolivia and Peru.Signed at Lima, July 26, 1870.

[Ratifications exchanged at La Paz, July 14, 1873.]



THE Republics of Peru and Bolivia, recognizing the deficiency in their existing Consular covenants, and proposing to give them all the extension demanded by their immediate international relations and the protection of the commerce between them, have agreed in pursuance of Clause 5 of Article XII of the Treaty of Commerce and Customs signed on the 23rd of the present month,* to conclude a Convention, and for this purpose have appointed their Plenipotentiaries, to wit:

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The Most Excellent Señor Don José Balta, Constitutional Presi dent of the Republic of Peru, the Honourable Senator José Jorge Loayza, Advocate of Peru, former Minister of Finance, and at present of Foreign Affairs; and

The Most Excellent Señor Captain-General Don Mariano Mel* Vol. LX. Page 1238.

garejo, Provisional President of Bolivia, by direct suffrage of the people, the Honourable Señor Juan de la Cruz Benavente, exMinister of Foreign Affairs of Bolivia, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary on a Permanent Mission to Peru, Senior of the Honourable Foreign Diplomatic Body resident in Lima, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary on an Extraordinary Mission at the Cabinet of Washington, Advocate of Bolivia and of Peru:

Who, after having found their full powers sufficient and in due form, have agreed to the following stipulations:

ART. I. Each of the Contracting Republics shall have the right to appoint and maintain Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls and Consular Agents, in the cities, ports, and places of the other, where the residence of such functionaries shall be agreed to.

Persons of any nationality can be thus appointed.

II. The persons holding Consular appointments as set forth in the preceding Article shall not enter into the discharge of their functions without having obtained from the Government of the State in which they are to reside, the exequatur to their letters patent of appointment or commission according to the usage of the respective countries.

The Governments of the two Republics reserve to themselves the right of refusing the exequatur, and also of withdrawing it after it has been given, but in either case will communicate to the Government appointing the just motives of such a course.

III. The exequatur will be presented by the functionaries in whose favour it has been granted to the chief administrative authority of the Consular district, which having verified this indispensable document, and received from the Supreme Government the proper notice, will immediately adopt the measures requisite for the above-mentioned functionaries to be admitted to the enjoyment of the rights, privileges, and exemptions to which they are entitled.

IV. The Consuls-General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls and Consular Agents shall enjoy the following privileges:

1. The right of hoisting the flag, and of placing in front of their houses the arms of the nation they represent, without any idea of territorial right or right of asylum being thereby implied.

2. Absolute inviolability of their archives, which can in no case be taken possession of or examined by the authorities of the State in which they are preserved. These documents should always remain completely separate from books and personal letters, or from anything that may relate to the commerce, industry, or profession of the Consular functionary.

3. Independence of the local authorities in all that pertains to the exercise of their functions.

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