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Pneumatic may offer of making thein highly useful. A gentleman's of more air through the side-boles. They are therefore Pneumatic
Engines. house in the country may thus be supplied with water by a reclined a little backward, as represented in the figure. Engines.

machine that will cost little, and hardly go out of repair. It may be shown that their best form would be that of a

The last pneumatical engine which we shall speak of hyperbolic spiral abc; but the straight form approaches
at present is the common fanners, used for winnowing sufficiently near to the most perfect shape.
grain, and for drawing air out of a room : and we bave Much labour is lost, however, in carrying the air
but few observations to make on them.

round those parts of the drum where it cannot escape.
The wings of the fanners are inclused in a cylinder The fanners would either draw or discharge almost

or drum, whose circular sides have a large opening BDE twice as much air if an opening were made all round Fig. 202. (fig. 102.) round the centre, to admit the air. By one side. This could be gradually contracted (where

turning the wings rapidly round, the air is hurried required for winnowing) by a surrounding cone, and
round along with them, and thus acquires a centrifugal thus directed against the falling grain : this has been
tendency, by which it presses strongly on the outer rim verified by actual trial. When used for drawing air out
of the drum : this is gradually detached from the circle of a room for ventilation, it would be much better to
as at KI, and terminated in a trunk IHGF, which

goes remove the outer side of the drum entirely, and let the
off in a tangential direction; the air therefore is driven air fly freely off on all sides ; but the flat sides are ne-
along this passage.

cessary, in order to prevent the air from arriving at the If the wings were disposed in planes passing through fanners any other way but through the central boles, the axis C, the compression of the air by the anterior to which trunks should be fitted leading to the apartsurface would give it some tendency to escape in every ment wbich is to be ventilated. See BAROMETER and. direction, and would obstruct in some degree the arrival BAROMETRICAL MEASUREMENTS, SUPPLEMENT.




Рос Pneuma

PNEUMATOSIS. See MEDICINE, N° 336. nople, where he prosecuted his studies of the eastern Pococke. tosis PNEUMONIA. See MEDICINE, No 183. tongues, and procured many valuable manuscripts. Af Pococke.

PNEUMONICS, in Pharmacy, medicines proper in ter near four years stay in that city, he embarked in diseases of the lungs, in which respiration is affected. 1640; and taking Paris in his way, visited Gabriel Sio

PO, a large and celebrated river of Italy, which has nita the famous Alaronite, and Hugo Grotius. In 1643 its source at Mount Viss in Piedmont, and on the con he was presented to the rectory of Childrey in Berks ; fines of Dauphiny. It runs through Piedmont, Mont- and about three years after married the daughter of ferrat, the Milanese, and duchy of Mantua; from thence Thomas Burdett, Esq. About the middle of 1647 he it runs to the borders of the Parmesan, and a part of obtained the restitution of the salary of his Arabic lecthe Modenese ; and having entered the Ferrarese, it be- ture, which had been detained from him about three gins to divide at Ficheruolo, and proceeds to discharge years. In 1648 King Charles I. who was then prisoner itself into the gulf of Venice by four principal mouths. in the isle of Wight, nominated Mr Pococke to the proAs it passes along, it receives several rivers, and often fessorship of Hebrew, and the canonry of Christ church overflows its banks, doing a great deal of mischief: the annexed to it; but in 1650 he was ejected from his careason of which is, that most of those rivers descend nonry for refusing to take the engagement, and soon from the Alps, and are increased by the melting of the after a vote passed for depriving him of his Hebrew and

Arabic lectures ; but several governors of houses, &c. POA, MEADOW-GRASS; a genus of plants belonging presenting a petition in his favour, he was suffered to to the pentandria class, and in the natural method rank- enjoy both these places. He had some years before · ing under the fourth order, Gramina. See BOTANY published his Specimen Historiæ Arabum ; and now apand AGRICULTURE Inder.

peared bis Porta Mosis : and soon after the English Po- .

lyglot edition of the Bible, to which he had largely
POCOCKE, DR EDWARD, a learned oriental schoo contributed, and also Eutychius's Annals, with a Latin
lar, was the eldst son of the Rev. Edward Pococke;. version. At the Restoration, he was restored to the
and was born at Oxford in 1604, where he was also canonry of Christ-church, and also received the degree
educated. In 1628 he was admitted probationer-fellow of doctor of divinity. He then published his Arabic
of his college, and about the same time bad prepared an - version of Grotius's Treatise of the Truth of the Chris-
edition of the Second Epistle of St Peter, the Second. tian Religion ; and an Arabic poem entitled Laimato 1
and Third of St Joha, and that of St Jude, in Syriac Ajam, with a Latin translation and notes. Soon after
and Greek, with a Latin Translation and Notes. In he published Gregory AbulPbarajius's Historia Dynas-
1629 be was ordained priest, and appointed chaplain to tiarum. In 1674 he published an Arabic version of the
the English merchants at Aleppo, where he continued chief parts of the Liturgy of the church of England;
five or six years; in which time he distinguished himself and a few years after his Commentary on the Prophecies
by his fortitude and zeal while the plague raged there... of Micah, Malachi, Hosea, and Joel. This great man'
At length returning to England, he was in 1636 ap died in 1691, after having been for many years con-
pointed reader of the Arabic lectures founded by Arch fessedly the first person in Europe for eastern learning,
bishop Laud.
Three years after he went to Constanti, and was no less worthy of admiration for his uncommon.


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