Gambar halaman


Plants. downwards, in the middle glass vessel of Dr Nooth's nism, actuated solely by external impulse, is to deviate

machine, continued to thrive vigorously, without any from the soundest rule of philosophizing, which directs
other pabulum than what was supplied by the stream of us not to multiply causes when the effects appear to be
mephitic gas to which it was exposed. In 24 hours the

the same.

Neither will the laws of electricity better
stem formed into a curve, the head became erect, and solve the phenomena of this animated vegetable: for its
gradually ascended towards the mouth of the vessel ; leaves are equally affected by the contact of electric and
thus producing, by successive efforts, a new and unusual non-electric bodies; show no change in their sensibility
configuration of its parts. Such exertions in the sprig whether the atmosphere be dry or moist ; and instantly
of mint, to rectify its inverted position, and to remove close when the vapour of volatile alkali or the funes of
from a foreign to its natural element, seems to evince a burning sulphur are applied to them. The powers of
volition to avoid what was evil, and to recover wbat chemical stimuli to produce contractions in the fibres of
had been experienced to be good. If a plant, in a gar- this plant, may perhaps lead some philosophers to refer
gen plot, be placed in a room which has no light except them to the vis insita, or irritability, which they assign
from a hole in the wall, it will shoot towards the hole, to certain parts of organized matter, totally distinct
pass through it into the open air, and then vegetate up- from, and independent of, any sentient energy.

But the
wards in its proper direction. Lord Kames relates, bypothesis is evidently a solecism, and relutes itself.
that, ' amongst the ruins of New Abbey, formerly a mo- For the presence of irritability can only be proved by
nastery in Galloway, there grows on the top of a wall a the experience of irritations, and the idea of irritation
plane tree, 20 feet high. Straitened for nourishment involves in it that of feeling.
in that barren situation, it several years ago directed “ But there is a species of the order of decandria,
roots down the side of the wall till they reached the which constantly and uniformly exerts a self-moving
ground ten feet below: and now the nourishment it power, uninfluenced either by chemical stimuli, or by
afforded to these roots, during the time of descending, any external impulse whatsoever. This curious shrub,
is amply repaid ; having every year since that time made which was unknown to Linnæus, is a native of the East
vigorous shoots. From the top of the wall to the sur- Indies, but has been cultivated in several botanical gar-
face of the earth, these roots have not thrown out a dens here. I had an opportunity of examining it in the
single fibre, but are now united into a pretty thick hard collection of the late Dr Brown. See HEDYSARUM.

I cannot better comment on this wonderful degree of
" The regular movements by which the sun-flower vegetable animation than in the words of Cicero. Ina-
presents its splendid disk to the sun have been known nimum est omne quod pulsu agitatur externo ; quod au-
to naturalists, and celebrated by poets, both of ancient tem est animal, id motu cietur interiore et suo.
and modern times. Ovid founds upon it a beautiful “I have thus attempted, with the brevity prescribed
story; and Thomeon describes it as an attachment of by the laws of this society, to extend our views of ani-
love to the celestial luminary.

mated nature; to gratify the mind with the contempla

tion of multiplied accessions to the general aggregate of
• But one, the lofty follower of the sun,
• Sad when he sets, shuts up her yellow leaves,

felicity; and to exalt our conceptions of the wisdom,
Drooping all night , and when he warm returns,

power, and beneficence of God. In an undertaking new • Points her enamour'd bosom to his ray.'

ver get accomplished, disappointment can be no disgrace: Summer, line 216.

in one directed to such noble objects, the motives are a

justification, indepeudently of success. Truth, indeed, Dr Percival next touches on motion ; he mentions co- obliges me to acknowledge, that I review my specula* See Pen-rallines, sea-pens*,oysters, & endued with the power tions with much diffidence; and that I dare not prenatula, Os- of motion in a very small degree, and then he speaks in sume to expect they will produce any permanent contrea, Myti- the following manner. “Mr Miller (says he), in his viction in others, because I experience an instability of tus, &ic.

late account of the island of Sumatra, mentions a spe- opinion in myself. For, to use the language of Tully,
cies of coral, which the inhabitants have mistaken for a Nescio quomodo, dum lego, assentior; cum posui librum,
plant, and have denominated it lalan-cout, or sea-grass.

assensio omnis illa elabitur.-But this scepticism is per-
It is found in shallow bays, where it appears like a haps to be ascribed to the influence of habitual precon-
straight stick, but when touched withdraws itself into ceptions, rather than to a deficiency of reasonable proof.
the sand. Now if self-moving faculties like these indi. For besides the various arguments wbich have been ad-
cate animality, can such a distinction be denied to vege- vanced in favour of vegetable perceptivity, it may be
tables possessed of them in an equal or superior degree? further urged, that the hypothesis recommends itself by
The water-lily, be the pond deep or shallow in which it its consonance to those higher analogies of nature, which
grows, pushes up its flower-stems till they reach the open lead us to conclude, that the greatest possible sum of
air, that the farina fecundans may perform without in- happiness exists in the universe. The bottom of the
jury its proper office. About 7 in the morning the stalk ocean is overspread with plants of the most luxuriant
erects itself, and the flowers rise above the surface of the magnitude. Immense regions of the earth are covered
water: in this state they continue till four in the after. with perennial forests. Nor are the Alps, or the An-
noon, when the stalk becomes relaxed, and the flowers des destitute of herbage, though buried in deeps of
sink and close. The motions of the sensitive plant have And can it be imagined that such profusion of
been long noticed with admiration, as exhibiting the life subsists without the least sensation or enjoyment ?
most obvious signs of perceptivity. And if we admit Let us rather, with humble reverence, suppose, tbat ve.
such motions as criteria of a like power in other be- getables participate, in some low degree, of the common
ings, to attribute them in this instance to mere mecha- allotment of vitality; and that our great Creator liath
Vol. XVI. Part II.





4 H

Plants, apportioned good to all living things, 'in number, kept fresh two or three days in this box much better Piante

weight, and measure.” See SENSITIVE Plant, MIMO- than by putting tbem in water. When you are going sa, Dionæa Muscipula, Vegetable Motion, &c. to preserve them, suffer them to lie upon a table

until To these ingenious and spirited observations, we shall they become limber; and then they should be laid upon subjoin nothing of our own, but leave our readers to a pasteboard, as much as possible in their natural form, determine for themselves (c). Speculations of this kind, but at the same time with a particular view to their gewhen carried on by sober men, will never be productive neric and specific characters. For this purpose it will of bad consequences; but by the subtle sceptic, or the be adviseable to separate one of the flowers, and to dismore unwary inquirer, they may be made the engine of play the generic character. If the specific character devery dangerous errors. By this we do not mean to in- pend upon the flower or upon the root, a particular sinuate that the spirit of inquiry should be suppressed, display of that will be likewise necessary. When the because that spirit, in the hands of weak or of wicked plant is thus disposed upon the pasteboard, cover it with men, may be abused. By those, however, who know eight or ten layers of spongy paper, and put it into the the bad consequences that may be drawn, and indeed press. Exert only a small degree of pressure for the that have been drawn, from the opinions we have now first two or three days; then examine it, unfold any ungiven an account of, our caution will not be deemed natural plaits, rectify any mistakes, and, after putting impertinent. See ANATOMY VEGETABLE, SUPPLE- fresh paper over it, screw the press barder. In about MENT.

three days more separate the plant from the pasteboard, Plants growing on Animals. See INSECTS giving if it is sufficiently firm to allow of a change of place; put root to Plants.

it upon a fresh pasteboard, and, covering it with fresh Seres of PlantS. See Sexes and BOTANY. blossom paper, let it remain in the press a few days lonColours of PLANTS. See Colour of Plants. ger. The press should stand in the sunshine, or within Colours extracted from Plants. See COLOUR-making. the influence of a fire.

Method of Drying and Preserving Plants for Bota- When it is perfectly dry, the usual method is to fanists.—Many methods have been devised for the preser- sten it down, with paste or gum water, on the rightvation of plants : we shall relate only those that have hand inner page of a sheet of large strong writing. been found most successful.

paper. It requires some dexterity to glue the plant Wither- First prepare a press, which a workman will make by neatly down, so that none of the gum or paste may ing's Bota- the following directions. Take two planks of wood not appear to defile the paper. Press it gently again for nical Ar., liable to warp. The planks must be two inches thick, a day or two, with a balf sheet of blosson-paper berangement, Introd.

18 inches long, and 12 inches broad. Get four male twixt the folds of the writing-paper. When it is quite P. 48.

and four female screws, such as are commonly used for dry, write upon the left-band inner page of the paper securing sash windows. Let the four female screwy be the name of the plant ; the specific character; the let into the four corners of one of the planks, and cor- place where, and the time when, it was found; and responding holes made through the four corners of the any other remarks you may think proper. Upon the other plank for the male screws to pass through, so as to back of the same page, near the fold of the paper, allow the two planks to be screwed tightly together. It write the name of the plant, and then place it in your will not be amiss to face the bearing of the male screws cabinet. A small quantity of finely powdered arsenic, upon the wood with iron plates ; and if the iron plates or corrosive sublimate, is usually mixed with the paste went across from corner to corner of the wood, it would or gum-water, to prevent the devastations of insects; be a good security against the warping.

but the seeds of staves acre finely powdered will anSecondly, get half a dozen quires of large soft spongy swer the same purpose, without being liable to corpaper (such as the stationers call blossom blotting paper rode or to change the colour of the more delicate is the best), and a few sheets of strong pasteboard. plants. Some people put the dried plants into the

The plants you wish to preserve should be gathered sheets of writing-paper, without fastening them down at in a dry day, after the sun hath exhaled the dew; ta- all; and others only fasten them by means of small slips king particular care to collect them in that state where- of paper, pasted across the stem or branches. Where in their generic and specific characters are most conspi- the species of any genus are numerous, and the speci

Carry them home in a tin box nine inches mens are small, several of them may be put into one long, four inches and a half wide, and one inch and a half deep. Get the box made of the thinnest tinned Another more expeditious method is to take the plants iron that can be procured ; and let the lid open upon out of the press after the first or second day; let them hinges. If any thing happen to prevent the immediate remain upon the pasteboard; cover them with five or use of the specimens you have collected, they will be six leaves of blossom paper, and iron them with a bot



sheet of paper.

(c) In the 2d volume of Transactions of the Linnæun Society, we find Dr Percival's reasoning very ably combated, as far as he draws his consequences from the external motions of plants; where it is argued, that these motions, though in some respects similar to those of animals, can and ought to be explained, without concluding that they are endowed either with perception or volition. Mr Townson concludes his paper in these words : “ When all is considered (says he), I think we shall place this opinion among the many ingenious flights of the imagination, and soberly follow that blind impulse which leads us naturally to give sensation and perceptivity to animal life, and to deny it to vegetables; and so still say with Aristotle, and our great master Linnæus, Vegetabilia crescunt & vivunt; animalai crescunt, vivunt, & sentiunt."

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Plants. smoothing iron until they are perfectly dry. If the iron more delicate subjects of the vegetable world. These Plants,

be too hot, it will change the colours, but some people, are usually immersed either in a blackish slaty substance,
taught by long practice, will succeed very happily. This found lying over the strata of coal, else in loose nodules
is quite the best method to treat the orchis and other of ferruginous matter of a pebble-like form, and they are
slimy mucilaginous plants.

always altered into the nature of the substance they lie Another method is to take the plants when fresh ga- among: what we meet with of these are principally of thered, and, instead of putting them into the press, im- the fern kind; and what is very singular, though a very mediately to fasten them down to the paper with strong certain truth, is, that these are principally the ferns of gum-water : then dip a camel-hair pencil into spirit-var. American growth, not those of our own climate. The nish, and varnish the whole surface of the plant two or most frequent fossil plants are the polypody, spleenwort, three times over. This method succeeds very well with osmund, trichomanes, and the several larger and smaller plants that are readily laid flat, and it preserves their co- ferns; but besides these there are also found pieces of lours better than any other. The spirit varnish is made the equisetum or horse-tail, and joints of the stellated thus. To a quart of highly rectified spirit of wine put plants, as the clivers, madder, and the like; and these five ounces of gum sandarach ; two ounces of mastich in bave been too often mistaken for flowers ; sometimes drops; one ounce of pale gum elemi, and one ounce of oil there are also found complete grasses, or parts of them, of spike-lavender. Let it stand in a warm place, and as also reeds, and other watery plants ; sometimes the shake it frequently to expedite the solution of the gums. ears of corn, and not unfrequently the twigs or bark,

Where no better convenience can be had, the speci- and impressions of the bark and fruit of the pine or fir mens may be disposed systematically in a large folio kind, which have been, from their scaly appearance, book; but a vegetable cabinet is upon all accounts more mistaken for the skins of fishes; and sometimes but eligible. With the assistance of the following descrip- that very rarely, we meet with mosses and sea plants. tion a workman may readily make one. The drawers Many of the ferns not unfrequently found, are of must have backs and sides, but no other front than a very singular kinds, and some species yet unknown to small ledge. Each drawer will be 14 inches wide, and us; and the leaves of some appear set at regular distan30 inches from the back to the front, after allowing balfces, with round protuberances and cavities. The stones an inch for the thickness of the two sides, and a quarter which contain these plants split readily, and are often of an inch for the thickness of the back. The sides of found to contain, on one side, the impression of the the drawers, in the part next the front, must be sloped plant, and on the other the prominent plant itself ; off in a serpentine line, something like what the work- and, beside all that have been mentioned, there have men call an ogee. The bottoms of the drawers must be been frequently supposed to bave been found with us made to slide in grooves cut in the uprights, so that no ears of common wheat, and of the maize or Indian space may be lost betwixt drawer and drawer. After corn; the first being in reality no other than the comallowing a quarter of an inch for the thickness of the mon endmost branches of the firs, and the other the bottom of each drawer, the clear perpendicular space thicker boughs of various species of that and of the pine in each must be as in the following table.

kind, with their leaves fallen off'; such branches in such

a state cannot but afford many irregular tubercles and I. Two-tenths of an inch. XIV. Three inches and eight

papillæ, and, in some species, such as are more regu-
II. One inchan two-tenths.

III. Fourinches and six-tenths. XV. Three inches and four-

larly disposed.
IV. Two inches and three-


These are the kinds most obvious in England; and

XVI. One inch and three. these are either immersed in the slaty stone which consti-
V. Seven inches and eight-

XVII. Two inches and eight-

tutes whole strata, or in flatted nodules usually of about

three inches broad, which readily split into two pieces VI. Two inches and two.


XVIII. Six-tenths of an inch. on being struck.
VIL. Two-tenths of an inch. XIX. Ten inches.

They are most common in Kent, in coal-pits near
VIII. One inch and four-tenths. XX One ineh and nine-

Newcastle, and the forest of Dean in Gloucestershire;
IX. Two-tenths of an inch.

X. Two inches and eight- XXI. Four inches and four-

but are more or less found about almost all our coal-pits,


and many of our iron mines. Though these seem the XI. One inch and two-tenths. XXII. Two inches and six- only species of plants found with us, yet in Germany XII Three inches and five


there are many others, and those found in different sub-
XXIII. One inch and

stances. A whitisb stone, a little harder than chalk,
XIII. Two inches and four-

XXIV. Seventeen incles.

freqnently contains them : they are found also often in

a gray slaty stone of a firmer texture, not unfrequently
This cabinet shuts up with two doors in front; and in a blackish one, and at times in many others. Nor
the whole may stand upon a base, containing a few are the bodies themselves less various here than the mate
drawers for the reception of duplicates and papers. ter in which they are contained : the leaves of trees are

Fossil Plants. Many species of tender and herba- found in great abundance, among which those of the
ceous plants are found at this day in great abundance, willow, poplar, white thorn, and pear trees, are the
buried at considerable depths in the earth, and converted, most common ; small branches of box, leaves of the
as it were, into the nature of the matter they lie among; olive tree, and stalks of garden thyme, are also found
fossil wood is often found very little altered, and often there ; and sometimes ears of the various species of
impregnated with substances of almost all the different corn, and the larger as well as the smaller mosses in
fossil kinds, and lodged in all the several strata, some- great abundance.
times firmly imbedded in hard matter; sometimes loose; These seem the tender vegetables, or herbaceous
but this is by no means the case with the tenderer and plants, certainly found thus immersed in lard stone, and

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Plants buried at great depths in the earth : others of many kinds born ; because it commonly grows by the wayside ; the Plantago

there are also named by authors; but as in bodies so im- great hoary plantain, or lambs-tongue; the narrow-leaPlantago. perfect errors are easily fallen into, these seem all that ved plantain, or ribwort.

Plantercan be ascertained beyond mere conjecture.


ship Plants, method of preserving them in their original Plantain Tree. See Musa, BOTANY Index. shape and colour. Wash a sufficient quantity of fine sand, PLANTATION, in the West Indies, denotes a so as perfectly to separate it from all other substances; spot of ground which a planter, or person arrived in a dry it; pass it through a cieve to clear it from any gross new colony, pitches on to cultivate for his own use, or particles which would not rise in the washing : take an is assigned for that purpose. However, the term plancarthen vessel of a proper size and form, for every plant

tation is often used in a term synonymous with colony. and flower which you intend to preserve; gather your

See COLONY, plants and flowers when they are in a state of perfection, PLANTERSHIP, in a general sense, the business and in dry weather, and always with a convenient por- of a planter. tion of the stalk : heat a little of the dry sand prepared PLANTERSHIP, in the West Indies, denotes the maas above, and lay it in the bottom of the vessel, so as nagement of a sugar plantation, including not only the equally to cover it; lay the plant or flower upon it so cultivation of the cane, but the various processes for the as that no part of it may touch the sides of the vessel : extraction of the sugar, together with the making of sasift or shake in more of the same sand by little upon it, gar-spirits. See Rum, SACCHARUM, and SUGAR. so that the leaves may be extended by degrees, and with- To effect a design so comprehensive, it is necessary out injury, till the plant or flower is covered about two for a planter to understand every branch of the art preinches thick : put the vessel into a stove, or hot-house, cisely, and to use the utmost attention and caution both heated by little and little to the goth degree ; let it in the laying dowu and executing of his plans. It is stand there a day or two, or perhaps more, according to therefore the duty of a good planter to inspect every the thickness and succulence of the flower or plant; part of his plantation with his own eyes; to place bis then gently shake the sand out upon a sheet of paper, provisions, stores, and utensils, in regular order, and in and take out the plant, which you will find in all its safe repositories ; that by preserving them in perfecbeanty, the shape as elegant, avd the colour as vivid, as tion, all kinds of waste may be prevented. when it grew.

But as negroes, cattle, mules, and horses, are as it Some flowers require certain little operations to pre- were the nerves of a sugar-plantation, it is expedient to serve the adherence of their petals, particularly the tu- treat that subject with some accuracy. lip; with respect to which it is necessary, before it is of Negroes, Cattle, &c.] In the first place, then, as buried in the sand, to cut the triangular fruit which rises it is the interest of every planter to preserve his negroes in the middle of the flower; for the petals will then re- iv bealth and strength; so every act of cruelty is not less main more firnıly attached to the stalk.

repugnant to the master's real profit, than it is contrary A bortus siccus prepared in this manner would be to the laws of humanity: and if a manager considers his one of the most beautiful and useful curiosities that own ease and his employer's interest, he will treat all

negroes under bis care with due benevolence; for good Moving Plant. See HEDYSARUM, BOTANY Index. discipline is by no means inconsistent with humanity: on Sea Plants. See Sea Plants.

the contrary, it is evident from experience, that he who Sensitive Plant. See MIMOSA, BOTANY Index. feeds his negroes well, proportions their labour to their

Plant-Lice, Vine.fretters, or Pucerons. See Aphis, age, sex, and strength, and treats them with kindness ENTOMOLOGY Index.

and good nature, will reap a much larger product, and PLANTA, a PLANT. See Plant.

with infinitely more ease and self-satisfaction, than the Planta Fominea, a female plant, is one which bears most eruel taskmaster, who starves his negroes, or chafemale flowers only. It is opposed to a male plant, stises them with undue severity. Every planter then who was ten es which bears only male flowers; and to an androgynous wishes to grow rich with ease, must be a good economist ; Planter one, which bears flowers of both sexes. Female plants must feed his negroes with the most wholesome food, suf. skip. are produced from the same seed with the male, and ficient to preserve them in health and vigour. Common arrange themselves under the class of diccia in the experience points out the methods by which a planter sexual method.

may preserve his people in health and strength. Some PLANTAGENET, the surname of the kings of of his most fruitful land should be allotted to each negra England from Henry II. to Richard III. inclusive. in proportion to his family, and a sufficient portion of Antiquarians are much at a loss to account for the ori. time allowed for the cultivation of it; but because such gin of this name; and the best derivation they can find allotment cannot in long droughts produce enough for for it is, that Fulk, the first earl of Anjou of that name, his comfortable support, it is the incumbent duty of a being stung with remorse for some wicked action, went good planter to have always his stores well filled with in pilgrimage to Jerusalem as a work of atonement ; Guinea corn, yams, or eddoes, besides potatoes growing where, being soundly scourged with broom twigs, which in regular succession: for plenty begets cheerfulness of grew plentifully on the spot, he ever after took the sur- heart, as well as strength of body; by which more work name of Plantagenet or broomstalk, which was retained is ellected in a day by the same hands than in a week, by his noble posterity.

when enervated by want and severity. Scanty meals PLANTAGO, PLANTAIN; a genus of plants bea may sustain life; but it is evident, that more is requiste longing to the tetrandria class. See BOTANY Index.- to enable a negro or any other person to go through the Of the plantain there are the following species : The necessary labours. He, therefore, who will reap pleati. common broad-leaved plantain, called waybred or way. fully, must plant great abundance of provisions as well.

cau be.

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Planter. as sugar canes; and it is nature's economy so to fructify before they are caten. In this season of abundance, Planter. ship. the soil by the growth of yams, plantains, and potatoes, great ricks of cane-tops (the butt ends turned inwards) ship

as to yield better harvests of sugar, by that very means, should be made in the most convenient corner of each
than can be produced by many other arts of cultivation. field, to supply the want of pasturage and other food :
Plantains are the principal support of all the negroes in and these are very wholesome if chopped into small parts,
Jamaica; and are also much cultivated, at great expence and mixed sometimes with common salt or sprinkled
of manure, in Barbadoes ; but ought not to be solely de- with melasses mixed with water ; but yet the cattle re-
pended upon in climates subject to burricanes. A cele- quire change of food to preserve them in strength; such
brated planter and economist of the last-mentioned island, as Guinea-corn, and a variety of grass, which every soil
who raised an immense fortune from very small begin- produces with a little care in moist weather; and indeed
nings only by planting, affirmed, that he fed constantly this variety is found necessary in all climes.
at least 300 negroes out of 12 acres of plantains. How But since that variety is not to be had during those
that excellent produce came to be so long neglected in severe droughts to which hot climates are liable, and
some of the islands it is hard to guess; but at present the much less in those small islands which cannot furnish
neglect seems to be founded upon a vulgar error, that large tracts of meadow-lands for hay, the only resource
plantains cannot thrive in any other than low moist soils. is the fodder of cane-tops or tedded Guinea-corn leaves;
In such places, no doubt, they fourish most luxuriantiy; which are very nutritious, and may be preserved in per-
but yet they thrive and bear fruit abundantly on moun- fection for more than a whole year, provided the tops
tains and marshes, and in the driest black mould upon or Guinea-corn are well tedded for three or four hot
marle or rocks, and even in sharp gravelly soils, as may days as they lie spread in the field; and then, being tied
be evinced by numberless instancesa

into bundles or sheaves, must lie in the hot sun for three
However plenty of wholesome food may be condu- or four days more, when they may be fit to be put up.
cive to health, there are also other means, equally neces- into ricks. The best method of making them is in an
sary to the strength and longevity of negroes, well worth oblong figure, about 30 feet in length, and 16 or 18 feet.
the planter's attention ; and those are, to choose airy wide; seven feet high at the sides, and from thence slop-
dry situations for their houses; and to observe frequentlying like the roof of an house, the ridge of which must
that they be kept clean, in good repair, and perfectly be ihatched very carefully; for the sides may be secured
water-tight; for nastiness, and the inclemencies of wea- from wet by placing the bundles with the butts upwards
ther, generate the most malignant diseases. If these towards the ridge, in courses, and lapping the upper
bouses are situated also in regular order, and at due over the lower course.
distances, the spaces may at once prevent general deva- The best method of forming those ricks is to place
stations by fire, and furnish plenty of fruits and pot- the first course of bundles all over the base one way;
berbs, to please an unvitiated palate, and to purify the the second course reversely; and so alternately till the
blood. Thus then ought every planter to treat bis ne- rick be finished,
groes with tenderness and generosity, that they may be When cattle are to be fed with this fodder, it must be
induced to love and obey him out of mere gratitude, and observed to take down the bundles from the top, at the
become real good beings by the imitation of bis beha- west end of the rick, to the bottom; for all these ricks.
viour ; and therefore a good planter, for his own ease must-stand east and west lengthwise, as well. to secure
and happiness, will be careful of setting a good exs them from being overturned by bigh winds, as for

the convenience of preserving them from wet, which
Having thus binted the duties of a planter to his ne- cannot be done when ricks are made round.

By this
groes, let the next care be of cattle, mules, and horses. husbandry, an herd of cattle may be kept in strength,
The planters of Barbadoes (who are perhaps the most either in severe droughts, or in wet seasons when grass
skilful of all others, and exact to a niceiy in calculations is purgative; and thus the necessity or expence of
of profit and loss), are, with respect to their cattle, the large pastures may be totally saved. The hay-knife
most remiss of any in all the islands; as if the carriage of used in England for cutting bay, answers for cutting
canes to the mill, and of plantation produce to the mar..

ricks of tops..
ket, was not as essential as any other branch of planter- The method of tedding Guinea-corn to make a kind
ship. At Barbadoes, in particular, the care of these of hay, will require a little explanation here. When
animals is of more importance : because the soil, worn Guinea-corn is planted in May, and to be cut down in
out by long culture, cannot yield any produce without July, in order to bear seed that year, that cutting, ted-.
plenty of dung: Some planters are nevertheless so in* ded properly, will make an excellent lay, which cattle
geniously thrifty, as to carry their canes upon negroes prefer to meadow hay. In like manner, after Guinea-
heads; acting in that respect diametrically opposite to corn has done bearing seed, the after crop

will furoish a
their own apparent interest, which cannot be served great abundance of that kind of fodder wbich will keep,
more effectually than by saving the labour of human ricks for two or three years.
hands, in all cases where tbe labour of brutes can be The next care of a planter is to provide shade for his.
substituted ; and for that end, no means of preserving cattle; either by trees where they are fed in the heat
those creatures in bealth and strength ought to be ne- of the day, if his soil requires not dung; or by building

a fiat shed over the pen where cattle are confined for
The first care therefore is to provide plenty and va- making it. That such sheds are essentially necessary
riety of food. In crop-time, profusion of cane-tops may to the well-being of all animals in hot weather, is appa-,
be bad for the labour of carriage ; but they will be more rent to every common observer, who cannot fail of see-
wholesome and nutritions if telded like hay by the sun's ing each creature forsaking the most luxuriant pastures «
keat, and sweated by laying them in heaps a few days in the heat of the dayfor the sake of shade: thus con-,


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