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Plants. downwards, in the middle glass vessel of Dr Nooth's nism, actuated solely by external impulse, is to deviate
machine, continued to thrive vigorously, without any from the soundest rule of philosophizing, which directs
Neither will the laws of electricity better
I cannot better comment on this wonderful degree of
mated nature; to gratify the mind with the contempla
tion of multiplied accessions to the general aggregate of
felicity; and to exalt our conceptions of the wisdom,
power, and beneficence of God. In an undertaking new • Points her enamour'd bosom to his ray.'
ver get accomplished, disappointment can be no disgrace: Summer, line 216.
in one directed to such noble objects, the motives are a
justification, indepeudently of success. Truth, indeed, Dr Percival next touches on motion ; he mentions co- obliges me to acknowledge, that I review my specula* See Pen-rallines, sea-pens*,oysters, &c.as endued with the power tions with much diffidence; and that I dare not prenatula, Os- of motion in a very small degree, and then he speaks in sume to expect they will produce any permanent contrea, Myti- the following manner. “Mr Miller (says he), in his viction in others, because I experience an instability of tus, &ic.
late account of the island of Sumatra, mentions a spe- opinion in myself. For, to use the language of Tully,
assensio omnis illa elabitur.-But this scepticism is per-
Plants, apportioned good to all living things, 'in number, kept fresh two or three days in this box much better Piante
weight, and measure.” See SENSITIVE Plant, MIMO- than by putting tbem in water. When you are going sa, Dionæa Muscipula, Vegetable Motion, &c. to preserve them, suffer them to lie upon a table
until To these ingenious and spirited observations, we shall they become limber; and then they should be laid upon subjoin nothing of our own, but leave our readers to a pasteboard, as much as possible in their natural form, determine for themselves (c). Speculations of this kind, but at the same time with a particular view to their gewhen carried on by sober men, will never be productive neric and specific characters. For this purpose it will of bad consequences; but by the subtle sceptic, or the be adviseable to separate one of the flowers, and to dismore unwary inquirer, they may be made the engine of play the generic character. If the specific character devery dangerous errors. By this we do not mean to in- pend upon the flower or upon the root, a particular sinuate that the spirit of inquiry should be suppressed, display of that will be likewise necessary. When the because that spirit, in the hands of weak or of wicked plant is thus disposed upon the pasteboard, cover it with men, may be abused. By those, however, who know eight or ten layers of spongy paper, and put it into the the bad consequences that may be drawn, and indeed press. Exert only a small degree of pressure for the that have been drawn, from the opinions we have now first two or three days; then examine it, unfold any ungiven an account of, our caution will not be deemed natural plaits, rectify any mistakes, and, after putting impertinent. See ANATOMY VEGETABLE, SUPPLE- fresh paper over it, screw the press barder. In about MENT.
three days more separate the plant from the pasteboard, Plants growing on Animals. See INSECTS giving if it is sufficiently firm to allow of a change of place; put root to Plants.
it upon a fresh pasteboard, and, covering it with fresh Seres of PlantS. See Sexes and BOTANY. blossom paper, let it remain in the press a few days lonColours of PLANTS. See Colour of Plants. ger. The press should stand in the sunshine, or within Colours extracted from Plants. See COLOUR-making. the influence of a fire.
Method of Drying and Preserving Plants for Bota- When it is perfectly dry, the usual method is to fanists.—Many methods have been devised for the preser- sten it down, with paste or gum water, on the rightvation of plants : we shall relate only those that have hand inner page of a sheet of large strong writing. been found most successful.
paper. It requires some dexterity to glue the plant Wither- First prepare a press, which a workman will make by neatly down, so that none of the gum or paste may ing's Bota- the following directions. Take two planks of wood not appear to defile the paper. Press it gently again for nical Ar., liable to warp. The planks must be two inches thick, a day or two, with a balf sheet of blosson-paper berangement, Introd.
18 inches long, and 12 inches broad. Get four male twixt the folds of the writing-paper. When it is quite P. 48.
and four female screws, such as are commonly used for dry, write upon the left-band inner page of the paper securing sash windows. Let the four female screwy be the name of the plant ; the specific character; the let into the four corners of one of the planks, and cor- place where, and the time when, it was found; and responding holes made through the four corners of the any other remarks you may think proper. Upon the other plank for the male screws to pass through, so as to back of the same page, near the fold of the paper, allow the two planks to be screwed tightly together. It write the name of the plant, and then place it in your will not be amiss to face the bearing of the male screws cabinet. A small quantity of finely powdered arsenic, upon the wood with iron plates ; and if the iron plates or corrosive sublimate, is usually mixed with the paste went across from corner to corner of the wood, it would or gum-water, to prevent the devastations of insects; be a good security against the warping.
but the seeds of staves acre finely powdered will anSecondly, get half a dozen quires of large soft spongy swer the same purpose, without being liable to corpaper (such as the stationers call blossom blotting paper rode or to change the colour of the more delicate is the best), and a few sheets of strong pasteboard. plants. Some people put the dried plants into the
The plants you wish to preserve should be gathered sheets of writing-paper, without fastening them down at in a dry day, after the sun hath exhaled the dew; ta- all; and others only fasten them by means of small slips king particular care to collect them in that state where- of paper, pasted across the stem or branches. Where in their generic and specific characters are most conspi- the species of any genus are numerous, and the speci
Carry them home in a tin box nine inches mens are small, several of them may be put into one long, four inches and a half wide, and one inch and a half deep. Get the box made of the thinnest tinned Another more expeditious method is to take the plants iron that can be procured ; and let the lid open upon out of the press after the first or second day; let them hinges. If any thing happen to prevent the immediate remain upon the pasteboard; cover them with five or use of the specimens you have collected, they will be six leaves of blossom paper, and iron them with a bot
sheet of paper.
(c) In the 2d volume of Transactions of the Linnæun Society, we find Dr Percival's reasoning very ably combated, as far as he draws his consequences from the external motions of plants; where it is argued, that these motions, though in some respects similar to those of animals, can and ought to be explained, without concluding that they are endowed either with perception or volition. Mr Townson concludes his paper in these words : “ When all is considered (says he), I think we shall place this opinion among the many ingenious flights of the imagination, and soberly follow that blind impulse which leads us naturally to give sensation and perceptivity to animal life, and to deny it to vegetables; and so still say with Aristotle, and our great master Linnæus, Vegetabilia crescunt & vivunt; animalai crescunt, vivunt, & sentiunt."
Plants. smoothing iron until they are perfectly dry. If the iron more delicate subjects of the vegetable world. These Plants,
be too hot, it will change the colours, but some people, are usually immersed either in a blackish slaty substance,
always altered into the nature of the substance they lie Another method is to take the plants when fresh ga- among: what we meet with of these are principally of thered, and, instead of putting them into the press, im- the fern kind; and what is very singular, though a very mediately to fasten them down to the paper with strong certain truth, is, that these are principally the ferns of gum-water : then dip a camel-hair pencil into spirit-var. American growth, not those of our own climate. The nish, and varnish the whole surface of the plant two or most frequent fossil plants are the polypody, spleenwort, three times over. This method succeeds very well with osmund, trichomanes, and the several larger and smaller plants that are readily laid flat, and it preserves their co- ferns; but besides these there are also found pieces of lours better than any other. The spirit varnish is made the equisetum or horse-tail, and joints of the stellated thus. To a quart of highly rectified spirit of wine put plants, as the clivers, madder, and the like; and these five ounces of gum sandarach ; two ounces of mastich in bave been too often mistaken for flowers ; sometimes drops; one ounce of pale gum elemi, and one ounce of oil there are also found complete grasses, or parts of them, of spike-lavender. Let it stand in a warm place, and as also reeds, and other watery plants ; sometimes the shake it frequently to expedite the solution of the gums. ears of corn, and not unfrequently the twigs or bark,
Where no better convenience can be had, the speci- and impressions of the bark and fruit of the pine or fir mens may be disposed systematically in a large folio kind, which have been, from their scaly appearance, book; but a vegetable cabinet is upon all accounts more mistaken for the skins of fishes; and sometimes but eligible. With the assistance of the following descrip- that very rarely, we meet with mosses and sea plants. tion a workman may readily make one. The drawers Many of the ferns not unfrequently found, are of must have backs and sides, but no other front than a very singular kinds, and some species yet unknown to small ledge. Each drawer will be 14 inches wide, and us; and the leaves of some appear set at regular distan30 inches from the back to the front, after allowing balfces, with round protuberances and cavities. The stones an inch for the thickness of the two sides, and a quarter which contain these plants split readily, and are often of an inch for the thickness of the back. The sides of found to contain, on one side, the impression of the the drawers, in the part next the front, must be sloped plant, and on the other the prominent plant itself ; off in a serpentine line, something like what the work- and, beside all that have been mentioned, there have men call an ogee. The bottoms of the drawers must be been frequently supposed to bave been found with us made to slide in grooves cut in the uprights, so that no ears of common wheat, and of the maize or Indian space may be lost betwixt drawer and drawer. After corn; the first being in reality no other than the comallowing a quarter of an inch for the thickness of the mon endmost branches of the firs, and the other the bottom of each drawer, the clear perpendicular space thicker boughs of various species of that and of the pine in each must be as in the following table.
kind, with their leaves fallen off'; such branches in such
a state cannot but afford many irregular tubercles and I. Two-tenths of an inch. XIV. Three inches and eight
papillæ, and, in some species, such as are more regu-
These are the kinds most obvious in England; and
XVI. One inch and three. these are either immersed in the slaty stone which consti-
tutes whole strata, or in flatted nodules usually of about
three inches broad, which readily split into two pieces VI. Two inches and two.
XVIII. Six-tenths of an inch. on being struck.
They are most common in Kent, in coal-pits near
Newcastle, and the forest of Dean in Gloucestershire;
but are more or less found about almost all our coal-pits,
and many of our iron mines. Though these seem the XI. One inch and two-tenths. XXII. Two inches and six- only species of plants found with us, yet in Germany XII Three inches and five
there are many others, and those found in different sub-
stances. A whitisb stone, a little harder than chalk,
freqnently contains them : they are found also often in
a gray slaty stone of a firmer texture, not unfrequently
Fossil Plants. Many species of tender and herba- found in great abundance, among which those of the
4 H 2
Plants buried at great depths in the earth : others of many kinds born ; because it commonly grows by the wayside ; the Plantago
there are also named by authors; but as in bodies so im- great hoary plantain, or lambs-tongue; the narrow-leaPlantago. perfect errors are easily fallen into, these seem all that ved plantain, or ribwort.
Plantercan be ascertained beyond mere conjecture.
PLANTAIN. See PLANTAGO, BOTANY Inder.
ship Plants, method of preserving them in their original Plantain Tree. See Musa, BOTANY Index. shape and colour. Wash a sufficient quantity of fine sand, PLANTATION, in the West Indies, denotes a so as perfectly to separate it from all other substances; spot of ground which a planter, or person arrived in a dry it; pass it through a cieve to clear it from any gross new colony, pitches on to cultivate for his own use, or particles which would not rise in the washing : take an is assigned for that purpose. However, the term plancarthen vessel of a proper size and form, for every plant
tation is often used in a term synonymous with colony. and flower which you intend to preserve; gather your
See COLONY, plants and flowers when they are in a state of perfection, PLANTERSHIP, in a general sense, the business and in dry weather, and always with a convenient por- of a planter. tion of the stalk : heat a little of the dry sand prepared PLANTERSHIP, in the West Indies, denotes the maas above, and lay it in the bottom of the vessel, so as nagement of a sugar plantation, including not only the equally to cover it; lay the plant or flower upon it so cultivation of the cane, but the various processes for the as that no part of it may touch the sides of the vessel : extraction of the sugar, together with the making of sasift or shake in more of the same sand by little upon it, gar-spirits. See Rum, SACCHARUM, and SUGAR. so that the leaves may be extended by degrees, and with- To effect a design so comprehensive, it is necessary out injury, till the plant or flower is covered about two for a planter to understand every branch of the art preinches thick : put the vessel into a stove, or hot-house, cisely, and to use the utmost attention and caution both heated by little and little to the goth degree ; let it in the laying dowu and executing of his plans. It is stand there a day or two, or perhaps more, according to therefore the duty of a good planter to inspect every the thickness and succulence of the flower or plant; part of his plantation with his own eyes; to place bis then gently shake the sand out upon a sheet of paper, provisions, stores, and utensils, in regular order, and in and take out the plant, which you will find in all its safe repositories ; that by preserving them in perfecbeanty, the shape as elegant, avd the colour as vivid, as tion, all kinds of waste may be prevented. when it grew.
But as negroes, cattle, mules, and horses, are as it Some flowers require certain little operations to pre- were the nerves of a sugar-plantation, it is expedient to serve the adherence of their petals, particularly the tu- treat that subject with some accuracy. lip; with respect to which it is necessary, before it is of Negroes, Cattle, &c.] In the first place, then, as buried in the sand, to cut the triangular fruit which rises it is the interest of every planter to preserve his negroes in the middle of the flower; for the petals will then re- iv bealth and strength; so every act of cruelty is not less main more firnıly attached to the stalk.
repugnant to the master's real profit, than it is contrary A bortus siccus prepared in this manner would be to the laws of humanity: and if a manager considers his one of the most beautiful and useful curiosities that own ease and his employer's interest, he will treat all
negroes under bis care with due benevolence; for good Moving Plant. See HEDYSARUM, BOTANY Index. discipline is by no means inconsistent with humanity: on Sea Plants. See Sea Plants.
the contrary, it is evident from experience, that he who Sensitive Plant. See MIMOSA, BOTANY Index. feeds his negroes well, proportions their labour to their
Plant-Lice, Vine.fretters, or Pucerons. See Aphis, age, sex, and strength, and treats them with kindness ENTOMOLOGY Index.
and good nature, will reap a much larger product, and PLANTA, a PLANT. See Plant.
with infinitely more ease and self-satisfaction, than the Planta Fominea, a female plant, is one which bears most eruel taskmaster, who starves his negroes, or chafemale flowers only. It is opposed to a male plant, stises them with undue severity. Every planter then who was ten es which bears only male flowers; and to an androgynous wishes to grow rich with ease, must be a good economist ; Planter one, which bears flowers of both sexes. Female plants must feed his negroes with the most wholesome food, suf. skip. are produced from the same seed with the male, and ficient to preserve them in health and vigour. Common arrange themselves under the class of diccia in the experience points out the methods by which a planter sexual method.
may preserve his people in health and strength. Some PLANTAGENET, the surname of the kings of of his most fruitful land should be allotted to each negra England from Henry II. to Richard III. inclusive. in proportion to his family, and a sufficient portion of Antiquarians are much at a loss to account for the ori. time allowed for the cultivation of it; but because such gin of this name; and the best derivation they can find allotment cannot in long droughts produce enough for for it is, that Fulk, the first earl of Anjou of that name, his comfortable support, it is the incumbent duty of a being stung with remorse for some wicked action, went good planter to have always his stores well filled with in pilgrimage to Jerusalem as a work of atonement ; Guinea corn, yams, or eddoes, besides potatoes growing where, being soundly scourged with broom twigs, which in regular succession: for plenty begets cheerfulness of grew plentifully on the spot, he ever after took the sur- heart, as well as strength of body; by which more work name of Plantagenet or broomstalk, which was retained is ellected in a day by the same hands than in a week, by his noble posterity.
when enervated by want and severity. Scanty meals PLANTAGO, PLANTAIN; a genus of plants bea may sustain life; but it is evident, that more is requiste longing to the tetrandria class. See BOTANY Index.- to enable a negro or any other person to go through the Of the plantain there are the following species : The necessary labours. He, therefore, who will reap pleati. common broad-leaved plantain, called waybred or way. fully, must plant great abundance of provisions as well.
Planter. as sugar canes; and it is nature's economy so to fructify before they are caten. In this season of abundance, Planter. ship. the soil by the growth of yams, plantains, and potatoes, great ricks of cane-tops (the butt ends turned inwards) ship
as to yield better harvests of sugar, by that very means, should be made in the most convenient corner of each
into bundles or sheaves, must lie in the hot sun for three
the convenience of preserving them from wet, which
ricks of tops..
will furoish a
a fiat shed over the pen where cattle are confined for