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P. C. 73
as cannot take bitter and ill-tasted medicinal draughts: public view, and rendering them infamous. There is a
as also to keep in readiness for occasional use without statute of the pillory, 51 Hen. III. And by statute it is Pillory. decaying. See MATERIA Medica Index.
appointed for bakers, forestallers, and those who use PILLAR, in Architecture. See ARCHITECTURE. false weights, perjury, forgery, &c. 3. Inst. 219. Lords
Pillar, in the manege, is the centre of the ring, or of leets are to have a pillory and tumbrel, or it will be manege-ground, round which a horse turns, whether the cause of forfeiture of the leet; and a village may be there be a pillar in it or not. Besides this, there are bound by prescription to provide a pillory, &c. 2 Huwk. pillars on the circumference or sides of the manegeground, placed at certain distances, by two and two, PILOT, the officer who superintends the navigation, from whence they are called the two pillars, to distin either
the sea-coast or on the main ocean. Iti, guish them from that of the centre. The use of the pil. however, more particularly applied by our mariners to lar in the centre is for regulating the extent of ground, the person charged with the direction of a ship's course that the manege upon the volts may be performed with on or near the sea-coast, and into the roads, bays, rivers, method and justness, and that they may work in a havens, &c. within his respective district. square, by rule and measure, upon the four lines of the Pilots of ships, taking upon them to conduct any ship volts; and also to break unruly high-mettled horses, from Dover, &c. to any place up the river Thames, are without endangering the rider. The two pillars are to be first examined and approved by the master and placed at the distance of two or three paces one from the wardens of the society of Trinity House, &c. or sball other; and the horse is put between those, to teach him forfeit 1ol. for the first offence, 201. for the second, and to rise before and yerk out behind, and put himself upon 40l. for every other offence ; one moiety to the inforraised airs, &c. either by the aids or chastisensents. mer, the other to the master and wardens ; but any Pompey's PILLAR. See ALEXANDRIA.
master or mate of a ship may pilot his own vessel up
the PILLARS, in antiquarian topography, are large river: and if any ship be lost through the negligence of single stones set up perpendicularly. Those of them any pilot, he shall be for ever after disabled to act as a which are found in this country have been the work of pilot. 3 Geo. I. c. 13. Also the lord-warden of the the Druids ; but as they are the most simple of all mo. cinque ports may make rules for the government of pinuments, they are unquestionably more ancient than lots, and order a sufficient number to ply at sea to cordruidism itself. They were placed as memorials record duct ships up to the Thames: 7 Geo. I. c. 21. No ing different events; such as remarkable instances of person shall act as a pilot on the Thames, &c. (except God's mercies, contracts, singular victories, boundaries, in collier ships) without a licence from the master and and sometimes sepulchres. Various instances of these wardens of Trinity House at Deptford, on pain of formonuments erected by the patriarchs occur in the Old feiting 20l. And pilots are to be subject to the goTestament : such was that raised by Jacob at Luz, af vernment of that corporation; and pay ancient dues, terwards by him named Bethel ; such also was the pillar not exceeding is. in the pound, out of wages, for the placed by him over the grave of Rachel. They were use of the poor thereof. Stat. 5 Gt:0. II. c. 20. likewise marks of execrations and magical talismans. By the former laws of France, no person could be re
These stones, from having long been considered as ceived as pilet till he had made several voyages and pasobjects of veneration, at length were by the ignorant sed a strict examination ; and after that, on his return and superstitious idolatrously worshipped; wherefore, af in long voyages, he was obliged to lodge a copy of his ter the introduction of Christianity, some had crosses cut journal in the admiralty; and if a pilot occasioned the on them, whiclı was considered as snatching them from loss of a ship, he had to pay 100 livres fine, and to be the service of the devil. Vulgar superstition of a later for ever deprived of the exercise of pilotage ; and if he date has led the common people to consider them as per did it designedly, be punished with death. Lex Mercut. sons transformed into stone for the punishment of some 70, 71. crime, generally that of sabbath-breaking ; but this tale The laws of Oleron ordain, That if any pilot designis not confined to single stones, but is told also of whole edly misguide a ship, that it may be cast away, he shall circles : witness the monuments called the hurlers in be put to a rigorous death, and hung in chains : and if Cornwall, and Rollorick stones in Warwickshire. The the lord of a place, where a ship be thus lost, abet such first are by the vulgar supposed to have been once men, villains in order to have a share of the wreck, he shall and thus transformed as a punishment for playing on be apprehended, and all his goods forfeited for the sathe Lord's day at a game called hurling ; the latter, a tisfaction of the persons suffering; and his person shall pagan king and his army.
be fastened to a stake in the midst of his own mansion, At Wilton, where the earl of Pembroke has a very which, being fired on the four corners, shall be burned magnificent house, there is a pillar of one piece of white to the ground, and be with it. Leg. Ol. c. 25. And Egyptian granite, which was brought from the temple if the fault of a pilot be so notorious that the ship's of Venus Genetrix at Rome, near 14 feet high and 22 crew see an apparent wreck, they may lead him to the inches diameter, with an inscription to Astarte or Ve hatches, and strike off his head; but the common law
denies this hasty execution: an ignorant pilot is senPILLORY (collistrigium, “collum stringens ;" pils tenced to pass thrice under the ship's keel by the laws loria, from the French pilleur, i. e. depeculator ; or pe
Lex Mercat. 70. lori, derived from the Greek Turn, janua, a door," The regulations with regard to pilots in the royal nabecause one standing on the pillory puts his head as it vy are as follow : “ The commanders of the king's ships, were through a door, and oçan, video), is an engine in order to give all reasonable encouragement to so usemade of wood to punish offenders, by exposing them to ful a body of men as pilots, and to remove all their ob.
4 A 2
Pilot. jections to his majesty's service, are strictly charged to place. It is said, that in the gulf of Guinea those fishes
treat them with good usage, and an equal respect with follow ships for the sake of the offals and human excrewarrant officers.
ments; and hence the Dutch give them the name of Pimenta, " The purser of the ship is always to have a set of dung fish. It is remarkable, that though so small they bedding provided on board for the pilots; and the cap can keep pace with ships in their swiltest course. tain is to order the boatswain to supply them with bam PILTEN, a division of Courland, which lies in Cour. mocks, and a convenient place to lie in, near their du- land properly so called, derives its name from the anty, and apart from the common men ; which bedding cient castle or palace of Pilten, built by Valdemar II. and hammocks are to be returned when the pilots leave King of Denmark about the year 1220, when be foundthe ship.
ed a bishop's see in this country for the more effectual “ A pilot, when conducting one of his majesty's ships conversion of its Pagan inbabitants. This district afterin pilot-water, shall have the sole charge and command wards successively belonged to the Germans, then again of the ship, and may give orders for steering, setting, to the king of Denmark, the duke of Courland, and to trimming, or furling the sails; tacking the ship; or Poland ; and by virtue of the instrument of regency whatever concerns the navigation; and the captain is to drawn up for this district in the year 1777, the governtake care that all the officers and crew obey his orders. ment is lodged in seven Polish senators or counsellors, But the captain is diligently to observe the conduct of from whom an appeal lies to the king. The bishop of the pilot ; and if he judges him to behave so ill as to Samogitia also styles himself bishop of Pilten. bring the ship into danger, he may remove him from The most remarkable part of this district is the prothe command and charge of the ship, and take such me montory of Domesness, which projects northward into thods for her preservation as shall be judged necessa the gulf of Livonia. From this cape, a sand-bank rung ry; remarking upon the log book, the exact hour and four German miles farther into the sea, half of which time when the pilot was removed from bis office, and lies under water, and cannot be discerned. To the east the reasons assigned for it.
of this promontory is an unfathomable abyss, wlich is “ Captains of the king's ships, employing pilots in never observed to be agitated. For the safety of vessels foreign parts of his majesty's dominions, shall
, after bound to Livonia, two square beacons have been erectperformance of the service, give a certificate thereof to ed on the coast, near Domesness church, opposite to the pilot, which being produced to the proper naval of the sand bank, and facing each other. One of these is ficer, he shall cause the same to be immediately paid; twelve fathoms high, and the other eight; and a large but if there be no naval officer there, the captain of his fire is kept burning on them from the first of August to majesty's ship sball pay him, and send the proper vouch the first of January. When the mariners see these fires ers, with his bill, to the navy-board, in order to be paid appear as one in a direct line, they may conclude that as bills of exchange.
they are clear of the extremity of the sand bank, and “ Captains of his majesty's ships, employing foreign consequently out of danger ; but if they see both beapilots to carry the ships they command into or out of cons, they are in danger of running upon it. The disforeign ports, shall pay them the rates due by the esta trict of Pilten contains seven parishes, but no towns blishment or custom of the country, before they dis worthy of notice. The inhabitants are chiefly of the charge them: whose receipts being duly vouched, and Lutheran persuasion. sent, with a certificate of the service performed, to the PILUM, a missive weapon used by the Roman solnavy-board, they shall cause them to be paid with the diers, and in a charge darted upon the enemy. Its same exactness as they do bills
of exchange.” Regu- point, we are told by Polybius, was so long and small; lations and Instructions of the Sea-service, &c. that after the first discharge it was generally so bent as
Pilot-Fish. See GASTEROSTEUS, ICHTHYOLOGY to be rendered useless. The legionary soldiers made use Index.
of the pilum, and each man carried two. The pilum unOsbec tells us, that they are shaped like those mack derwent many alterations and improvements, insomuch erels which have a transverse line upon the body. that it is impossible with any precision to describe it. “ Sailors (continues he) give them the name of pilots, Julius Scaliger laboured much to give an accurate acbecause they closely follow the dog fish, swimming in count of it, and would have esteemed success on this great shoals round it on all sides. It is thought that head' amongst the greatest blessings of his life. This they point out some prey to the dog.fish. They are not weapon appears, however, to bave been sometimes round, only not touched, but also preserved by it against all but most commonly square, to have been two cubits long their enemies.
in the staff, and to bave had an iron point of the same It likewise follows the shark, apparently for the pur- length hooked and jagged at the end.' Marius made a pose of devouring the remains of its
pre material improvement in it; for during the Cimbrian tended that it acts as its pilot. The manner in which war, he so contrived it, that when it stuck in the eneit attends the shark, according to M. Daubenton, may mies shieid it should bend down in an angle in the part have given rise to this name. It is said to swim at the where the wood was connected with the iron, and thus height of a foot and a half from the snout of this vora become useless to the
who received it. cious animal, to follow and imitate all its movements, PIMENTO, PIEMENTO, JAMAICA PEPPER, or Alland to seize with address every part of its prey which spice, a species of myrtus. See MYRTUS, Botany Inthe shark allows to escape, and which is light enougb to dex. buoy up towards the surface of the water. When the “ The pimento trees grow spontaneously, and in shark, which bas its mouth below, turns to seize any great abundance, in many parts of Jamaica, but more fish, the pilot fish starts away; but as soon as the shark particularly on hilly situations near the sea, on the régumes his ordinary position, it returns to its former northern side of that island; where they form the
t'imento most delicious groves that can possibly be imagined ; an excellent remedy for thick viscid phlegm in the Pimple,
filling the air with fragrance, and giving reality, though breast.
description of those balmy gales which convey to the of brass-wire, chiefly used by women in fastening and
adjusting their dress.
In the year 1543, by statute 34 and 35 of Henry • Sabean odours from the spicy shore
6. it was enacted, “ That no person shall • Of Arahy. the blest.
put to sale any pinnes but only such as shall be double-
of the pios, well smoothed, the shank well-shapen, the
factory by boys who sat each with two small grinding
of age is enabled to point about 16,000 pins in an “ It is gathered by the hand; one labourer on the hour. When the wire is thus pointed, a pin is taken tree, employed in gathering the small branches, will off from each end, and this is repeated till it is cut ingive employment to three below (who are generally to six pieces. The next operation is that of forming women and children) in picking the berries, and an the heads, or, as they term it, head spinning ; which is industrious picker will fill a bag of 70lbs. in the day. done by means of a spinning-wheel, one piece of wire
“ The returns from a pimento walk in a favourable being thus with astonishing rapidity wound round anseason are prodigious. A single tree has been known other, and the interior one being drawn out, leaves a to yield 1 golbs. of the raw fruit, or one cwt. of the hollow tube between the circumvolutions : it is then dried spice; there being commonly a loss in weight of cut with sheers; every two circumvolutions or turns one third in curing; but this, like many other of the of the wire forming one head; these are softened by minor productions, is exceedingly uncertain, and per- throwing them into iron pans, and placing them in a baps a very plenteous crop occurs but once in five furnace till they are red bot. As soon as they are
cold, they are distributed to children, who sit with PIMPINELLA, BURNET SAXIFRAGE; a genus of anvils and hammers before them, which they work plants belonging to the pentandria class. See BOTANY with their feet, by means of a lathe, and taking Index.
up one of the lengths, they thrust the blunt end PIMPLE, in Medicine, a small pustule arising on into a quantity of the heads which lie before them, the face. By mixing equal quantities of the juice of and catching one at the extremity, they apply them house-leek (sedum minus), passed through paper, and of immediately to the anvil and bammer, and by a spirit of wine rectified by itself, a white coagulum of a motion or two of the foot, the point and the head very volatile nature is formed, which Dr Bughart com are fixed together in much less time than can it be mends for curing pimples of the face; and says, that described, and with a dexterity only to be acquired the thig liquor separated from it with sugar-candy is by practice; the spectator being in continual apprehen
Pin sion for the safety of their fingers ends. The pin is whole sack at once. Pindar, however, soon quitted Pindae.
now finished as to its form, but still it is merely brass ; the leading strings of these ladies, his poetical nurses, Pindar. it is therefore thrown into a copper containing a solu and became the disciple of Simonides, now arrived at
tion of tin and the leys of wine. Here it remains for extreme old age : after which he soon surpassed all his
ty; and if the merit of Pindar was pronounced inferior PINACIA, among the Athenians, were tablets of to that of Corinna five several times, it was, says Paubrass inscribed with the names of all those citizens in sanias, because the judges were more sensible to the each tribe who were duly qualified and willing to be charms of beauty than to those of music and poetry (A). judges of the court of Areopagus. These tablets were Was it not strange, said the Scytbian Anacharsis, that cast into a vessel provided for the purpose, and the same the Grecian artists were never judged by artists, their number of beans, a hundred being white and all the rest
peers ? black, were thrown into another. Then the names of Pindar, before he quitted Thebes, had the vexathe candidates and the beans were drawn out one by one, tion to see his Dithyrambics traduced, abused, and and they whose names were drawn out together with turned into ridicule, by the comic poets of his time ; the white beans were elected judges or senators. In So and Athenæus tells us, that he was severely censured Jon's time there were only four tribes, each of which by his brother lyrics, for being a lipogrammatist, and chose 100 senators; but the number of tribes afterwards composing an ode from which he had excommunicated increasing, the number of senators and judges increased the letter S. Whether these censures proceeded from hundreds more.
envy or contempt cannot now be determined; but PINANG, the Chinese name of the Areca Catechu they were certainly useful to Pindar, and it was necesLin. See ARECA, Botany Index.
sary that he should be lashed for such puerilities, PINCHBECK, a factitious metallic substance, or an Thebes seems to bave been the · purgatory of our alloy of zinc three parts, and of copper, four. See CHE young bard: when he quitted that city, as his judgeMISTRY Inder.
ment was matured, he avoided most of the errors for PINDAR, the prince of lyric poets, was born at which he had been chastised, and suddenly became the Thebes, about 520 years B. Č. He received his first wonder and delight of all Greece. Every hero, prince, musical instructions from his father, who was a flute and potentate, desirous of lasting fame, courted the muse player by profession; after which, according to Sui of Pird r. das, he was placed under Myrtis, a lady of distinguish He seems frequently to have been present at the ed abilities in lyric poetry. It was during this period four great festivals, of the Olympian, Pythian, Nemean, that he became acquainted with the poetess Corinna, and Isthmian games, as may be inferred from several cirwho was likewise a student under Myrtis. Plutarch cumstances and expressions in the odes which he comit. Ils vs, ibat Pindar profited from the lessons which posed for the victors in them all. Those at Olympia, Corinna, more advanced in her studies, gave bim at who were ambitious of having their achievements celethis school. It is very natural to suppose, that the brated by Pindar, applied to him for an ode, which was first poetical effusions of a genius so full of fire and first sung in the Prytaneum or town-hall of Olympia, imagination as that of Pindar would be wild and luxu where there was a banqueting room, set apart for the riant; and Lucian has preserved six verses, said to entert ioment of the conquerors. Here the ode was rehave been the exordium of bis first essay ; in which he hearsed by a chorus, accompanied by instruments. It crowded almost all the subjects for song whicb ancient was afterwards performed in the same manner at the history and mythology then furnished. Upon commu. triumphal entry of the victor into his own country, in nicating this attempt to Corinna, she told bim smiling, processions, or at the sacrifices that were made with great that he should sow with the band, and pot empty his pomp and solemnity on the occasion.
to so many
(A) Pausanias says, that Corinna was one of the most beautiful women of her time, as he judged by a picture of ber which he saw at Tanagris at the place where the public exercises were performed. She was represented with her head ornamented by a riband, as a memorial of the victories she had obtained over Pindar at Thebes.
Pindar, in his second Isthmian ode, has apologized tacked the city of Thebes, he gave express orders to Pindar
Theoxenian festival was appropriated to his descend-
Pindus, a Doric city of Ætolia, situated on the
then ground in mills for the purpose, driven by water
ceedingly dangerous on account of the noxious qualiFabricius tells us, that Pindar lived to the age of ties of the mercury, is always made the lot of the poor 90 ; and, according to the chronology of Dr Blair, he Indians. This amalgamation is continued for eight or died 435 years B. C. aged 86. His fellow citizens nine days; and some add lime, lead, or tin ore, &c. to erected a monument to him in the Hippodrome at forward it; and, in some mines, they are obliged to Thebes, which was still subsisting in the time of Pau use fre. To try whether or no the mixture and àsanias; and his renown was so great after his death, malgamation be sufficient, they wash a piece in water; that his posterity derived very considerable honours and and if the mercury be white, it is a proof that it has.. privileges from it. When Alesander the Great at bad its effect: if black, it must be still farther work
(B) This Midas is a very different personage from his long-eared majesty of Phrygia, whose decision in favour of Pan had given such offence to A pollo; as is manifest, indeed, from his having been conteni poraży with Pindar.
(c) The most extraordinary part of this musician's performance that can be gathered from the scholiast upon Pindar, was bis finishing the solo, without a reed or mouth-piece, which broke accidentally while he was playing. The legendary account given by the poet in this ude, of the occasion upon which the flute was invented by Minerva, is diverting : " It was (says he) to imitate the howling of the Gorgo:s, and the hissing of their snakes, whicb the goddess bad heard when the head of Medusa (one of these three an.i-graces) was cut offi by Perseus."