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Pilbard, The pilchard appears in vast shoals off the Cornish it was split that it might the more easily catch fire. Pile.

coasts about the middle of July, disappearing the be- Round the pile were placed cypress boughs to hiuder
ginning of winter, yet sometimes a few return again the noisome smell. See FUNERAL.
after Christmas. Their winter retreat is the same with Pile, in Building, is used for a large stake rammed

that of the herring, and their motives for migrating into the ground in the bottom of rivers, or in marshy +

Clu- the same t. They affect, during summer, a warmer la- land, for a foundation to build upon. pea.

titude; for they are not found in any quantities on PILE is also used among architects for a mass of
any of our coasts except those of Cornwall, that is to building.
say, from Fowey barbour to the Scilly isles, between Pile, in Coinage, denotes a kind of puncheon, which,
which places the shoals keep shifting for some weeks. in the old way of coining with the hammer, contained
The approach of the pilchard is known by much the the arms or other figure and inscription to be struck on
same signs as those that indicate the arrival of the her the coin. See COINAGE.
ring. Persons, called in Cornwall huers, are placed on Accordingly we still call the arms side of a piece of
the cliffs, to point to the boats stationed off the land money the pile, and the head the cross ; because in an-
the course of the fish. By the ist of James I. c. 23. cient coin, a cross usually took the place of the head in
fishermen are empowered to go on the grounds of others

Plale to hue, without being liable to actions of trespass, PILE-Engine, a very curious machine invented by

CCCCXLI which before occasioned frequent law-suits.

Mr Vauloue for driving the piles of Westminster-bridge. The emoluments that accrue to the inhabitants of A is a great upright shaft or axle, on which are the that country are great, and are best expressed in the great wheel B, and the drum C, turned by horses joined words of Dr W. Borlace, in his Account of the Pil- to the bars S, S. The wheel B turns the trundle X, on chard Fishery. “It employs a great number of men the top of whose axis is the fly 0, which serves to reguon the sea, training them thereby to naval affairs; em- late the motion, and also to act against the horses, and ploys men, women, and children, at land, in salting, to keep them from falling when the heavy ram Q is dispressing, washing, and cleaning, in making boats, nets, charged to drive the pile P down into the mud in the ropes, casks, and all the trades depending on their con- bottom of the river. The drum C is loose upon the struction and sale. The poor is fed with the offals of shaft A, but is locked to the wheel B by the bolt Y. the captures; the land with the refuse of the fish and On this drum the great rope HH is wound; one end of salt; the merebant finds the gains of commission and the rope being fixed to the drum, and the other to the honest commerce ; the fishernan, the gains of the fish. follower G, to which it is conveyed over the pulleys I Ships are often freighted hither with salt, and into fo- and K. In the follower G is contained the tong, F, reign countries with the fish, carrying off at the same that takes bold of the ram Q by the staple R, for drawtime part of our tin. The usual number of hogsheadsing it up. D is a spiral or fusy fixed to the drum, on of fish exported each year, for 10 years, from 1747 to which is wound the small

T that

the 1756 inclusive, from the four ports of Fowey, Falmouth, pulley U, under the pulley V, and is fastened to the Penzance, and St Ives, in all amounts to 29,794; since top of the frame at 7. To the pulley-block V is hung it appears that Fowey has exported yearly 1732 hogs- the counterpoise W, wbich binders the follower T from heads; Falmouth, 14,631 hogsheads and two-thirds ; accelerating as it goes down to take hold of the ram; Penzance and Mounts-Bay, 12,149 hogsheads and one for as the follower tends to acquire velocity in its descent

, third; St Ives, 1282 hogsheads. Every hogshead for the line T winds downwards upon the fusy, on a larger ten years last past, together with the bounty allowed and larger radius, by which means the counterpoise W for each when exported, and the oil made out of each, acts stronger and stronger against it; and so allows it has amounted, one year with another at an average, to come down with only a moderate and uniform veloto the price of 1l. 138. 3d.; so that the cash paid for city. The bolt Y locks the drum to the great wheel

, pilchards exported bas, at a medium, annually amount- being pushed upward by the small lever 2, which goes ed to the sum of 49,5321. 105.'

The numbers through a mortise in the shaft A, turns upon a pin in that are taken at one shooting out of the nets is ama- the bar 3, fixed to the great wheel B, and has a weight zingly great. Mr Pennant says, that Dr Borlase as- 4, which always tends to push up the bolt Y through sured him, that on the 5th of October 1767, there the wheel into the drum. L is the great lever turning were at one time inclosed in St Ives bay 7000 hogs- on the axis m, and resting upon the forcing bar 5, 5, heads, each hogshead containing 35,000 fish, in all which goes through a bollow in the shaft A, and bears 245,000,000.

up the little lever 2. PILE, in Heraldry, an ordinary in form of a wedge, By the horses going round, the great rope H is contracting from the chief, and terminating in a point wound about the drum C, and the ram Q is drawn up towards the bottom of the shield.

by the tongs F in the follower G, until the tongs come Pile, among the Greeks and Romans, was a pyra- between the inclined planes E ; which, by shutting the mid built of wood, whereon were laid the bodies of tongs at the top, opens it at the foot, and discharges the deceased to be burnt. It was partly in the form the ram, which falls down between the guides bb upon of an altar, and differed in height according to the the pile P, and drives it by a few strokes as far into the quality of the person to be consumed. Probably it mud as it will go ; after wbich, the top part is sawed might originally be considered as an altar, on which off close to the mud by an engine for that pnrpose. the dead were consumed as a burnt-offering to the in- Immediately after the ram is discharged, the piece 6 fernal deities. The trees made use of in the erection of upon the follower G takes hold of the ropes a a, which a funeral pile were such as abounded in pitch or rogin raise the end of the lever L, and causes its end Ń to de- as being most combustible ; if they used any other wood, scend and press down the forcing bar 5 upon the little

goes over

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niliams sculp."

Pile lever 2, which, by pulling down the bolt Y, unlocks the specifically lighter than the iron weight below, and

drum C from the great wheel B; and then the follow- moving with a less degree of velocity, cannot come in
er being at liberty, comes down by its own weight to contact with the iron till it is at the bottom and the ram Pilgrimage.
the ram; and the lower ends of the tongs slip over the stops. It then falls and again connects the hook with
staple R, and the weight of their heads causes them to the chain, which draws up the ram, as before.
fall outward, and shut upon it. Then the weight 4 Mr Bunce has made a model of this machine, which
pushes up the bolt Y into the drum, which locks it performs perfectly well; and he observes, that, as the
to the great wheel, and so the rąm is drawn up as be- motion of the wheel C is uninterrupted, there appears to

be the least possible time lost in the operation.
As the follower comes down, it causes the drum to PILE-Worms, are a kind of worms found in the piles
turn backward, and unwinds the rope from it, whilst of the sea dikes in Holland. They are of


various the horses, great wheel, trundle, and fly, go on with sizes; for some of the young ones are not above an inch an uninterrupted motion ;, and as the drum is turning or two in length, while others have been found thirteen backward, the counterpoise W is drawn up, and its rope or fourteen inches long. The beads of these creaT wound upon the spiral fusy D.

tures are covered with two hard shells or hemicrania ;
There are several holes in the under side of the drum, which together form a figure resembliog an augre;
and the bolt Y always takes the first one that it finds and with which they bore the wood. The best reme-
whien the drum stops by the falling of the follower upon dy against them is, to perforate the pile with many
the ram ; until which stoppage the bolt has not time to small holes about an incli asunder; then it must be
slip into

of the holes.

done over with a varnish in the hottest sun; and, whilo
This engine was placed upon a barge on the water, the varuish is hot, brick dust must be strewed over it:
and so was easily conveyed to any place desired. The and this being several times repeated, the pile will be
ram, was a ton weight; and the guides bb, by wbich it covered with a strong crust absolutely impenetrable to
was let fall, were 30 feet high.

all insects.
A new machine for driving piles has been invented PILES, in Medicine, the same with bænorrhoids.
by Mr Bunce of Kirby street, Hatton street, London. See MEDICINE, N° 243, &c.
It will drive a greater number of piles in a given time PILEUS, in Roman antiquity, was the ordinary cap
than any other; and can be constructed more simply to or hat worn at public shows and sacrifices, and by the
work by, borses than Mr Vauloue's engine above de- freedmen. It was one of the common rewards assigned

to such gladiators as were slaves, in token of their ob-
Plate Fig. 1, and 2 represent a șide and front section of the taining freedom.
6CCCXIX. machine. The chief parts are A, fig. 1, which are two PILEWORT, (Ranunculus ficaria, Lin.), the root.

endless ropes, or chains, connected by cross pieces of iron This is a very small plant, found in most meadows ayd
B (see fig. 2), corresponding with two cross grooves cut , by hedge sides. The roots consist of slender fibres with
diametrically opposite in the wheel C (fig. 1.), into some little tubercles among them, which are supposed to
which they are received ; and by, which means the rope resemble the hæmorrhoids. . From thence it has been
or chain A is carried round. FHK is a side-view of a concluded, that this root must needs be of wonderful
strong wooden frame moveable on the axis H. D is a efficacy for the cure of that distemper: to the taste, it
wheel, over which the chain passes and turns within at is little other than mucilaginous ; and although still re-
the top of the frame. It moves occasionally from F tained in several of the foreign pharmacopæias, it is
to G upon the centre H, and is kept in the position F hardly in use in this country.
by the weight I fixed to the end K. , Fig. 3. L is the PILGRIM, one who travels through foreigu coun-
iron ram, which is connected with the cross pieces by tries to visit holy places, and to pay his devotion to the
the book M. N is a cylindrical piece of wood suspended relicks of dead saints. See PILGRIMAGE.
at the hook at 0, which by sliding freely upon the bar The word is formed from the Flemish pelgrim, or
that connects the hook to the ram, always brings the Italian pelegrino, which siguifies the same; and those
hook upright upon the chain when at the bottom of the originally from the Latin peregrinus, a “ stranger or
machine, in the position of GP. See fig. 1.

Wben the man at S turns the usual crane work, the PILGRIMAGE, a kind of religious discipline,
ram being connected to the chain, and passing between ., which consists in taking a journey to some holy place
the guides, is drawn up in a perpendicular direction; in order to adore the relicks of some deceased saint.
and wlien it is near the top of the machine, the pro- Pilgrimages began to be made about the middle ages
jecting bar Q of the hook strikes against a cross piece of of the church ; but they were most in vogue after the
wood at R (fig. 1.); and consequently discharges the end of the auth century, when every one was for visit-
ram, whilst the weight I of the moveable frame instant- ing places of devotion, not excepting kings and princes
ly draws the upper wheel into the position shown at F, themselves, and even bishops made no difficulty of be-
and keeps the chain free of the ram in its descent. The ing absent from their churches on the same account.
hook, while descending, is prevented from catching the The places most visited were Jerusalem, Rome, Com-
chain by the wooden piece N. For that piece being postella (A), and Tours; but the greatest vumbers now



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(A). It deserves to be remarked here, that in the year 1428, under the reign of Henry VI. abundance of licences were granted from the crown of England to captains of English ships, for carrying numbers of devout persons to the shrine of St James of Compostella in Spain; provided, however, that those pilgrims should first take an oath VOL. XVI. Part II.



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Pilgrimage resort to Loretto, in order to visit the chamber of the our readers. “ Pilgrimage (said Imlac, into whose pagrimage

blessed virgin, in which she was born, and brought up mouth the observations are put), like many other acts 2 her son Jesus till he was 12 years of age. For the pil- of piety, may be reasonable or superstitious according to grimage of the followers of Mahomet, see MAHOME- the principles upon which it is performed. Long jour.

neys in search of truth are not commanded. Truth, such In every country where popery was established, pil- as is necessary to the regulation of life, is always found grimages were common; and in those countries which where it is honestly sought : change of place is no natuare still popish, they continue. In England, the shrine ral cause of the increase of piety, for it inevitably proof St Thomas à Becket was the chief resort of the duces dissipation of mind. Yet since men go every day pious; and in Scotland, St Andrews; where, as tradi- to view the fields where great actions have been performition informs us, was deposited a leg of the holy apostle. cd, and return with stronger impressions of the event, in Ireland they still continue ; for, from the beginning curiosity of the same kind may naturally dispose us to of May till the middle of August every year, crowds view that country whence our religion had its beginof popish penitents from all parts of that country re- ning: and I believe no man surveys those awful scenes sort to an island near the centre of Lough fin, or IV hite without some confirmation of holy resolutions. That the Lake, in the county of Donnegal, to the amount of Supreme Being may be more easily propitiated in one 3000 or 4000. These are mostly of the poorer sort, place than in another, is the dream of idle superstition ; and

many of them are proxies for those who are richer; but that some places may operate upon our own minds some of which, however, together with some of the in an uncommon manner, is an opinion which hourly expriests and bishops on occasion, make their appearance perience will justify. He who supposes that bis vices there. When the pilgrim comes within sight of the may be more successfully combated in Palestine, will, holy lake, he must uncover liis hands and feet, and thus perlaps, find himself mistaken ; yet he may go thither walk to the water side, and is taken to the island for without folly : be who thinks they will be more freely sixpence. Here there are two chapels and 15 other pardoned, dishonours at once his reason and religion.” Houses ; to which are added confessionals, so contrived, PILKINGTON, LÆTITIA, a famous poetical ge. that the priest cannot see the person confessing. The nius, the daughter of Dr Van Lewin, a physician of penance varies according to the circumstances of the Dublin, where she was born in 1712. She was married penitent ; during the continuance of which (which is very young to the Rev. Matthew Pilkington, a poet sometimes three, six, or nine days) he subsists on oat- also of no inconsiderable merit ; and the two wits, as is sneal, sometimes made into bread. He traverses sharp often the case, lived very unhappily together. They stones on his bare knees or feet, and goes through a va- were at length totally separated, on the husband acciriety of other forms, paying sixpence at every different dentally discovering a gentleman in ber bedchamber at confession. When all is over, the priest bores a gimblet- two o'clock in the morning ; a circumstance which she hole through the pilgrim's staff near the top, in which accounted for in a very unsatisfactory manner. The he fastens a cross peg; gives bim as many holy pebbles story is told at large in her Memoirs where she says, out of the lake as he cares to carry away, for amulets “ Lovers of Learning, I am sure, will pardon me, to be presented to his friends, and so dismisses him, an solemnly declare it was the attractive charms of a net ubject of veneration to all other papists not thus initiated, book, which the gentleman would not lend me, but who no sooner see the pilgrim's cross in his bands, than consented to stay till I read it through, that was the sole they kneel down to get his blessing.

motive of my detaining him.” As there are not want. There are, however, other parts of Ireland sacred to ing some who form objections to marrying learned extraordinary worship and pilgrimage ; and the number wives, the chance of such literary assignations may perof holy wells, and miraculous cures, &c. produced by haps be added to the list of them. After this unlucky them, is very great. That such things should exist in adventure, Mrs Pilkington came to London ; and hathis enlightened age, and in a Protestant country, is in- ving recourse to her pen for subsistence, through the deed strange ; but our wonder ceases, when we reflect means of Colley Cibber, she lived for some time on the that it is among the lowest, and perhaps the worst of contributions of the great. She was however thrown into the people. They who carry external religion to an ex- the Marshalsea for debt; and being set a liberty, opened treme, avd place that confidence in ceremony which be- a pamphlet shop. She raised at length a handsome sublongs only to the spirit of it, are seldom distinguished ei- scription for her Memoirs ; which are written with great ther for their wisdoin or their virtue. We do not deny, sprighliness and wit, containing several entertaining however, that they who carry matters to the other ex- anecdotes of Dean Swift, with whom she was intimate, treme, may be equally destitute of real knowledge and as well as many pretty little pieces of her own poetry. genuine morality.

This ingenious woman is said at last to have killed berDr Johnson, in his Rasselas, gives us some observa- self with drinking. She died at Dublin, in 1750. tions on pilgrimage, which are so much to the purpose, PILL, in Pharmacy, a form of medicine resembling that we think we cannot do better than lay them before a little ball, to be swallowed whole ; invented for such

as I


not to take any thing prejudicial to England, not to reveal any of its secrets, nor to carry out with them any more gold or silver than what would be sufficient for their reasonable ex pences. In this year there went out thither from England, on the said pilgrimage, the following number of persons. From London 280 Bristol 200, Wey: mouth 122, Dartmouth 90, Yarmoub 60, Jersey 60, Plymouth 49, Exeter 30, Poole 24, Ipswich 20, in all 926 persons.

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