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Piganiol, simplicity. He published an abridgement of it in 2 vols. M. Duhamel thinks that pigeons neither feed upon Pigcon. l'igron. 12mo. 3. A Description of the Castle and Park of Ver the green corn, nor bave bills strong enough to search

sailles, Marly, &c. in 2 vols. 12mo: it is very amusing, for its seeds in the earth; but only pick up the grains
and pretty well executed. Piganiol had also a concern that are not covered, which would infallibly become
with Abbé Nadal in the journal of Trevoux. He died the


of other animals, or be dried up by the sun. at Paris in February 1753, at the age of 80 years. This

“ From the time of the sprouting of the corn, says be, learned man was as much to be respected for his man pigeons live chiefly upon the seeds of wild uncultivated ners as for his talents. To a profound and varied know- plants, and therefore lessen considerably the quantity of lodge he united great probity and honour, and all the

weeds that would otherwise spring up; as will appear politeness of a courtier,

from a just estimate of the quantity of grain necessary to PIGEON, see COLUMBA, ORNITHOLOGY Index. feed all the pigeons of a well-stocked dove-house." But

Pigeon-House is a house erected full of holes within, Mr Worlidge and Mr Lisle allege facts in support of the for the keeping, breeding, &c. of pigeons, otherwise contrary opinion. The latter relates, that a farmer in called a dove-cot.

his neighbourhood assured him he had known an acre Any lord of manor may build a pigeon-house on his sowed with pease, and rain coming on so that they could Tand, but a tenant cannot do it without the lord's li not be harrowed in, every pea was fetched away in half

When persons shoot at or kill pigeons within a day's time by pigeons : and the former says, . It is to a certain distance of the pigeon-house, they are liable be observed, that where the flight of pigeons falls, there to pay a forfeiture.

they fill themselves and away, and return again where In order to erect a pigeon-house to advantage, it they first rose, and so proceed over a whole piece of will be necessary, in the first place, to pitch upon a ground, if they like it. Although you cannot perceive convenient situation ; of which none is more proper any grain above the ground, they know how to find it. than tủe middle of a spacious court-yard, because pi. I have seen them lie so much upon a piece of about two geons are naturally of a timorous disposition, and the or three acres sown with pease, that they devoured at feast noise they hear frightens them. With regard to least three parts in four of the seed, which, I am sure, the size of the pigeon-house, it must depend entirely could not be all above the surface of the ground. That upon the number of birds intended to be kept ; but it their smelling is their principal director, I have obseris better to have it too large than too little; and as to ved; having sown a small plat of pease in my garden, its form, the round should be preferred to the square near a pigeon-house, and covered them so well that not ones; because rats cannot so easily come at them in the a pea appeared above ground. In a few days, a parcel former as in the latter. It is also much more commo of pigeons were bard at work in discovering this hidden dious; because you may, by means of a ladder turning treasure ; and in a few days more I had not above two upon an axis, easily visit all the nests in the house, or three peas left out of about two quarts that were without the least difficulty; which cannot so easily be planted; for what they could not find before, they found done in a square house. In order to binder rats from when the buds appeared, notwithstanding they were hoed climbing up the outside of the pigeon-house, the wall in, and well covered. Their smelling alone directed should be covered with tin plates to a certain height, them, as I supposed, because they followed the ranges about a foot and a half will be sufficient; but they exactly. The injury they do at barvest on the pease, should project out three or four inches at the top, to vetches, &c. is such that we may rank them among

the prevent their clambering any higher.

greatest enemies the poor husbandman meets withal; and The pigeon-house should be placed at no great di- the greater, because he may not erect a pigeon-house, stance from water, that the pigeons may carry it to whereby to have a share of his own spoils ; none but the their young ones; and their carrying it in their bills rich being allowed this privilege, and so severe a law will warm it, and render it more wholesome in cold being also made to protect these winged thieves, that a weather. The boards that cover the pigeon-house man cannot encounter them, even in defence of his own should be well joined together, so that no rain may property. You have therefore no remedy against them, penetrate through it: and the whole building should but to affright them away by noises or such like. You be covered with hard plaster, and white-washed within may, indeed, shoot at them; but you must not kill and without, white being the most pleasing colour to them; or you may, if you can, take them in a ret, cut pigeons. There must be no window, or other open- off their tails, and let them go ; by which means you ing in the pigeon-house to the eastward ; these should will impound them : for when you are in their bouses, always face the south, for pigeons are very fond of the they cannot bolt or fly out of the tops of them, but by sun, especially in winter.

the strength of their tails; after the thus weakening of The nests or covers in a pigeon-house should consist of which, they remain prisoners at home." square holes made in the walls, of a size sufficient to ad Mr Worlidge's impounding the pigeons reminds us mit the cock and hen to stand in them. The first range of a humorous story of a gentleman, who, upon a neighof these nests should not be less than four feet from the bouring farmer's complaining to him, that his pigeons ground, that the wall underneath being smooth, the rats were a great nuisance to his land, and did sad mischief may not be able to reach them. These nests should be to his corn, replied jokingly, Pound them, if you catch placed in quincunx order, and not directly over one an them trespassing. The farmer, improving the hint, other. Nor must they be continued any higher than steeped a parcel of pease in an infusion of coculus indicus, within three feet of the top of the wall: and the upper or some other intexicating drug, and strewed them uprow should be covered with a board projecting a consi- on his grounds. The pigeons swallowed them, and soon derable distance from the wall, for fear the rats should remained motionless on the field : upon which the farmfind means to climb the outside of the house,

er threw a net over them, inclosed them in it, aud car3 Zz


as many

Pigeon. ried them to an empty barn, from whence he sent the was shortly after received into the establishment at Fox

Pigeon gentleman word that he had followed his directions with ton, and, upon that being dissolved in order to make

11 regard to the pounding of his pigeons, and desired him

room for prisoners of war, into the king's house at Win. Pignat to come and release them.

chester. Being of a studious turn, he was accustomed, Carrier-Pigeon. See CARRIER-Pigeon and Co

of his brethren also were, to betake himself to JUMBA, ORNITHOLOGY Index.

the neighbouring lanes and thickets for the sake of Pigeon, Peter Charles Francis, curate of St Peter greater solitude. With this view baving, about ten du Regard, in the diocese of Bayeux, was one of the o'clock in the morning, Aug. 28. 1793, retired to a priests lately belonging to the king's house at Winche- certain little valley, on the north-east side of a place ster. He was born in Lower Normandy, of honest and called Oram's Arbour, the same place where the county virtuous parents, and of a decent fortune. His inclina- elections for Hampshire are held, he was there found, tions early led him to embrace the ecclesiastical state, between three and four o'clock in the afternoon, murfrom which neither the solicitations of his friends, nor dered, with the upper part of his skull absolutely broken the prospect of a more ample fortune on the death of his from the lower part, and a large hedge-stake, covered elder brother, could withdraw him. Several of bis

with blood, lying by bim, as were the papers on which schoolfellows and masters, who are now resident in the he had been transcribing a manuscript sermon with the king's house at Winchester, bear the most ample testi- hearing of which he had been much edified, and the sermony to his assiduity, regularity, piety, and the sweet mon itself which he was copying, together with his pen, ness of his disposition, during the whole course of his imbrued in blood. His watch was carried away, though education. The sweetness of teniper, in particular, was part of the chain, which had been by some means broso remarkable, and so clearly depicted on his counte- ken, was left behind. He was writing the word paranance, as to have gained him the esteem and affection of dise, the last letters of wbich remained unwritten when such of the inhabitants of Winchester as by any means the fatal blow was given him, which appears evidently had become acquainted with him. He was seven years to have been discharged upon him from a gap in a employed in quality of vicar, or, as we should call it hedge which was immediately behind him. At first the curate, of a large parish in the diocese of Seez, where suspicion of this cruel murder fell upon the French dehis virtues and talents had ample scope for exertion. His mocrats, who, to the number of 200, are prisoners of practice was to rise at five o'clock every morning, and war, at the neighbouring town of Alresford, as one of to spend the whole time till noon (the usual time of din that number, who bad broke his parole, had, about ing for persons in his station) in prayer and study. The three weeks before, being taken up at Winchester, and rest of the day, till evening, he devoted to visiting the both there and at Alresford had repeatedly threatened sick, and other exterior duties of his function. In 1789, to murder his uncle, a priest, whom he understood to be the year of the French revolution, M. Pigeon was pro then at Winchester, not without fervent wishes of havmoted to a curacy, or rather a rectory, in the diocese of ing it in his power to murder the whole establishment, Bayeux, called the parish of St Peter du Regard, pear consisting of more than 600 persons. However, as no the town of Condé sur Noereau. It was easy for bim to French prisoner was seen that day in the neighbourbool gain the good-will and the protection of his parishion- of Winchester, as none of them were known to have ers; but a Jacobin club in the above-mentioned town left Alresford, it is evidently veasonable to acquiesce in seemed to have no other subject to deliberate upon than the verdict of the coroner; namely, that the murder the various ways of harassing and persecuting M. Pigeon was committed by a person or persons unknown. The and certain other priests in the neighbourhood, who had most noble marquis of Buckingham, whose munificence from motives of conscience refused the famous civic oath. and kindness to those conscientious exiles, the emigrant It would be tedious to relate the many cruelties which French clergy, can only be conceived by those who vere at different times exercised upon him, and the im have been witvesses of the same, with tbe truly respectminent danger of losing his life to which he was expo able corps of the Buckinghamshire militia then quarsed, by the blows that were infficted on him, by his be tered at Winchester, joined in paying the last mark of ing thrown into water, and being obliged to wander in respect to the unfortunate deceased, by attending his fuwoods and other solitary places, without any food or neral, which was performed at the Roman Catholic buplace to lay bis head, in order to avoid his persecutors. rying-ground, called St James's, near the said city, on We máy form some judgment of the spirit of his perse- Saturday, Aug. 29. He was just 38 years of age when cutors from the following circumstance. Being disap- he was murdered. pointed on a particular occasion in the search they were PIGMENTS, preparations used by painters, dyers, making after M. Pigeon, with the view of amusing &c. to impart colours to bodies, or to imitate particular themselves with his sufferings, they made themselves a colours. See CoLOUR-Making, and DYEING. mends by seizing his mother, a respectable lady of 74 PIGNEROL is a town of Italy in the province of years of age, and his two sisters, whom they placed upon Piedmont, in E. Long. 7. 15. N. Lat. 44. 45. situated asses with their faces turned backwards, obliging them on the river Cbizon, 10 miles south-west of Turin, at in derision to hold the tails of these animals. Thus they the foot of the Alps, and the confines of Dauphiny. were conducted in pain and ignominy throughout the The town is small, but populous, and extremely well whole town of Condè, for no other alleged crime ex fortified by the king of Sardinia, since the treaty of Ucept being the nearest relations of M. Pigeon. At trecht. It is defended by a citadel, on the top of the length the decree for transporting all the ecclesiasties ar mountain near which is the castle of Perouse, which rived; and this gentleman, with several others, after was built at the entrance of the valley of that name. having been stripped of all their money, was shipped PIGNUT, or Earthnut. See Bunium, BOTANI from Port Bessin, and landed at Portsmouth, where be Index.



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PIGUS, in Ichthyology, is the name of a species of year, which is in March. It is found in almost all fresh leather-mouthed fish, very much resembling the nature waters ; but it is very different in goodness, according of the common carp; being of the same shape and size, to the nature of the places where it lives. The finest and its eyes, fins, and fleshy palate, exactly the same ; pike are those wbich feed in clear rivers ; those in from the gills to the tail there is a crooked dotted line ; ponds and meres are inferior, and the worst of all are the back and sides are bluish, and the belly reddish. It those of the fen ditches. They are very plentiful in is covered with large scales; from the middle of each of these last places, where the water is foul and coloured, which tbere rises a fine pellucid prickle, which is very and their food, such as frogs and the like, very plentisharp. It is an excellent fish for the table, being per ful, but very coarse ; so that they grow large, but are haps preferable to the carp; and it is in season in the yellowish and high bellied, and differ greatly

from those months of March and April. It is caught in lakes in wbich live in the clearer waters. some parts of Italy, and is mentioned by Pliny, thongh The fishermen have two principal ways of catching without a name. Artedi says it is a species of cyprivas, the pike; by the ledger, and by the walking-bait. and he calls it the cyprinus, called piclo and pigus. The ledger-bait is fixed in one certain place, and

PI-HAHIROTH, (Moses); understood to be a may continue while the angler is absent. This must mouth or narrow pass between two mountains, called be a live bait, a fish or frog : and among fish, the dace, Chiroth or Eiroth, and lying not far from the bottom roach, and gudgeon, are the best; of frogs, the only of the western coast of the Arabian gulf; before which caution is to choose the largest and yellowest that can be mouth the children of Israel encamped, just before their met with. If the bait be a fish, the hook is to be stuck entering the Red sea, (Wells).

through the upper lip, and the line must be 14 yards at
PIISKER, in Ichthyology, is a fish of the mustela least in length; the other end of this is to be tied to a
kind, commonly called the fossil mustela, or fossil-fish. bough of a tree, or to a stick driven into the ground
This fish is generally found as long as an ordinary man's near the pike's haunt, and all the line wound round a
Hand is broad, and as thick as the finger; but it some forked stick, except about half a yard. The bait will
times grows much longer : the back is of gray, with by this means keep playing so much under water, and
a number of spots and transverse streaks, partly black the pike will soon lay hold of it.
and partly blue; the belly is yellow, and spotted with If the bait be a frog, then the arming wire of the
red, white, and black ; the white are the larger, the hook should be put in at the mouth, and out at the
others look as if they were made with the point of a side ; and with a needle and some strong silk, the hin-
needle; and there is on each of the sides a longitudinal der leg of one side is to be fastened by one stitch to
black and white line. There are some fleshy excrescen the wire-arming of the book. The pike will soon seize
ces at the mouth, which are expanded in swimming ; this, and must have line enough to give him leave to
and when out of the water, they are contracted. These get to his haunt and poach the bait.
fishes run into caverns of the earth, in the sides of ri The trolling for pike is a pleasant method also of ta-
vers, in marshy places, and penetrate a great way, and king them : in this a dead bait serves, and none is so
are often dug up at a distance from waters. Often, proper as a gudgeon.
when the waters of brooks and rivers swell beyond This is to be pulled about in the water till the pike
their banks, and again cover them, they make their seizes it; and then it is to have line enough, and time
way out of the earth into the water; and when it de to swallow it: the book is small for this sport, and has
serts them, they are often left in vast numbers upon a smooth piece of lead fixed at its end to sink the bait;
the ground, and become a prey to swine. It is thought and the line is very long, and runs through a ring at
to be much of the same kind with the fisgum fish; and the end of the rod, which must not be too slender at
is indeed possible that that the pæcilia of Schonefeldt top.
is the same.

The art of feeding pike, so as to make them very

fat, is the giving them eels; and without this it is not
The pike never swims in shoals as most other fish do, to be done under a very long time ; otherwise perch,
but always lies alone ; and is so bold and ravenous, that while small, and their prickly fins tender, are the best
he will seize upon almost any thing less than himself. Of food for them. Bream put into a pike-pond are a very
the ravenous nature of this fish we shall give the follow proper food ; they will breed freely, and their young
ing instances. At Rycott in Oxfordshire, in the year ones make excellent food for the pike, who will take
1749, in a moat surrounding the earl of Abingdon's seat, care that they shall not increase over much. The nu-
there was a jack or pike of such a monstrous size, that merous shoals of roaches and ruds, which are continu-
it bad destroyed young swans feathers and all. An ally ehanging place, and often in floods get into the
old cobb swan having batched five young, one after an. pike's quarters, are food for them for a long time.
other was lost till four were gone. At length an under Pike, when used to be fed by hand, will come up to
gardener saw the fish seize the fifth. The old one the very shore, and take the food that is given them out
fought him with her beak, and, with the assistance of of the fingers of the feeder. It is wonderful to see with
the gardener, released it, although he had got it under what courage they will do this, after a while practising;
water. In the year 1765 a large pike was caught in and it is a very diverting sight when there are several of
the river Ouze, which weighed upwards of 28 pounds, them nearly of the same size, to see what striving and
and was sold for a guinea. On gutting the fish, a watch fighting there will be for the best bits when they are
with a black ribbon and two steel seals were found in thrown in. The most convenient place is near the
its stomach, which, by the maker's name, &c. was mouth of the pond, and where there is about half a yard
found to belong to a person who had been drowned a. depth of water; for, by that means, the offal of the
bout six weeks before. This fish breeds but once in a feedings will all lie in one place, and the deep water




will serve for a place to retire into and rest in, and will health. The pila was of four sorts: ist, Follis or balbe always clean and in order.

loon; 20, Pila Trigonalis; 3d, Pila Paganica ; 4th, 0 Carp may be fed in the same manner as pike; and Harpastum. All these cone under the general name of Pilzte. though by nature a fish as remarkably shy and timorous pila. For the manner of playing with each of them, see as the pike is bold and fearless, yet by custom they will the articles FOLLIS, TRIGONALIS. :come to take their food out of the person's band ; and PILASTER, in Architecture. See there, No 50, will, like the pike quarrel among one another for the &c. nicest bits.

PILATE, or Pontius PILATE, was governor of Pike, in War, an offensive weapon, consisting of a Judea when our Lord was crucified. Of bis family or wooden shaft, 12 or 14 feet long, with a flat steel head, country we know but little, though it is believed that pointed, called the spear. This weapon was long in

This weapon was long in he was of Rome, or at least of Italy. He was sent to use among the infantry; but now the bayonet, which is govern Judea in the room of Gratus, in the year 26 or fixed on the muzzle of the firelock, is substituted in its 27 of the vulgar era, and governed this province for stead. It is still used by some of the officers of infantry, ten years, from the 12th or 13th year of Tiberius to the under the name of sponton. The Macedonian phalanx 220 or 23d. He is represented both by Philo and Jose. was a battalion of pikemen. See PHALANX.

phus as a man of an impetuous and obstinate tempei, and PILA Marina, or the sea-ball, in Natural History, as a judge who used to sell justice, and to pronounce any is the name of a substance very common on the shores of sentence that was desired, provided he was paid for it. the Mediterranean, and elsewhere. It is generally found The same authors make mention of his rapines, his inju. in the form of a ball about the size of the balls of horse ries, bis murders, the torments that he inflicted upon dung, and composed of a variety of fibrillæ irregularly the innocent, and the persons he put to death without complicated. Various conjectures bave been given of any form of process. Philo, in particular, describes him its origin by different authors. John Bauhine tells us, as a man that exercised an excessive cruelty during the that it consists of small bairy fibres and straws, such as whole time of bis government, who disturbed the repose are found about the sea plant called alga vitriariorum; of Judea, and gave occasion to the troubles and revolt but he does not ascertain what plant it owes its origin that followed after. St Luke (xiii. 1, 2, &c.) acquaints to. Imperatus imagined it consisted of the exuviæ both us, that Pilate had mingled the blood of the Galileans of vegetable and animal bodies. Mercatus is doubtful with their sacrifices ; and that the matter having been whether it be a congeries of the fibrillæ of plants, wound related to Jesus Christ, he said, “ Think you that these up into a ball by the motion of the sea water, or whe- Galileans were greater sinners than other Galileans, be. ther it be not the workmanship of some sort of beetle cause they suffered this calamity. I tell you nay; and living about the sea shore, and analogous to our common if you do not repent, you shall all perish in like manner." dung beetle's ball, which it elaborates from dung for It is uiiknown upon wbat occasion Pilate caused these the reception of its progeny. Schreckius says it is com Galileans to be slain in the temple wbile they were sacri. posed of the filaments of some plant of the reed kind : ficing; for this is the meaning of that expression of and Welchius supposes it is composed of the pappous mingling their blood with their sacrifices. Some think part of the flowers of the reed. Maurice Hoffman they were disciples of Judas the Gaulonite, who taught thinks it the excrement of the bippopotamus; and others that the Jews ought not to pay tribute to foreign princes; think it that of the phoca or sea calf. Klein, who had and that Pilate had put some of them to death even in thoroughly and minutely examined the bodies them- the temple ; but there is no proof of this fact. Others selves, and-also what authors had conjectured concern think that these Galileans were Samaritaus, whom Pilate ing them, thinks that they are wholly owing to, and cut to pieces in the village of Tirataba *, as they were * Jerpå. entirely composed of, the capillaments which the leaves, preparing to go up to Mount Gerizim, where a certain Antiq

. lit growing to the woody stalk of the alga vitriariorum, imposter had promised to discover treasures to them; but «viu. e, have when they wither and decay. These leaves, in this event did not happen before the year 35 of the comtheir natural state, are as thick as a wheat straw, and mon era, and consequently two years after the death of they are placed so thick about the tops and extremities Jesus Christ. At the time of our Saviour's passion, Piof the stalks, that they enfold, embrace, and lie over late made some endeavours to deliver him out of the one another; and from the middle of these clusters of bands of the Jews. He knew they bad delivered bim leaves, and indeed from the woody substance of the up, and pursued his life with so much violence, only out plant itself, there arise several other very long, flat, of malice and envy (Matt. xxvii. 18.). His wife, alse, smooth, and brittle leaves. These are usually four from who had been disturbed the night before with frightful each tuft of the other leaves ; and they have ever a dreams, sent to tell him she desired him not to meddle common vagina, which is membranaceous and


thiu. in the affair of that just person (ib. 19.) He attempted This is the style of the plant, and the pila marina ap to appease the wrath of the Jews, and to give them some pears to be a cluster of the fibres of the leaves of this satisfaction, by whipping Jesus Christ (John xix. I. plant, which cover the whole stalk, divided into their Matt. xxvii. 26.). He tried to take him out of their constituent fibres; and by the motion of the waves first hands, by proposing to deliver him or Barabbas, on the broken and worn into short shreds, and afterwards day of the festival of the passover. Lastly, he bad a wound up together into a roundish or longish ball. mind to discharge himself from pronouncing judgment

Pila, was a ball made in a different manner accord against him, by sending him to Herod king of Galilee ing to the different games in which it was to be used. (Luke xxiii. 7, 8.). When he saw all this would not Playing at ball was very common amongst the Romans satisfy the Jews, and that they even threatened him in of the first distinction, and was looked upon as a manly some manner, saying he could be no friend to the emexercise, which contributed both to amusement and peror if he let him go (Jobn xix. 12, 15-), be caused


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water to be brought, washed bis hands before all the year of Jesus Christ and sent to Rome to give an ac Pilaic people, and publicly declared himself innocent of the count of his conduct to the emperor. But thoughTi 11 blood of that just person (Matt. xxvii. 23, 24.); yet at berius died before Pilate arrived at Rome, yet his suc

the same time he delivered him up to his soldiers, that cessor Caligula banished him to Vienne in Gaul, where
they might crucify him. This was enough to justify Je he was reduced to such extremity that he killed himself
sus Christ, as Calmet observes, and to show that he held with his own bands. The evangelists call him governor,
him as innocent; but it was not enough to vindicate the though in reality he was no more than procurator of
conscience and integrity of a judge, whose duty it was Judea, not only because governor was a name of gene-
as well to assert the cause of oppressed innocence as to ral use, but because Pilate in effect acted as one, by
punish the guilty and criminal. He ordered to be put taking upon him to judge in criminal matters; as his
over our Saviour's cross, as it were an abstract of his predecessors had done, and other procurators in the
sentence, and the motive of his condemnation (John small provinces of the empire where there was no pro-
xix. 9.), Jesus of Nazareth, king of the Jews, which consul, constantly did. See Calmet's Dictionary, Ec-
was written in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. Some of hard's Ecclesiastical Dictionary, and Beansobre's Annot.
the Jews found fault with it, and remonstrated to Pilate With regard to Pilate's wife, the general tradition
that he ought to have written Jesus of Nazareth who is, that she was named Claudia Procula or Proscula ;
pretended to be king of the Jews. “But Pilate could and in relation to her dream, some are of opinion that
not he prevailed with to alter it, and gave them this as she had intelligence of our Lord's apprehension, and
peremptory answer, That what he had written he had knew by his character that he was a righteous person,

her imagination, being struck with these ideas, did na-
Towards evening, he was applied to for leave to take turally produce the dream we read of; but others think
down the bodies from the cross, that they might not that this dream was sent providentially upon her, for
continue there the following day, which was the passo the clearer manifestation of our Lord's innocence.
ver and the sabbath-day (John xix. 31.). This he al PILATRE DU Rozier, Francis, was born at Metz
lowed, and granted the body of Jesus to Joseph of Ari the 30th of March 1756. He was first apprentice to
mathea, that he might pay his last duties to it, (ib. 33.). an apothecary there, and afterwards went to Paris in
Lastly, when the priests, who had solicited the death of quest of farther improvement. He applied himself to
our Saviour, came to desire him to get a watch about the study of natural history and of natural pbilosophy,
the sepulchre, for fear his disciples should steal him

away and had already acquired some reputation, when the dis-
by night, he answered them, that they had a guard, and covery of M. de Montgolfier had just astonished the
might place them there themselves (Matt. xxvii. 65.). learned world. On the 25th of October 1783, be at-
This is the substance of what the gospel tells us con tempted an aerial voyage with the marquis of Arlande.
cerning Pilate.

He performed several other excursions in this way with Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Eusebius, and after them brilliant success, in the presence of the royal family of several others both ancient and modern, assure us, that France, of the king of Sweden, and of Prince Henry of it was formerly the custom for Roman magistrates to Prussia. He then resolved to pass into England by prepare copies of all verbal processes and judicial acts means of his aerial vehicle, and for that purpose which they passed in their several provinces, and to paired to Boulogne, whence he rose about 7 o'clock in send them to the emperor. And Pilate, in compliance the morning of the 15th June 1785; but in half an hour to this custom, having sent word to Tiberius of what after he set out, the balloon took fire, and the aerohad passed relating to Jesus Christ, the emperor wrote naut, with his companion M. Romaine, were crushed to an account of it to the senate, in a manner that gave death by the fall of that machine, which was more inreason to judge that he thought favourably of the re genious, perhaps, than useful *. Pilatre's social virtues * See Acroligion of Jesus Christ, and showed that he should be wil and courage, which were very distinguished, heightened station, ling they would decree divine honours to him. But the the regret of his friends for his loss. His merit as a N° 34. senate was not of the same opinion, and so the matter chemist, and his experiments as an aeronaut, procured was dropped. It appears by what Justin says of these him some pecuniary reward, and some public appointacts, that the miracles of Jesus Christ were mentioned ments. He had a pension from the king, was intendant there, and even that the soldiers had divided his garments of Monsieur's cabinets of natural philosophy, chemistry, among them. Eusebius insinuates that they spoke of his and natural history, professor of natural philosophy, a resurrection and ascension. Tertullian and Justin refer member of several academies, and principal director of to these acts with so much confidence as would make Monsieur's museum. one believe tliey bad them in their hands. However, PILCHARD, in Ichthyology, a fish which has a geneneither Eusebius nor. St Jerome, who were both inqui ral resemblance to the herring, but differs in some essential sitive, understanding persons, nor any other author that particulars. The body of the pilchard is less compressed wrote afterwards, seem to have seen them, at least not than that of the herring, being thicker and rounder: the the true and original acts; for as to what we have nose is shorter in proportion, and turns op; the under now in great number, they are not authentic, being nei jaw is shorter. The back is more elevated; the belly ther ancient nor uniform. There are also some pretend less sharp. The dorsal fin of the pilchard is placed ed letters of Pilate to Tiberius, giving a history of our exactly in the centre of gravity, so that when taken up Saviour, but they are universally allowed to be spurious. by it, the body preserves an equilibrium, whereas that

Pilate being a man that, by his excessive cruelties of the herring dips at the head. The scales of the pile and rapine, had disturbed the peace of Judea during chard adhere very closely, whereas those of the herring the whole time of his government, was at length de very easily drop off. The pilchard is in general less posed by Vitellius the proconsul of Syria, in the 36th than the herring; but it is fatter, or more full of oil.


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