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Pictu: admirer also of the beauty of virtue ; and that every manner of accounting, used among the negrocs on the fiece, resque lover of nature reflects, that
coast of Angola in Africa. See Money Table. Piedmont Beauty 01 Nature is but a name for an effect,
PIECE, in Heraldry, denotes an ordinary or charge. Piece. Wbose cause is God.
The honourable pieces of the shield are the chief, fess,
bend, pale, bar, cross, saltier, chevron, and in geneIf, however, the admirer of nature can turn his amuse- ral all those which may take up one-third of the field, ments to a bigher purpose; if its great scenes can in- when alone, and in what manner socver it be. See spire bim with a religious awe, or its tranquil scenes HERALDRY. with that complacency of mind which is so nearly al- Pieces, in the military art, include all sorts of great lied to benevolence, it is certainly the better. Apponat guns and mortars. Battering pieces are the larger lucro. It is so much into the bargain ; for we dare not sort of guns used at sieges for making the breaches; promise him more from picturesque travel than a ra- such are the 24-pounder and culverine, the one carrytional and agreeable amusement. Yet even this may ing a 24 and the other an 18 pound ball. Field-pieces be of some use in an age teeming with licentious plea- are 12 pounds, demiculverines, 6-pounders, sackers, misure ;
and may in this light at least be considered as nions, and 3-pounders, which march with the army, and having a moral tendency.
encamp always behind the second line, but in day of PICUIPINIMA, is the Brasilian name of a species battle are in the front. A soldier's firelock is likewise of pigeon, which is so very small as scarcely to exceed
called his piece. the lark in size.
PIEDMONT, a country of Italy, having formerly PICUMNOS and PILUMNUS, were two Roman dei- the title of a principality, is bounded on the north by ties, who presided over the auspices required before the Savoy and Italy; on the west by France ; on the south celebration of nuptials. Piluinus was supposed to pa- by the Mediterranean and the republic of Genoa ; and tronize children, as his name seems in some manner to on the east by the duchies of Montferrat and Milan; indicate quod pellut mala infantiæ. The manuring of extending about 150 miles from north to south, but land was first invented by Picumnus, from which reason much less from east to west. It is called Piedmont, and he is called Sterquilinius. Pilumnus is also invoked as in Latin Piedmontium, from its situation at the foot of the god of bakers and millers, as he is said to have first the mountains, or Alps, which separate France from invented the art of grinding corn.
Italy. This country is in some parts mountainous, but PICUS, the WooDPECKER, a genus of birds be- is everywhere very fruitful. The plains produce fine longing to the order of Picæ. See ORNITHOLOGY corn, and Montferrat and the Milanese yield great quanIndex.
tities of Turkey wheat, which commonly serves for Picus, in fabulous history, a king of Latium, son of bread, and with which the people of the middle rank Saturn. He married Venilia, also called Canens, by mix rye; the pods are used for fuel, and the stalks bewhom he had Faunus. He was tenderly loved by the ing thick serve to mend the roads. The hills produce goddess Pomona, and he returned her affection. · As he plenty of wine, which, like the Italian wines, is very was one day bunting in the woods, he was met by Circe, luscious when new, especially the white. There is who became deeply enamoured of him, and who changed also a tartish red wine called vino brusco, said to be very him into a woodpecker, called by the name of picus wholesome for fat people, and, on the other land, the among the Latins. His wife Vepilia was so disconso- sweet wine is recommended as a stomachic. The late when she was informed of his death, that she pined neighbourhood of Turin is famous for its fine fruits, away.
that Picus was the son of Pilum- and many long walks of chesnut and mulberry trees, nus, and that he gave out prophecies to his subjects by which produce both pleasure and profit. Marons, or means of a favourite woodpecker; from which circum- large chesnuts, are a favourite dainty among the comstance originated the fable of his being metamorphosed mon people. These are put into an oven, and, when into a bird.
thoroughly hot, and cooled in red wine, are dried a Picus, John Francis, prince of Mirandola, nephew of second time in the oven, and afterwards eaten cold. John Pica or Picus, mentioned above, was born about the Truffles grow here in such abundance, that Piedmont year 1469. He cultivated learning and the sciences af- bas obtained the name of the truffle country. Some are ter the example of his uncle ; but he had a principality black, others wbite marbled with red. Their price is and dominion to superintend, which involved him in rated according to their size. Sometimes they are great troubles, and at last cost him his life. He was found of 12 or 14 pounds weight; and many country twice driven from his principality, and twice restored; people earn from 60 to 70 dollars a-year merely by digo and at last, in 1533, was, together with his eldest son ging for them. The trade in cattle is said to bring Albert, assassinated in his own castle by his nephew Ga- into Piedmont no less than three millions of livres per leoti. He was a great lover of letters; and such of his annum. The cultivation of silk is also a profitable artiworks as were then composed were inserted in the Stras- cle, the Piedmontese silk being, on account of its fine.burg edition of his uncle's in 1504, and continued in ness and strength, esteemed the best in Italy. The Piedfuture impressions, besides some others which were never montese gentry breed vast numbers of silk-worms un. collected
der the care of their tenants, who have the eggs and PIECE, in matters of money, signifies sometimes mulberry leaves delivered to them, and in return they the same thing with species ; and sometimes, by adding give half the silk to their masters. This principality the value of the pieces, it is used to express such as have comprehends eleven small provinces: Piedmont proper, no other particular name. For the piece of eight, or pi- the valleys between France and Italy, the valley of astre, see Money TABLE.
Saluza, the county of Nice, the marquisate of Susa, Piece, is also a kind of money of account, or rather the duchy of Aost, the Canavese, the lordship of Vet
Piedmont, sail, the county of Ast, and the Langes
. It was for- pually; and it is not only abundant, but universally Piedmont, merly a part of Lombardy, but now belongs to the king known to be stronger and finer than any in Italy, The Pienes. of Sardinia, and lies at the foot of the Alps, which land owners divide the profit with their tenants. The separate France from Italy. It contains many high Piedmontese workmen, however, are said to want exmountains, among which there are rich and fruitful val- pertness, though they finish their work equally well leys, as pleasant and populous as any part of Italy. In with those of other natoins. The high duly and land. the mountains are mines of several kinds, and the fo- carriage on mules likewise tend to lessen the value of rests afford a great deal of curious game, among which this trade. They liave besides corn, rice, wine, fruits, the tumor is an useful animal. “ The mules (says Mr fax, and cattle. Watkins) are very fine in this country; but the inha- In the valleys of Lucerne, Peyrouse, and St Martin, bitants bave other beasts, or rather monsters, which they which have always belonged to Piedmont, live the celefind very serviceable, though vicious and obstinate. brated Waldenses or Vaudois, a name which signifies These are produced by a cow and an ass, or mare and people of the valleys. These bave rendered themselves bull, and called jumarres or gimerri (A). I cannot say famous in history for their dissent from the Ronish that I have ever seen any of them, but I am told they church long before the time of Luther and Calvin, and are very common."
for the persecutions they have suffered on that account; The Piedmontese are said to be more intelligent but since the year 1730 they have not been openly mothan the Savoyards, but less sincere. Some authors Jested for their religion, but, in order to suppress them represent them as lively, artful, and witty, the inhabi- by degrees, a popish church has been built in every patants of the mountain of Aosta excepted, who are far- rish. They are heavily taxed, and labour under great ther distinguished by large wens, as even their horses, oppressions. The number of people in these valleys dogs, and other animals. Mr Baretti, however, in his scarce at present exceeds 10,000, of which icoo are Account of Italy, vol. ii. p. 116. gives the following ac- Catholics. The chief river of Piedmont is the PJ, which count of them.
“ One of the chief qualities (says he), flows out of Mount Viso. The river Sesia, the Doria,
Piedmont never others, run into it. The Var, anciently called the Va.
PIENES, a small island of Japan, opposite to the
that the English alone have purchased to the value of city, but for a deity worshipped there, to which vast
(A) These equivocal animals, however, if we may so term them, are so generally mentioned by travellers in this part of Europe, that we bave no doubt of their existence, or of their being found hardy and serviceable as la. bourers.
(B) Each pound is valued in Piedmont at 18s. The little village of La Tour, in the valley of Lucerne, makes above 50,000 Ib. annually, and the exports every year to the single city of Lyons amount to more than 160,000l. sterling.
Pieńcs provided for the purpose; then, launching into the deep, salian poet, who was the first who sacrificed to them. Pierides
0 they throw themselves overboard, loaded with stones, and See Pieris. Pierides
. sink to the bottom. The temple of that deity, which is PIERINO DEL VAGA, an eminent Italian painter, Pierre.
called Canon, is very large and lofty, and so are many born of poor parents in Tuscany, about the year 1500. others in the city itself; one in particular, dedicated to He was placed apprentice with a grocer in Florence, the gods of other countries, is thought the finest in the and got some instructions from the painters to whom wbole empire.
he was sent with colours and pencils; but a painter PIEPOUDRE, COURT OF, the lowest, and at the named Vaga taking him to Rome, be was called Deb same time the
most expeditious, court of justice known Vaga, from living with bim, his real name being Buato the law of England. It is called PIEPOUDRE, (curia nacorsi. He studied anatomy with ethe sciences peces. pedis pulverizati), from the dusty feet of the suitors; or, sary for bis profession; and had somewbat of every according to Sir Edward Coke, because justice is there thing that was good in his compositions. After Radone as speedily as dust can fall from the foot: Upon phael's death, he joined with Julio Romano and Franthe same principle that justice among the Jews was ad- cisco Penni to finish the works in the Vatican which ministered in the gate of the city, that the proceedings were left imperfect by their common master; and to conmight be the more speedy, as well as public. But the firm their friendship married Penni's sister. He gainetymology given us by a learned modern writer is ed the highest reputation by his performances in the pa. 'much more ingenious and satisfactory; it being de- lace of Prince Doria at Genoa : but the multiplicity of rived, according to him, from pied puldreaux, " a ped. bis business, and the vivacity of his imagination, drained lar," in old French, and therefore signifying the court bis spirits in the flower of his age ; for he died in the of such petty chapmen as resort to fairs or markets. It year 1547. Of all Raphael's disciples, Pierino kept is a court of record incident to every fair and market; the character of his master longest, i. e. his exterior of which the steward of him who owns or has the toll of character and manner of designing; for he fell very short 'the market is the judge. It was instituted to administer of the fineness of Raphael's thinking. He had a partijustice for all commercial injuries done in that very fair cular genius for the decoration of places according to or market, and not in any preceding one. So that the their customs. His invention in that kind of painting injury must be done, complained of, heard, and deter- was full of ingenuity; grace and order are everywhere mined, within the compass of one and the same day, un- to be met with, and his dispositions, which are ordinary Jess the fair continues longer. The court hath cogniz- in his pictures, are wonderful in his ornamente: some of ance of all matters of contract that can possibly arise these he has made little, and some great, and placed them within the precinct of that fair or market; and the plain- both with so much art, that they set off one another by tiff must make oath that the cause of an action arose comparison and contrast. His figures are disposed and there. From this court a writ of error lies, in the na- designed according to Raphael's gusto; and if Raphael ture of an appeal, to the courts at Westminster. The gave him at first some slight sketches of ornaments, as reason of its institution seems to have been, to do jus- he did to Giovanni d'Udine, he executed them to admitice expeditiously among the variety of persons that ration. The tapestries of the seven planets, in seven resort from distant places to a fair or market; since it pieces, wbich Pierino designed for Diana de Poitiers, is probable, that no other inferior court might be able and which were, when De Piles wrote, with Monsieur to serve its process, or execute its judgments, on both the first president at Paris, show sufficiently what he or perhaps either of the parties; and therefore, unless was, and that the above character does not exceed the this court had been erected, the complaint must neces- truth. sarily have resorted even in the first instance to some PIERIS, in Ancient Geography, a mountain which superior judicature.
is thought to have given name to Pieria of Macedonia ; PIER, in building, denotes a mass of stone, &c. taking its name from Pierus a poet, who was the first opposed by way of fortress to the force of the sea, or that sacrificed to the Muses, thence called Pierides, a great river, for the security of ships that lie at har- if credit may be given to an ancient scholiast on Juve. bour in any haven.
nal, Piers of a Bridge. See BRIDGE.
PIERRE D'AUTOMNE is a French name, translated PIERCEA. See RIVINIA.
from the Chinese, of a medicinal stone, celebrated in PIERIA, in Ancient Geography, a district of Mace: the east for curing all disorders of the lungs. Many donia, contained between the mouths of the rivers Lu- imagine it had its name of the autumn-stone from its dias and Peneus ; extended by Strabo beyond the Lu- being only to be made at that season of the year; but dias, to the river Axios on the north, and on the south it may certainly be made equally at all times. The no farther than the Aliacmon, along the west side of Chinese chemists refer the various parts of the body to the Sinus Thermaicus.-- Another Pieria of Syria, the the several seasons of the year, and thus they refer the north part of Seleucia, or the Antiochena, situated on lungs to autumn. This is evident in their writings, and the Sinus Issicus, and lying next Cilicia to the north- thus the stone for diseases of the lungs came to be called west.
autumn-stone. It is prepared as follows: They put 30 PIERIDES, in fabulous history, the daughters of pints of the urine of a strong and healthy young man Pierus a Macedonian prince, presuming to dispute with into a large iron pot, and set it over a gentle fire. the muses for the prize of poetry, were turned into mag- When it begins to boil, they add to it, drop by drop, pies. The name of Pierides was also given to the muses, about a large tea-cnp-full of rape oil. They then leave from Mount Pieris in Thessaly, which was consecrated it on the fire till the whole is evaporated to a thick subto them; or, according to others, from Pieris, a Thes- stance like black mud. It is then taken out of the pot,
Pietre, and laid on a flat iron to dry, so that it may be powder- the overturning of a great part of the Christian doctrine, Pietists Pietists, ed very fine. The powder is moistened with fresh oil, while others are only visionaries ; and others are very 0 and the mass is put into a double crucible, surrounded honest and good, though perhaps misguided, people.
PIETOLA, anciently called Andes, is a place with-
PIERRE, St, or St Peter's, the capital of Martinico, stinguished virtue, like many others, received among the
. It is certain that the understanding may be improv-
sible to arrive at the character of a complete man of the PIETISTS, a religious sect, sprung up among the world, without losing many of the most valuable senti. Protestants of Germany, seeming to be a kind of mean ments of uncorrupted nature. A complete man of the between the Quakers of England and the Quietists of world is an artificial being; he has discarded many of the Romish church. They despise all sorts of ecclesi- the native and laudable tendencies of his mind, and astical polity, all school theology, and all forms and adopted a new system of objects and propensities of his ceremonies, and gave themselves up to contemplation own creation. These are commonly gross, coarse, sordid, and the mystic theology. Many gross errors are charged selfish, and sensual. All, or either of these attributcs, on the Pietists, in a book entitled Manipulus Observa- tend directly to blunt the sense of every thing liberal, tionum Antipietisticarum ; but they have much of the enlarged, disinterested ; of every thing which particiair of polemical exaggeration, and are certainly not at all pates more of an intellectual than of a sensual nature. just. Indeed there are Pietists of various kinds : Some When the heart is tied down to the earth by lust 'and running into gross illusions, and carrying their errors to avarice, it is not extraordinary that tbe eye should be VOL. XVI. Part II.
Piety. seldom lifted up to heaven. To the man who spends his serve them, it will be necessary to preserve our sensibi- Piety
Sunday (because he thinks the day fit for little else) in lity; and nothing will contribute so much to this purthe counting-house, in travelling, in the tavern, or in the pose as a life of temperance, innocence, and simplicity.” Piganiol. brothel, those who go to church appear as fools, and the Of piety, as it denotes love and tenderness to our business they go upon as nonsense. He is callous to the friends, there have been many distinguished instances feelings of devotion ; but he is tremblingly alive to all both in ancient and modern times. See Filial Piety, that gratifies his senses or promotes his interest. FRATERNAL and PARENTAL Affection, &c.
“ It has been remarked of those writers who have at- The following example of filial piety in China, taken tacked Christianity, and represented all religions merely from P. Du Halde's description of that country, will as diversified modes of superstition, that they were in- not we trust be disagreeable to our readers.
" In the deed, for the most part, men of a metaphysical and a commencement of the dynasty of the Tang, Lou-taodisputatious turn of mind, but usually little distinguish tsong, who was disaffected to the government, being ed for benignity and generosity. There was, amidst accused of a fault, wbich touched his life, obtained all their pretensions to logical sagacity, a cloudiness of leave from those who had him in custody, to perform ideas, and a coldness of heart, which rendered them the duties of the Tao to one of his diseased friends. very unfit judges on a question in which the heart is He managed matters so well, that giving bis keepers chiefly interested ; in which the language of nature is the slip, he fled to the house of Lou Nan-kin, with more expressive and convincing, than all the dreary sub- whom he had a friendship, and there hid himself. Lou tleties of the dismal metaphysicians. Even the reason- Nan-kin, notwithstanding the strict search that was ing faculty, on which we so greatly value ourselves, may made, and the severity of the court against those who be perverted by excessive refinement; and there is an conceal prisoners that have escaped, would not betray abstruse, but vain and foolish philosophy, which philo- his friend. However, the thing coming to be discosophizes us out of the noblest parts of our noble nature. vered, Lou Nan-kin was imprisoned; and they were One of those parts of us is our instinctive sense of reli- just on the point of proceeding against him, when his gion, of which not one of those brutes which the philo- younger brother presenting bimself before the judge, sophers most admire, and to whose rank they wish to re- It is 1, Sir, said he, who have hidden the prisoner ; it duce us, is found in the slightest degree to participate. is I why ought to die, and not my elder brother. The
“Such philosophers may be called, in a double sense, eldest maintained on the contrary, that bis younger the enemies of mankind. They not only endeavour to brother accused himself wrongfully, and was not at all entice man from his duty, but to rob him of a most ex- culpable. The judge, who was a person of great sagaalted and natural pleasure. Such, surely, is the plea- city, sifted both parties so eflectually, that he not ouly sure of devotion. For wben the soul rises above this little discovered that the younger brother was innocent, but orb, and
pours its adoration at the throne of celestial even made him confess it himself: It is true, Sir, said majesty, the holy fervour which it feels is itself a rapturous the younger all in tears, I have accused myself falsely; delight. Neither is this a declamatory representation, but but I have very strong reasons for so doing. My a truth felt and acknowledged by all the sons of men ; mother has been dead for some time, and her corpse is except those who have been defective in sensibility, or not yet buried; I have a sister also who is marriagewho hoped to gratify the pride or the malignity of their able, but is not yet disposed of : these things which my hearts by singular and pernicious speculation.
brother is capable of maneging, I am not, and there“ Indeed all disputatious, controversial, and metaphy. fore desire to die in his stead. Vouchsafe to admit my sical writings on the subject of religion, are unfavourable testimony.. The commissioner gave an account of the to genuine piety. We do not find that the most renown- whole affair to the court, and the emperor at his solicied polemics in the church militant were at all more at- tation pardoned the criminal." tentive than others to the common offices of religion, or
MAMM that they were actuated by any peculiar degree of devo
Guinea-Pig, tion. The truth is, their religion centered in their heads, Pig of lead, the eighth part of a fother, amounting whereas its natural region is the heart. The heart! con- to 250 pounds weight. fined, alas! in colleges or libraries, unacquainted with all PIGANIOL DE LA FORCE, JOHN AYMAR DE, a the tender cbarities of husband, father, brother, friend; native of Auvergne, of a noble family, applied himself some of them have almost forgotten that they possess a with ardour to the study of geography and of the hiheart. It has long ceased to beat with the pulsations of story of France. With the view of improving bimself love and sympathy, and has been engrossed by pride on in this study, he travelled into different provinces; and, conquering an adversary in the syllogistic combat, or by in the course of his travels, made some important obserimpotent anger on a defeat. With such habits, and so vations on the natural history, the commerce, the civil defective a system of feelings, can we expect that a doc- and ecclesiastical government of each province. These obtor of the Sorbonne,or the disputing professor of divinity, servations were of great use to bimin compiling the works should ever feel the pure flame of piety that glowed in he has left behind him, of which the chief are, 1. An the bosoms of Mrs Rowe, Mrs Talbot, or Mr Nelson ? Historical and Geograpbical Description of France; the
“ It is however certain, that a devotional taste and largest edition of which is that of 1753, in 15 vols. 1 2010. habit are very desirable in themselves, exclusive of their It is the best work which has hitherto appeared upon
that effects in meliorating the morals and disposition, and subject, though it contains a great number of inaccurapromoting present and future felicity. They add dig. cies and even errors. 2. A Description of Paris, in 10 nity, pleasure, and security to any age : but to old age vols. 1 2mo; a work equally entertaining and instructive, they are the most becoming grace, the most substan- and much more complete than the description given by tial support, and the sweeteet comfort. In order to pre- Germain Brice : besides, it is written with an elegant 2