Gambar halaman


Piccolo Piccolomini, James, whose proper name was Am to have been built 270 years before Christ by Peridurus, Pickering · mini manati, took that of Piccolomini in honour of his patron a king of the Britons, who was buried here. It had 01

Pius II. He was born in a village near Lucca in 1422. once a castle, the ruins of which are still to be seen; to
Pickering: He became bishop of Massa, afterwards of Frescati; a whose jurisdiction many of the neighbouring villages

cardinal in 146 1, under the name of Cardinal de Pavie ; were subject : and the adjacent territory, commonly
and died in 1479, at the age of 57, of an indigestion of called Pickering-Lath, or the liberty or forest of Picker-
figs. He left 8000 pistoles in the bankers hands, which ing, was given by Henry III. to his son Edmund earl
Pope Sixtus IV. claimed; and of which he gave a part of Lancaster. A court is kept here for all actions un-
to the Hospital of the Holy Ghost. His works, which der 403. arising within the honour of Pickering.
consist of some Letters, and a history of his own time, PICKERY, in Scots Law, petty theft, or stealing
were printed at Milan, in 1521, in folio. His history, things of small value.
entitled Commentaries, commences the 18th of June PICKETS, in fortification, stakes sharp at one end,
1464, and ends the 6th of December 1469. They and sometimes shod with iron, used in laying out the
may very properly be considered as a Sequel of Pope ground, of about three feet long ; but, when used for
Pius II.'s Commentaries, which end with the year pinning the fascines of a battery, they are from three

to five feet long.
PiccoloMINI, Æneas Sylvius. See Pius II. Pickets, in artillery, are about five or six feet long,

PICENTIA, (Strabo, Pliny), the capital of the shod with iron, to pin the park lines, in laying out the
Picentini, whose territory, called Ager Picentinus, a boundaries of the park.
small district, lay on the l'uscan sea, from the Promon Pickets, in the camp, are also stakes of about six
torium Minervce, the south boundary of Campania on or eight inches long, to fasten the tent cords, in pitch-
the coast, to the river Silarus, the north boundary of ing the tents; also of about four or five feet long, dri-
Lucania, extending within-land as far as the Samnites ven into the ground near the tents of the horsemen, to
and Hirpini, though the exact termination cannot be tie their horses to.
assigned. The Greeks commonly confound the Pincen PICKET, an out-guard posted before an army, to give
tini and Picentes, but the Romans carefully distinguish notice of an enemy approaching.
them. The former, with no more than two towns that PICKET, a kind of punishment so called, where a sol-
can be named, Silernum and Picentia ; the situation of dier stands with one foot upon a sharp-pointed stake;
both doubtful: only Pliny says the latter stood within the time of his standing is limited according to the of-
land, at some distance from the sea. Now thought to fence.
be Bicenza, (Holstenius), in the Principato Citra of PICKLE, a brine or liquor, commonly composed of

salt, vinegar, &c. sometimes with the addition of spices,
PICENUM, (Cæsar, Pliny, Florus); PICENUS wherein meat, fruit, and other things, are preserved and
ACER, (Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus) ; Ager Picen- seasoned.
tium, (Varro): a territory of Italy, lying to the east of PICO, one of the Azores islands, is so called from
Umbria, from the Apennine to the Adriatic; on the some lofty mountains on it; or rather from one very
coast extending from the river Aesis on the north, as far high mountain, terminating like Teneriffe in a peak,
as the Prætutiani to the south. In the upper or northern and reputed by some writers equal to it in height. This
part of their territory the Umbri excluded them from island lies about four leagues south-west from St George,
the Appennine, as far as Camerinum, (Strabo); but in twelve from Tercera, and about three leagues south-east
the lower or southern part they extended from the A. of Fayal ; in W. Long. 28. 21. and N. Lat. 38. 29.
driatic to the Apennine. A very fruitful territory, and The mountain Pico, which gives name to the island, is
very populous. Picentes, the people, (Cicero); from the filled with dismal dark caverns or volcanoes, which fre-
singular Picens, (Livy): different from the Picentini quently vomit out flames, smoke, and ashes, to a great
on the Tuscan sea, though called so by the Greeks ; but distance. At the foot of this mountain towards the past
Ptolemy calls them Piceni, as does also Pliny. Their is a spring of fresh water, generally cold, but sometimes
territory at this day is supposed to form the greatest part so heated with the subterraneous fire, as to rush forth in
of the March of Ancona, (Cluverius).

torrents with a kind of ebullition like boiling water ;
PICHFORD, in the county of Salop in England; equalling that in heat, and sending forth a steam of sul.
on the south-east side of Shrewsbury, near Condover. phureous fetid vapours, liquefied stones, minerals, and
It is noted for a spring of pitchy water (from whence fakes of earth, all on fire, in such quantities, and with
some derive its name), on the top of which there al such a violence, as to have formed a kind of promontory
ways flows a sort of liquid bitumen. Over most of the vulgarly called Mysterios, on the declivity of the coast,
coal pits in this neighbourhood there lies a stratum and at the distance of 1200 paces from the fountain.
of blackish rock; of which, by boiling and grind- Such at least is the account of Ortelius ; though we do
ing, they make pitch and tar, and also distil an oil not find this last circumstance of the promontory con-
from it.

firmed by later observations. The circumference of
PICHINCHA, or PINchinca, a mountain in Peru. Pico is computed at about 15 leagues: and its most re-
See Peru, No 56.

markable places are Pico, Lagoas, Santa Croce or Cruz,
PICKERING, in the north riding of Yorkshire in San Sebastian, Pesquin, San Roko, Playa, and Magda-
England, 13 miles from Scarborough, and 125 from lena; the inhabitants of which live wholly on the pro-
London, is a pretty large town belonging to the du- duce of the island, in great plenty and felicity. The
cby of Lancaster, on a bill among the wild mountains cattle are various, numerous, and excellent in their seve-
of Blakemore ; having the forest of Pickering on the ral kinds : it is the same with the vine; and its juice,
north, and Pickering.common on the south. It is said prepared into different wines, the best in the Azores.
VOL. XVI. Part II.

3 Y



vol xiii.

Besides cedar and other timber, they have a kind of led into Holland and England, he taught theology in his pictet 8 wood which they call teixo, solid and bard as iron; and own country with an extraordinary reputation. The 1 Pictet veined, when finely polished, like a rich scarlet tabby; university of Leyden, after the death of Spantreina, so

which coloar it bas in great perfection. The longer it licited him to come and fill his place ; but he thought is kepi, the more beautiful it grows: hence it is, that the that his own country had the best right to his services; teixo tree is felled only for the king's use or by his or and for that generosity he received its thanks by the der; and is prohibited from being exported as a common month of the members of council. A languishing disarticle of trade.

order, occasioned by too much fatigue, hastened his Pico Marina, a sea fish common at Kongo in Africa, death : which happened on the 9th of June 1724, at

derives its name from the resemblance of its mouth to the age of 69 years. This minister had much sweetness Mod. Univ. the beak of a woodpecker. It is of large size, and and affability in his manner. The found in him a History prodigious strength, has four fins on its back, three un comforter and a father. He published a great number p. 46. &c. der its belly, and one on each side of its head; its tail of works in Latin and French, which are much esteem.

is large and forked, by which it cuts the waves with ed in Protestant countries. The principal of these are, surprising force and velocity. It is at war with every 1. A System of Christian Theology in Latin, 3 vols. in fish that swime, and with every thing it meets in its 4to; the best edition of which is that of 1721. 2. Chrisway, without being intimidated by the largest vessels ; tian Morality, printed at Geneva, 1710, 8 vols. in a surprising instance of which intrepidity, we are told by I 2mo. 3. The History of the 11th and 12th centusome missionaries, whose ship was attacked by one of ries; intended as a sequel to that of Sueur, printed in them, near these coasts, in the dead of night. The vio 1713, 2 vols. in 4to. The Continuator is held in higher lence of the shock which it gave to the vessel quickly estimation than the first author. 4. Several Controver. awakened the captain and the rest of the people ; who sial Treatises. 5. A great number of tracts on moraliimmediately ran to the ship's side, where they perceived, ty and piety; among which we must distinguish “ the by moonlight, this huge monster fastened by its fore Art of Living and Dying well ;" published at Geneva, head to the vessel, and making the strongest efforts to 1705, in 12mo. 6. Some Letters. 7. Some Sera disengage itself; upon which some of them tried to pierce mons, from 1697 to 1721 ; 4 vols. in 8vo. With a him with their pikes, but he got off before they could vast number of other books, the names of which it accomplish their ain. On the next morning, upon vi would be tedious to mention ; but which, as Mr Sensiting that side of the vessel, they found a piece of the nebier says, “ all show evident marks of piety and good bony snout stuck fast into the wond, and two or three

sense." inches of it projecting outwards. In the inside of the PictET, John-Louis, a counsellor of Geneva, born ship, there was discovered about five or six inches in 1739, was of the same family. He was member of of the point of the horn, which had penetrated through the Council of Two Hundred ; counsellor of State and the plank. But we must observe, that the credulity of Syndic; and died in 1781. He applied himself to the the times probably rendered this animal thus formidable. study of astronomy, and made several voyages into France

PICQUERING, flying war, or skirmish, made by and England for his improvement. Few men were ever soldiers detached from two armies for pillage, or before blessed with a clearer or more enlightened understanda main battle begins.

ing. He has left in manuscript the “ Journal of a PICQUET, or Picket. See PIQUET.

Voyage which he made to Russia and Siberia in 1768 PICRAMNIA, a genus of plants belonging to the and 1769, in order to observe the transit of Venus over diccia class; and in the natural method ranking with the sun's disk:" A work very interesting, from the those that are doubtful. See Botany Index.

lively descriptions which it gives both of men and of PICRANIA AMARA, or Bitter Wood, is a tall and nature. beautiful timber tree, common in the woods of Jamaica, PICTLAND. See PENTLAND. belonging to the pentandria class of plants. The name PICTS, the name of one of those pations who ap- Name. is expressive of its sensible qualities.

ciently possessed the north of Britain. It is generally Every part of this tree is intensely bitter; and even believed that they were so called from their custom of after the tree has been laid for floors many years, who painting their bodies ; an opinion which Camden supever rubs or scrapes the wood, feels a great degree of ports with great erudition. (See Gough's edition, Vol. bitterness in their mouth or throat. Cabinet-work I. p. xci. of the preface). It is certainly liable, howmade of this wood is very useful, as no insect will live ever, to considerable objections ; for as this custom prepear it.

vailed among the other ancient inhabitants of Britain, This tree has a great affinity to the Quassia Amara who used the glastum of Pliny and the vitrum of Mela of Linnæus ; in lieu of which it is used as an antiseptic for the like purpose, it may be asked, Why the vame in putrid fevers. When used, less of it will do than of of Picti was confined by the Romans to only one tribe, the Quassia Amara of Surinam. See QuASSIA, BOTA- when it was equally applicable to many others? Why NY and MATERIA MEDICA Index.

should they design them only by an epithet, without ever PICRIS, OX-TONGUE ; a genus of plants belonging annexing their proper name?'Or why should they imto the syngenesia class. See BOTANY Inder.

pose a new name on this people only, when they give PICŘIUM, a genus of plants belonging to the te their proper name to every other tribe which they bave tandria class ; and in the natural method ranking with occasion to speak of? As these questions cannot be an. those that are doubtful. See BOTANY Inder.

swered in any satisfactory manner, it is plain we must PICTET, BENEDICT, a celebrated divine, was born look for some other derivation of the name. at Geneva, in 1655, of a distinguished family, and prose The Highlanders of Scotland, who speak the ancient cuted his studies with great success. After having travel- language of Caledonia, express the name of this once fa.




Picts. mous nation by the term Pictich; a name familiar to published by the same author. Had Innes understood

Ficts. the ears of the most illiterate, who could never have de any thing of this language, he would not have supposed rived it from the Roman authors. The word Pictich with Camden that the Picts spoke the British tongue. means pilferers or plunderers. The appellation was pro It was unlucky that the two words on which they built bably imposed upon this people by their neighbours, or their conjecture (Strath and Aber) are as common in assumed by themselves, some time after the reign of Ca the Gaelic as they could have been in the British, and racalla, when the unguarded state of the Roman pro at this day make a part of the names of places in coun. vince, on which this people bordered, gave them fre tries to which the Pictish empire never extended. The quent opportunities of making incursions thither, and names of Strathfillan and Lochaber may serve as in. committing depredations. Accordingly this name seems stances. to have been unknown till the end of the 3d century. The venerable Bede, as much a stranger to the CclEumenius the panegyrist is the first Roman author who tic as either of the antiquaries just now mentioned, is mentions this people under their new name of Pietich, equally unhappy in the specimen which he gives of the or, with a Latin termination, Picti. When we say that Pictish language in the word penuahel, “ the head of this name may have been probably assumed for the rea the wall." Allowing the commutation of the initial son just now mentioned, we must observe, that, in those p into c, as in some other cases, this word has still the days of violence, the character of a robber was attended same meaning in Gaelic which Bede gives it in the with no disgrace. If he had the address to form his Pictish. It is true, there might have been then, as well schemes well, and to execute them successfully, he was as now, a considerable difference between various diaFather praised than blamed for his conduct ; providing lects of the Celtic; and thus, perhaps, that pious author he made no encroachments on the property of his own was led to discover five languages in Britain agreeably tribe or any of its allies. We mean this as no peculiar to the five books of Moses : A conceit from which the stigma upon the Picts ; for other nations of antiquity, in good man derived a great deal of harmless satisfaction. the like rude state, thought and acted as they did. See The Picts of the earliest ages, as appears from the Territory, Thucydides, lib. ii. p. 3. and Virg. Æn. vii

. 745 et 749. joint testimony of all writers who have examined the Origin. Concerning the origin of the Picts, authors are much subject, possessed only the east and north-east coast of

divided. Boethius derives them from the Agathyrsi, Scotland. On one side, the ancient Drumalbin, or that
Pomponius Lætus from the Germans, Bede from the ridge of mountains reaching from Lochlomond near
Scythians, Camden (A) and Father Innes from the Dumbarton to the frith of Tain, which separates the
ancient Britons, Stillingfleet from a people inbabiting county of Sutherland from a part of Ross, was the
the Cimbrica Chersonesus, and Keating and O'Flaherty, boundary of the Pictish dominions. Accordingly we
on the authority of the Cashel Psalter, derive them find in the life of Columba, that, in travelling to the
from the Thracians. But the most probable opinion palace of Brudius, king of the Picts, he travelled over
is, that they were the descendants of the old Caledo Drumalbin, the Dorsum Britanniæ of Adamnan. On
nians. Several reasons are urged in support of this opi- the other side, the territory of the Picts was bounded
nion by Dr Macpherson; and the words of Eumenes, by the Roman province. After Britain was relinquish-
“ Caledonum, aliorumque Pictorum, silvus,” &c. plain. ed by the emperor Honorius, they and the Saxons by
ly imply that the Picts and Caledonians were one and turns were masters of those countries which lie between
the same people.

the frith of Edinburgh and the river Tweed. We learn
As there bas been much dispute about the origin of from Bede, that the Saxons were masters of Galloway
the Picts, so there has been likewise about their language. when he finished his Ecclesiastical History. The Picts,
There are many reasons which make it plain that their bowever, made a conquest of that country soon after;
tongue was the Gaelic or Celtic; and these reasons are so that, before the extinction of their monarchy, all the
a further confirmation of their having been of Caledo territories bounded on the one side by the Forth and
nian extract. Through the east and north-east coasts of Clyde, and on the other by the Tweed and Solway, fell
Scotland (which were possessed by the Picts) we meet into their hands.

with an innumerable list of names of places, rivers, moun The history of the Picts, as well as of all the other History. Language. tains, &c. which are manifestly Gaelic. From a very ancient inhabitants of Britain, is involved in obscurity.

old register of the priory of St Andrew's (Dalrymple's The Irish historians give us a long list of Pictish kings,
Collections, p. 122.) it appears, that in the days of who reigned over Pictavia for the space of 11 or 13
Hụngus, the last Pictish king of that name, St An centuries before the Christian era. After them Inpes,
drew's was called Mukross; and that the town now cal- in his Critical Essay, gives us a list of above fifty, of
Jed Queensferry had the name of Ardchinneachan. Both whom no less than five held the sceptre, each for a whole
these words are plain Gaelic. The first signifies “ the century. It is probable that these writers had confound-
heath or promontory of boars ;” and the latter, " the ed the history of the Picts with that of their ancestors
height or peninsula of Kenneth.” In the list of Pictish the old Caledonians. In any other view, their accounts
kings published by Father Innes, most of the names are of them are highly fabulous ; and have been long ago
obviously Gaelic, and in many instances the same with confuted by Dr Macpherson of Slate, an antiquary of
the names in the list of Scottish or Caledonian kings much learning and research. The Picts, as has been




3 Y 2

(A) See Gough's edition of Camden, Vol. I. Preface, p. xc. and the Ancient Universal History, Vol. XVII.

P. 39, &c.




already observed, were probably not known by that The principal seat of the Pictish kings was at Aber.
name before the ad or 3d century. Adamnan, abbot nethy. Brudius, bowever, as appears from the accounts 1
of Iona, is the first author that expressly mentious any given by Adamnan, in his life of Columba, had a pa- Picturesque
Pictish king; and the oldest after him is Bede. We lace at Inverness, which was probably near the extre. Beauly.
are informed by these two writers, that St Columba mity of bis territory in that quarter; for there is no
converted Brudíus king of the Picts to the Christian good reason for believing, with Camden, that this king
faith. Columba came into Britain in the year of the had any property in the Western Isles, or that he had
vulgar era 565. Before that period we have no gene made a gift of lona to St Columba when he visited him
ral record to ascertain so much as the name of any

Pic in that place.
tish king. The history of Drust or Drest, who is said With respect to the manners and customs of the Mandem
to have reigned over the Picts in the beginning of the Picts, there is no reason to suppose they were any
fifth century, when St Ninian first preached the gospel other than those of the old Caledonians and Scots, of
to that nation, has all the appearance of fiction (B). which many particulars are related in the Greek and
His having reigned a hundred years, and his putting an Roman writers who have occasion to speak of those na.
end to a hundred wars, are stories which exceed all the tions.
bounds of probability,

Upon the decline of the Roman empire, cohorts of Brudius, the contemporary of Columba, is the first barbarians were raised, and Picts were invited into the Pictish king mentioned by any writer of authority. service, by Honorius, when peace was everywhere re

What figure his ancestors made, or who were his suc stored, and were named Honoriaci. Those under Concessors on the throne of Pictavia, cannot be ascertained. stantine opened the passes of the Pyrenean mountains, Bede informs us, that, during the reign of one of them, and let the barbarous nations into Spain. From this pethe Picts killed Egfred king of Northumberland in bat riod we date the civilization of their manners, which tle, and destroyed the greatest part of his army. The happened after they had by themselves, and then with same author mentions another of their kings called Nai the Scots, ravaged this Roman province. tan, for whom he had a particular regard. It was to Picts Wall, in antiquity, a wall begun by the emthis Naitun that Ceolfrid, abbot of Wiremouth, wrote peror Adrian, on the northern bounds of England, to his famous letter concerning Easter and the Tonsure prevent the incursions of the Picts and Scots. It was (c); a letter in which Bede himself is supposed to have first made only of turf strengthened with palisadoes, had a principal hand. Roger Hoveden and Simon of till the emperor Severus, coming into Britain in perDurham mention two other Pictish kings Onnust and son, built it with solid stone. This wall, part of which Kinoth, the first of whom died in 761, and the latter still remains, began at the entrance of the Solway frith flourished about the 744, and gave an asylum to Alfred in Cumberland, and running north-east extended to the of Northumberland, who was much about that time ex German ocean. See ADRIAN and SEVERUS. pelled his kingdom. The accounts given by the Scots PICTURE, a piece of painting, or a subject reprehistorians of several other Pictish kings cannot be de sented in colours, on wood, canvas, paper, or the like. pended on; nor are the stories told by the British his See PAINTING. torians, Geoffroy of Monmouth and the author of the PICTURESQUE BEAUTY, says a late writer on that Eulogium Britanniæ, worthy of much greater credit. subject, refers to “ such beautiful objects as are suited

In the ninth century the Pictish nation was totally to the pencil.” This epithet is chiefly applied to the subdued by the Scots in the reign of Kenneth Macalpin. works of nature, though it will often apply to works of Since that time their name has been lost in that of the art also. Those objects are most properly denominated conquerors, with whom they were incorporated after picturesque, which are disposed by the hand of nature this conquest; however, they seem to have been treated with a mixture of varied rudeness, simplicity, and granby the Scottish kings with great lenity, so that for some deur. A plain neat garden, with little variation in its ages after they commanded a great deal of respect. plan, and no striking grandeur in its position, displays The prior of Hogulstead, an old English bistorian, re too much of art, design, and uniformity, to be called lates, that they made a considerable figure in the army picturesque: “ The ideas of neat and smooth (says of David the Saint, in his disputes with Stephen King Mr Gilpin), instead of being picturesque, in fact disof England. In a battle fought in the year 1136, by qualify the object in which they reside from any pretenthe English on one side, and the Scots and Picts on the sions to picturesque beauty. Nay, farther, we do not other, the latter insisted on their hereditary right of scruple to assert, that roughness forms the most essential leading the van of the Scots army, and were indulged in point of difference between the beautiful and the pictuthat request by the king.

resque; as it seems to be that particular quality which


(B) According to Camden, this conversion happened about the year 630, in the southern Pictish provinces ; while the northern, which were separated by fruitful mountains, were converted by Columba.

(c) We are told by sume authors that Columba taught the Picts to celebrate Easter always on a Sunday be. tween the 14th and 20th of March, and to observe a different method of tonsure from the Romans, leaving an imperfect appearance of a crown. This occasioned much dispute till Naitan brought his subjects at length to the Roman rule. In that age many of the Picts went on a pilgrimage to Rome, according to the custom of the times; and amongst the rest we find two persons mentioned in the antiquities of St Peter's church. Asterius count of the Picts, and Syra with his countrymen, performed their vow.

eye. .

Picturesque makes objects chiefly pleasing in painting. I use the ge beautiful only as the ideas of sublimity or simple beauty Picturesque
Beauty neral term roughness; but properly speaking roughness prevail. But it is not only the form and the composi- Beauty.

relates only to the surfaces of bodies : when we speak tion of the objects of landscape which the picturesque
of their delineation, we use the word ruggedness. Both eye examines; it connects them with the atmosphere,
ideas, however, equally enter into the picturesque, and and seeks for all those various effects which are produ-
both are observable in the smaller as well as in the ced from that vast and wonderful storehouse of nature.
larger parts of nature ; in the outline and bark of a Nor is there in travelling a greater pleasure than when
tree, as in the rude summit and craggy sides of a moun a scene of grandeur bursts unexpectedly upon the eye,

accompanied with some accidental circumstance of the
Let us then examine our theory by an appeal to atmosphere which harmonizes with it, and gives it
experience, and try how far these qualities enter into double value."
the idea of picturesque beauty, and how far they mark There are few places so barren as to afford no pic-
that difference among objects which is the ground of turesque scene.
our inquiry.

-Believe the muse,
“ A piece of Palladian architecture may be elegant

She does not know that inauspicious spot
in the last degree; the proportion of its parts, the pro-
priety of its ornaments, and the symmetry of the whole,

Where beauty is thus niggard of her store.
may be highly pleasing; but if we introduce it in a pic

Believe the muse, through this terrestrial wasto ture, it immediately becomes a formal object, and ceases

The seeds of grace are sown, profusely sown,

Even where we least may hope.
to please. Should we wish to give it picturesque beau-
ty, we must use the mallet instead of the chissel; we must Mr Gilpin mentions the great military road between
beat down one half of it, deface the other, and throw Newcastle and Carlisle as the most barren tract of
the mutilated members around in heaps ; in short, from country in England ; and yet there, he says, there is
A smooth building we must turn it into a rough ruin. “ always something to amuse the The inter-
No painter who had the choice of the two objects changeable patches of heath and green-sward make an
would hesitate a moment.

agreeable variety. Often too on these vast tracts of
Again, why does an elegant piece of garden- intersecting grounds we see beautiful lights, softening
ground make no figure on canvas ? the shape is plea- off along the sides of hills; and often we see them
sing, the combination of the objects harmonious, and adorned with cattle, flocks of sheep, heath-cocks, grouse,
the winding of the walk in the very line of beauty. A! plover, and flights of other wild fowl. A group of cat-
this is true ; but the smoothness of the whole, though tle standing in the shade on the edge of a dark hill, and
right and as it should be in nature, offends in picture. relieved by a lighter distance beyond them, will often
Turn the lawn into a piece of broken ground, plant rug make a complete picture without any other accompani-
ged oaks instead of flowering shrubs, break the edges of ment. In many other situations also we find them won-
the walk, give it the rudeness of a road, mark it with derfully pleasing, and capable of making pictures amidst
wheel tracks, and scatter around a few stones and brush- all the deficiencies of landscape. Even a winding road
wood; in a word, instead of making the whole smooth, itself is an object of beauty; while the richness of the
make it rough, and you make it also picturesque. All heath on each side, with the little hillocks and crum-
the other ingredients of beauty it already possessed.” bling earth, give many an excellent lesson for a fore-
On the whole, picturesque composition consists in uni- ground. When we have no opportunity of examining
ting in one whole, a variety of parts, and these parts the grand scenery of nature, we have everywhere at least
can only be obtained from rough objects.

the means of observing with what a multiplicity of parts,
It is possible, therefore, to find picturesque objects and yet with what general simplicity, she covers every
among works of art, and it is possible to make objects surface.
80 ; but the grand scene of picturesque beauty is na “ But if we let the imagination loose, even scenes
ture in all its original variety, and in all its irregular like these administer great amusement.

The imagi-
grandeur. “We seek it (says our author) among all the nation can plant bills ; can form rivers and lakes in
ingredients of landscape, trees, rocks, broken grounds, valleys; can build castles and abbeys; and, if it find
woods, rivers, lakes, plains, valleys, mountains, and di- no other amusement, can dilate itself in vast ideas of
stances. These objects in themselves produce infinite space."
variety; no two rocks or trees are exactly the same ; Mr Gilpin, after describing such objects as may be
they are varied a second time by combination ; and al- called picturesque, proceeds to consider their sources of
most as much a third time by different lights and shades amusement. We cannot follow our ingenious author
and other aerial effects. Sometimes we find among through the whole of this consideration, and shall there-
them the exhibition of a whole, but oftener we find only fore finish our article with a short quotation from the be-
beautiful parts."

ginning of it." We might begin (says be) in moral
Sablimity or grandeur alone cannot make an object style, and consider the objects of nature in a higher light
picturesque : for, as our author remarks,“ however than merely as amusement. We might observe, that a
grand the mountain or the rock may be, it has no search after beauty should naturally lead the mind to
claim to this epithet, unless its form, its colour, or its the great origin of all beauty; to the
accompaniments, have some degree of beauty. No-
thing can be more sublime than the ocean ; but wholly

first good, first perfect, and first fair.
unaccompanied, it has little of the picturesque. When But though in theory this seems a natoral climax, we
we talk therefore of a sublime object, we always under- insist the less upon it, as in fact we bave scarce ground.
stand that it is also beautiful; and we call it sublime or to hope that every admirer of picturesque beauty is an


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