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Piccolo- Piccolomini, James, whose proper name was Am- to have been built 270 years before Christ by Peridurus, Pickering · mini manati, took that of Piccolomini in honour of his patron a king of the Britons, who was buried here. It had 01 1)
Pius II. He was born in a village near Lucca in 1422. once a castle, the ruins of which are still to be seen; to
cardinal in 146 1, under the name of Cardinal de Pavie ; were subject : and the adjacent territory, commonly
to five feet long.
PICENTIA, (Strabo, Pliny), the capital of the shod with iron, to pin the park lines, in laying out the
salt, vinegar, &c. sometimes with the addition of spices,
torrents with a kind of ebullition like boiling water ;
firmed by later observations. The circumference of
markable places are Pico, Lagoas, Santa Croce or Cruz,
Besides cedar and other timber, they have a kind of led into Holland and England, he taught theology in his pictet 8 wood which they call teixo, solid and bard as iron; and own country with an extraordinary reputation. The 1 Pictet veined, when finely polished, like a rich scarlet tabby; university of Leyden, after the death of Spantreina, so
which coloar it bas in great perfection. The longer it licited him to come and fill his place ; but he thought is kepi, the more beautiful it grows: hence it is, that the that his own country had the best right to his services; teixo tree is felled only for the king's use or by his or- and for that generosity he received its thanks by the der; and is prohibited from being exported as a common month of the members of council. A languishing disarticle of trade.
order, occasioned by too much fatigue, hastened his Pico Marina, a sea fish common at Kongo in Africa, death : which happened on the 9th of June 1724, at
derives its name from the resemblance of its mouth to the age of 69 years. This minister had much sweetness Mod. Univ. the beak of a woodpecker. It is of large size, and and affability in his manner. The found in him a History prodigious strength, has four fins on its back, three un- comforter and a father. He published a great number p. 46. &c. der its belly, and one on each side of its head; its tail of works in Latin and French, which are much esteem.
is large and forked, by which it cuts the waves with ed in Protestant countries. The principal of these are, surprising force and velocity. It is at war with every 1. A System of Christian Theology in Latin, 3 vols. in fish that swime, and with every thing it meets in its 4to; the best edition of which is that of 1721. 2. Chrisway, without being intimidated by the largest vessels ; tian Morality, printed at Geneva, 1710, 8 vols. in a surprising instance of which intrepidity, we are told by I 2mo. 3. The History of the 11th and 12th centusome missionaries, whose ship was attacked by one of ries; intended as a sequel to that of Sueur, printed in them, near these coasts, in the dead of night. The vio- 1713, 2 vols. in 4to. The Continuator is held in higher lence of the shock which it gave to the vessel quickly estimation than the first author. 4. Several Controver. awakened the captain and the rest of the people ; who sial Treatises. 5. A great number of tracts on moraliimmediately ran to the ship's side, where they perceived, ty and piety; among which we must distinguish “ the by moonlight, this huge monster fastened by its fore- Art of Living and Dying well ;" published at Geneva, head to the vessel, and making the strongest efforts to 1705, in 12mo. 6. Some Letters. 7. Some Sera disengage itself; upon which some of them tried to pierce mons, from 1697 to 1721 ; 4 vols. in 8vo. With a him with their pikes, but he got off before they could vast number of other books, the names of which it accomplish their ain. On the next morning, upon vi- would be tedious to mention ; but which, as Mr Sensiting that side of the vessel, they found a piece of the nebier says, “ all show evident marks of piety and good bony snout stuck fast into the wond, and two or three
sense." inches of it projecting outwards. In the inside of the PictET, John-Louis, a counsellor of Geneva, born ship, there was discovered about five or six inches in 1739, was of the same family. He was member of of the point of the horn, which had penetrated through the Council of Two Hundred ; counsellor of State and the plank. But we must observe, that the credulity of Syndic; and died in 1781. He applied himself to the the times probably rendered this animal thus formidable. study of astronomy, and made several voyages into France
PICQUERING, flying war, or skirmish, made by and England for his improvement. Few men were ever soldiers detached from two armies for pillage, or before blessed with a clearer or more enlightened understanda main battle begins.
ing. He has left in manuscript the “ Journal of a PICQUET, or Picket. See PIQUET.
Voyage which he made to Russia and Siberia in 1768 PICRAMNIA, a genus of plants belonging to the and 1769, in order to observe the transit of Venus over diccia class; and in the natural method ranking with the sun's disk:" A work very interesting, from the those that are doubtful. See Botany Index.
lively descriptions which it gives both of men and of PICRANIA AMARA, or Bitter Wood, is a tall and nature. beautiful timber tree, common in the woods of Jamaica, PICTLAND. See PENTLAND. belonging to the pentandria class of plants. The name PICTS, the name of one of those pations who ap- Name. is expressive of its sensible qualities.
ciently possessed the north of Britain. It is generally Every part of this tree is intensely bitter; and even believed that they were so called from their custom of after the tree has been laid for floors many years, who- painting their bodies ; an opinion which Camden supever rubs or scrapes the wood, feels a great degree of ports with great erudition. (See Gough's edition, Vol. bitterness in their mouth or throat. Cabinet-work I. p. xci. of the preface). It is certainly liable, howmade of this wood is very useful, as no insect will live ever, to considerable objections ; for as this custom prepear it.
vailed among the other ancient inhabitants of Britain, This tree has a great affinity to the Quassia Amara who used the glastum of Pliny and the vitrum of Mela of Linnæus ; in lieu of which it is used as an antiseptic for the like purpose, it may be asked, Why the vame in putrid fevers. When used, less of it will do than of of Picti was confined by the Romans to only one tribe, the Quassia Amara of Surinam. See QuASSIA, BOTA- when it was equally applicable to many others? Why NY and MATERIA MEDICA Index.
should they design them only by an epithet, without ever PICRIS, OX-TONGUE ; a genus of plants belonging annexing their proper name?'Or why should they imto the syngenesia class. See BOTANY Inder.
pose a new name on this people only, when they give PICŘIUM, a genus of plants belonging to the te- their proper name to every other tribe which they bave tandria class ; and in the natural method ranking with occasion to speak of? As these questions cannot be an. those that are doubtful. See BOTANY Inder.
swered in any satisfactory manner, it is plain we must PICTET, BENEDICT, a celebrated divine, was born look for some other derivation of the name. at Geneva, in 1655, of a distinguished family, and prose- The Highlanders of Scotland, who speak the ancient cuted his studies with great success. After having travel- language of Caledonia, express the name of this once fa.
Picts. mous nation by the term Pictich; a name familiar to published by the same author. Had Innes understood
Ficts. the ears of the most illiterate, who could never have de- any thing of this language, he would not have supposed rived it from the Roman authors. The word Pictich with Camden that the Picts spoke the British tongue. means pilferers or plunderers. The appellation was pro- It was unlucky that the two words on which they built bably imposed upon this people by their neighbours, or their conjecture (Strath and Aber) are as common in assumed by themselves, some time after the reign of Ca- the Gaelic as they could have been in the British, and racalla, when the unguarded state of the Roman pro- at this day make a part of the names of places in coun. vince, on which this people bordered, gave them fre- tries to which the Pictish empire never extended. The quent opportunities of making incursions thither, and names of Strathfillan and Lochaber may serve as in. committing depredations. Accordingly this name seems stances. to have been unknown till the end of the 3d century. The venerable Bede, as much a stranger to the CclEumenius the panegyrist is the first Roman author who tic as either of the antiquaries just now mentioned, is mentions this people under their new name of Pietich, equally unhappy in the specimen which he gives of the or, with a Latin termination, Picti. When we say that Pictish language in the word penuahel, “ the head of this name may have been probably assumed for the rea- the wall." Allowing the commutation of the initial son just now mentioned, we must observe, that, in those p into c, as in some other cases, this word has still the days of violence, the character of a robber was attended same meaning in Gaelic which Bede gives it in the with no disgrace. If he had the address to form his Pictish. It is true, there might have been then, as well schemes well, and to execute them successfully, he was as now, a considerable difference between various diaFather praised than blamed for his conduct ; providing lects of the Celtic; and thus, perhaps, that pious author he made no encroachments on the property of his own was led to discover five languages in Britain agreeably tribe or any of its allies. We mean this as no peculiar to the five books of Moses : A conceit from which the stigma upon the Picts ; for other nations of antiquity, in good man derived a great deal of harmless satisfaction. the like rude state, thought and acted as they did. See The Picts of the earliest ages, as appears from the Territory, Thucydides, lib. ii. p. 3. and Virg. Æn. vii
. 745 et 749. joint testimony of all writers who have examined the Origin Concerning the origin of the Picts, authors are much subject, possessed only the east and north-east coast of
divided. Boethius derives them from the Agathyrsi, Scotland. On one side, the ancient Drumalbin, or that
the frith of Edinburgh and the river Tweed. We learn
with an innumerable list of names of places, rivers, moun- The history of the Picts, as well as of all the other History. Language. tains, &c. which are manifestly Gaelic. From a very ancient inhabitants of Britain, is involved in obscurity.
old register of the priory of St Andrew's (Dalrymple's The Irish historians give us a long list of Pictish kings,
3 Y 2
(A) See Gough's edition of Camden, Vol. I. Preface, p. xc. and the Ancient Universal History, Vol. XVII.
P. 39, &c.
already observed, were probably not known by that The principal seat of the Pictish kings was at Aber.
Pic- in that place.
Upon the decline of the Roman empire, cohorts of Brudius, the contemporary of Columba, is the first barbarians were raised, and Picts were invited into the Pictish king mentioned by any writer of authority. service, by Honorius, when peace was everywhere re
What figure his ancestors made, or who were his suc- stored, and were named Honoriaci. Those under Concessors on the throne of Pictavia, cannot be ascertained. stantine opened the passes of the Pyrenean mountains, Bede informs us, that, during the reign of one of them, and let the barbarous nations into Spain. From this pethe Picts killed Egfred king of Northumberland in bat- riod we date the civilization of their manners, which tle, and destroyed the greatest part of his army. The happened after they had by themselves, and then with same author mentions another of their kings called Nai- the Scots, ravaged this Roman province. tan, for whom he had a particular regard. It was to Picts Wall, in antiquity, a wall begun by the emthis Naitun that Ceolfrid, abbot of Wiremouth, wrote peror Adrian, on the northern bounds of England, to his famous letter concerning Easter and the Tonsure prevent the incursions of the Picts and Scots. It was (c); a letter in which Bede himself is supposed to have first made only of turf strengthened with palisadoes, had a principal hand. Roger Hoveden and Simon of till the emperor Severus, coming into Britain in perDurham mention two other Pictish kings Onnust and son, built it with solid stone. This wall, part of which Kinoth, the first of whom died in 761, and the latter still remains, began at the entrance of the Solway frith flourished about the 744, and gave an asylum to Alfred in Cumberland, and running north-east extended to the of Northumberland, who was much about that time ex- German ocean. See ADRIAN and SEVERUS. pelled his kingdom. The accounts given by the Scots PICTURE, a piece of painting, or a subject reprehistorians of several other Pictish kings cannot be de- sented in colours, on wood, canvas, paper, or the like. pended on; nor are the stories told by the British his- See PAINTING. torians, Geoffroy of Monmouth and the author of the PICTURESQUE BEAUTY, says a late writer on that Eulogium Britanniæ, worthy of much greater credit. subject, refers to “ such beautiful objects as are suited
In the ninth century the Pictish nation was totally to the pencil.” This epithet is chiefly applied to the subdued by the Scots in the reign of Kenneth Macalpin. works of nature, though it will often apply to works of Since that time their name has been lost in that of the art also. Those objects are most properly denominated conquerors, with whom they were incorporated after picturesque, which are disposed by the hand of nature this conquest; however, they seem to have been treated with a mixture of varied rudeness, simplicity, and granby the Scottish kings with great lenity, so that for some deur. A plain neat garden, with little variation in its ages after they commanded a great deal of respect. plan, and no striking grandeur in its position, displays The prior of Hogulstead, an old English bistorian, re- too much of art, design, and uniformity, to be called lates, that they made a considerable figure in the army picturesque: “ The ideas of neat and smooth (says of David the Saint, in his disputes with Stephen King Mr Gilpin), instead of being picturesque, in fact disof England. In a battle fought in the year 1136, by qualify the object in which they reside from any pretenthe English on one side, and the Scots and Picts on the sions to picturesque beauty. Nay, farther, we do not other, the latter insisted on their hereditary right of scruple to assert, that roughness forms the most essential leading the van of the Scots army, and were indulged in point of difference between the beautiful and the pictuthat request by the king.
resque; as it seems to be that particular quality which
(B) According to Camden, this conversion happened about the year 630, in the southern Pictish provinces ; while the northern, which were separated by fruitful mountains, were converted by Columba.
(c) We are told by sume authors that Columba taught the Picts to celebrate Easter always on a Sunday be. tween the 14th and 20th of March, and to observe a different method of tonsure from the Romans, leaving an imperfect appearance of a crown. This occasioned much dispute till Naitan brought his subjects at length to the Roman rule. In that age many of the Picts went on a pilgrimage to Rome, according to the custom of the times; and amongst the rest we find two persons mentioned in the antiquities of St Peter's church. Asterius count of the Picts, and Syra with his countrymen, performed their vow.
Picturesque makes objects chiefly pleasing in painting. I use the ge- beautiful only as the ideas of sublimity or simple beauty Picturesque
relates only to the surfaces of bodies : when we speak tion of the objects of landscape which the picturesque
accompanied with some accidental circumstance of the
-Believe the muse,
She does not know that inauspicious spot
Where beauty is thus niggard of her store.
Believe the muse, through this terrestrial wasto ture, it immediately becomes a formal object, and ceases
The seeds of grace are sown, profusely sown,
Even where we least may hope.
agreeable variety. Often too on these vast tracts of
the means of observing with what a multiplicity of parts,
ginning of it." We might begin (says be) in moral
first good, first perfect, and first fair.