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Greeks to assimilate to the passion it would excite. Number Musæus was the favourite scholar of Orpheus, or per. Greek
Language. less instances of this occur in every page of Homer, haps his son. He composed prophecies and hymns, and Language.

Hesiod, Pindar, Sophocles, Euripides, and even of A wrote sacred instructions, which he addressed to his son.
ristophanes : to quote instances would be to insult the He prescribed atonements and lustrations;

but his great Muszus. Greek student.

work was a Theogony, or History of the Creation, &c. 167 Every body knows that the practice of writing in Melampus brought the mysieries of Proserpine from Melampus, verse was antecedent to the date of prosaic composition. Egypt into Greece. He wrote the whole history of the Here, then, the Aoidon and the ministers of religion disasters of the gods. This seer is mentioned by Homer chiefly displayed their skill and discernment. By a ju. bimself.

163 dicious mixture of short and long syllables; by a junce Olen came from Lycia, and composed t'e first hymn Olen, tion of consonants which naturally slide into each other; that was sung in Delos at their solemnities; he probably by a careful attention to the rhythm, or barmony result- emigrated from Patara a city of Lycia, where Apollo ing from the combination of the syllables of the whole had a celebrated temple and oracle. line-they completed the metrical tone of the verse, The Hyperborean damsels used to visit Delos, where guided by that delicacy of musical feeling of which they they chaunted sacred hymns in honour of the Delian god.

169 were possessed before rules of prosody were known To these we add the great Homer himself, if indeed Homer and among men.

the hymns commonly annexed to the Odyssey are his Hesiod. Much liberty was certainly used in transposing let- composition. Hesiod's Theogony is too well known to ters, in varying terminations, in annexing prefixes and need to be mentioned. affixes, both to nouns and other kinds of words where From these instances we hope it appears, that the such adjuncts were possible : and upon this occasion we origin of the poetry of Greece is to be found in the think it probable, that those particles of which we have temples; and that there, its measure, numbers, rhythm, spoken above were inserted like filling stones thrust in to and other appendages, were originally fabricated. stop the gaps or chinks of a building. Verses were then The Grecian poets, however, enjoyed another adclumsy and irregular, as the quantity of vowels was not vantage which that class of writers have seldom posduly ascertained, and the collision of heterogeneous con sessed, which arose from the different dialects into which sonants not always avoided. Probably these primitive their language was divided. All those dialects were Different verses differed as widely from the finished strains of adopted indifferently by the prince of poets; a circum-dialects, Homer and his successors, as those of Chaucer and stance which enabled bim to take advantage of any word with their Spencer do from the smooth polished lines of Dryden from any dialect, provided it suited his purpose. This, origin. and Pope.

at the same time that it rendered versification easy, dif.
164
Earliest The poetical compositions of the earliest Greeks were fused an agreeable variety over his composition. He
poets of not, we think, in the hexameter style. As they were even accommodated words from Macedonia, Epirus,
Greece.

chiefly calculated for religious services, we imagine they and Illyricum, to the purposes of his versification : Be-
resembled the Hebrew iambics preserved in the song of sides, the laws of quantity were not then clearly ascer-
Aaron and Miriam, Deborah and Barak, Psalms, Pro tained ; a circumstance which afforded him another con-
verbs, &c. which were indeed calculated for the same veniency. Succeeding poets did not enjoy these advan-
purpose. Archilochus perhaps imitated these, though tages, and consequently have been more circumscribed
the model upon which he formed his iambics was not both in their diction and numbers.
generally known. The later dramatic poets seem to The Greek language, as is generally known, was di-
have copied from the same archetypes. Hexameters, it vided into many different dialects. Every sept, or petty
is probable, were invented by Orpheus, Linus, Thamyris, canton, had some peculiar forms of speech which distin-
Musæus, &c. The first of these travelled into Egypt, guished it from the others. There were, however, four
where he might learn the hexameter measure from that different dialectical variations which carried it over all
people, who used to bewail Maneros and Osiris in ele- the others. These were the Attic, Ionic, Æolic, anıt
giac strains. This species of metre was first consecrated Doric. These four dialectical distioctions originated
to theology, and the most profound sciences of moral from the different countries in the east from which the
and natural philosophy; at length it was brought down tribes respectively emigrated. The Attics consisted, 1st,
to celebrate the exploits of kings and heroes.

of the barbarous aborigines; 2d, of an adventitious co-
Res gestas regumque, ducumque, et fortia bella,

lony of Egyptian Saïtes; 3d, a branch of Ionians from

the coast of Palestine. These last formed the old Ionian Quo scribi possent numero monstravit Homerus.

dialect, from which sprung tbe Attic and modern Ionic. We have hazarded a conjecture above, importing that The Æolians emigrated from a different quarter of the the earliest poetical compositions of the Greeks were con same coast; the inhabitants of which were a rempant of secrated to the service of the gods. We shall now pro the old Canaanites, and consequently different in dialect duce a few facts, which will furnish at least a presump from the two first-mentioned colonies. The Dores

tive evidence of the probability of that conjecture. sprang from an unpolished race of purple fishers on the 165

Orpheus begins his poem with ancient chaos, its trans-
Orphens.

same coast, and consequently spoke a dialect more coarse
formations and changes, and pursues it through its va and rustic than any of the rest. These four nations emi-
rious revolutions. He then goes on to describe the off- grated from different regions; a circumstance which, in
spring of Saturn, that is time, the æther, love, and light. our opinion, laid the foundation of the different dialects
In short, bis whole poem is said to have been an orieutal by which they were afterwards distinguished.
allegory, calculated to inspire mankind with the fear of It is impossible in this short sketch to exhibit an exact
the gods, and to deter them from murder, rapine, uona view of the distinguishing features of each dialect. Such
tural lusts, &c.

an analysis would carry us far leyond the limits of the

article:

The parti

Greek article in question. For entire satisfaction on this head, preceding pages, conscious of the superior excellency of Greek
Language. we must refer the Grecian student to Mattaire's Grecæ their own language, the Greeks, in the pride of their Language.

Linguæ Dialecti, where he will find every thing ne heart, stigmatized every nation wbich did not employ
cessary to qualify him for understanding that subject. their language with the contemptuous title of barbarians. 171
We shall content ourselves with the few observations Such was the delicacy of their pampered ears, that they ality of the
following.

could not endure the untutored voice of the people whom Greeks to
The Athenians being an active, brisk, volatile race, the called Bag Gagopwvos. This extreme delicacy produ- their own
delighted in contractions. Their style was most exqui- ced three very pernicious effects; for, ist, It induced tongue, and
sitely polished. The most celebrated authors wbo wrote them to metamorphose and sometimes even to mangle, sequences.
in that dialect were the following: Plato, Thacydides, foreign names, in order to reduce their sound to the
Xenophon, Demosthenes, and the other orators; Æs Grecian standard ; and, 2d, It prevented their learning
chylus, Euripides, Sophocles, Aristophanes, Menander, the languages of the east, the knowledge of which would
Diphilus, with the other comic and tragic poets. That have opened to them an avenue to the records, annals,
dialect was either ancient or modern. The ancient antiquities, laws, customs, &c. of the people of those
Attic was the same with the Ionic.

countries, in comparison of whom the Greeks themselves The Ionic, as was said, was the ancient Attic ; but were of yesterday, and knew nothing. By this unlucky when that nation emigrated from Attica and settled on hias, not only they, but even we who derive all the litthe coast of Asia Minor, they mingled with the Cariang tle knowledge of antiquity we possess through the chanand Pelasgi, and of course adopted a number of their nel of their writings, have suflered an irreparable injury. vocables. They were an indolent, luxurious, and dissolute By their transformation of oriental names they have in a people; of course their style was indeed

easy and flow manner stopped the channel of communication between ing, but verbose, redundant, and without nerves. This, the histories of Europe and Asia. This appears evident however, is the leading style in Homer; and after him from the fragments of Ctesias's Persian history, from a prodigious number of writers on every subject have Herodotus, Xenophon, and all the other Grecian writers used the same dialect, such as Herodotus of Halicarnas. who bave occasion to mention the intercourse between sus the celebrated historian ; Ctesias of Cnidus the his the Greeks and Persians. 3d, It deprived them of all torian of Persia and India ; Hecatæus of Miletus ; Me-' knowledge of the etymology of their own language, withgastbenes the historian, who live under Seleucus Nica out which it was imposs: ble for them to understand its tor; Hippocrates the celebrated physician of Coos; words, phraseology, and idioms, to the bottom. We Hellanicus the historian often mentioned with honour mentioned Plato's Cratylus above. In that dialogue, the by Polybius ; Anacreon of Teia, Alcæus, Sappho of divine philosopher endeavours to investigate the etymoLesbos, excellent poets; Pherecydes Syrus the philoso- logy of only a few Greek words. His deductions are pher, and a multitude of other persons of the same pro- absolutely childish, and little superior to the random confession, whom it would be superfluous to mention upon jectures of a school-boy. Varro, the most learned of all the present occasion.

the Romans, has not been more successful. Both stumbThe Æolic and Doric were originally cognate dia- led on the very threshold of that useful science; and a lects. When the Dorians invaded Peloponnesus, and scholar of very moderate proficiency in our days knows settled in that peninsula, they incorporated with the Æo more of the origin of these two noble languages, than lians, and their two dialects blended into one produced the greatest adepts among the natives did in theirs. By the new Doric. The original Dores inhabited a rugged prefixes, affixes, transpositions of letters, new conjuncmountainous region about Ossa and Pindus, and spoke a tions of vowels and consonants for the sake of the music rough unpolished language similar to the soil which they and rhythm, they have so disguised their words, that it is inhabited. Andreas Schottus, in his observations on poe almost impossible to develope their original. As a proof try, lib. ii. cap. 50. proves from an old manuscript of of this, we remember to have seen a manuscript in the “ Theocritus, that there were two dialects of the Doric bands of a private person where the first twelve verses tongue, the one ancient and the other modern ; that this of the Iliad are carefully analysed; and it appears to our poet employed Ionic and the modern Doric; that the old satisfaction, that almost every word may be, and actualDoric dialect was rough and cumbrous; but that Theo- ly is traced back to a Fiebrew, Phænician, Chaldean, critus has adopted the new as being more soft and mel or Ægyptian original: And we are convinced that the low.” A prodigious number of poets and philosophers same process will hold good in the like number of verses Wrote in this dialect, such as Epicharmus the poet ; Iby- taken from any of the most celebrated poets of Greece. cus the poet of Rhegium; Corinna thie poetess of Thespis, This investigation we found was chiefly conducted by or Thebes, or Corinth, who bore away the prize of poetry reducing the words to their original invariable state, from Pindar; Erynna a poetess of Lesbos; Moschus the which was done by stripping them of prefixes, affixes, poet of Syracuse; Sappho the poetess of Mitylene; Pin &c. These strictures are, we think, well founded; and darus of Tbebes, the prince of lyric poets; Archimedes consequently need no apology to protect them. of Syracuse, the renowned mathematician ; and almost These imperfections, however, are counterbalanced Beauty of all the Pythagorean philosophers. Few historians wrote by numberless excellencies : and we are certainly much the Greek in that dialect; or if they did, their works have not fal more indebted to that incomparable people for the in- language. len into our hands. Most of the hymns sung in temples of formation they have transmitted to us through the niethe gods were composed in Doric; a circumstance which dium of their writings, than injured by them in not'conevinces the antiquity of that dialect, and which, at the veying to us and to themselves more authentic and more same time, proves its affinity to the oriental standard. ample conimunications of ancient events and occurrences.

After that the Greek tongue was thoroughly polished Withoutfatiguing our readers with superfluous encomiums by the steps which we bave endeavoured to trace in the on a language which has long ago been extolled perhaps

172

Greek to an extravagant degree by the labours of men of the sires with all these what is proper and suitable. The Greek
Language. most enlarged capacity and the most refined taste, we difference, therefore, is only of greater and less." Lantage.

shall now proceed to make a few observations on spirits With respect to accents, it may be observed that
and accents; which being rather appendages than es only one syllable of a word is capable of receiving
sentials of the language, we have on purpose reserved the acute accent, however many there be in the word.
for the last place.

It was thought that the raising the tone upon more than
173
The spiri. Every word in the Greek language beginning with one syllable of the word, would bave made the pro.
tus asper a vowel is marked with a spirit of breathing: This aspi nunciation too various and complicated, and too like
and lenis. ration is double, namely lenis et asper," the gentle, and chanting.

rough or aspirated." The gentle accent, though always The grave accent always takes place when the acute
marked, is not now pronounced, though in the earliest is wanting. It accords with the level of the discourse ;
periods of the language it was undoubtedly enounced, whereas the acute raises the voice above it.
though very softly. Both these aspirations were import The circumflex accent being composed of the other
ed from the east. They were actually the Hebrew i he two is always placed over a long syllable, because it ie
and n heth. The former denoted the spiritus lenis, and impossible first to elevate the voice and then to depress
Aud latter the spiritus asper. The Hebrew prefixed ha it on a short one. Indeed among the Greeks a long
or he to words beginning with a vowel, and of course syllable was pronounced like two short ones; and we
the Greeks followed their example. These people seem apprehend it was sometimes written so, especially in
to have delighted in aspirates ; and of consequence the later times. It is altogether obvious from two learned
letter s is, some think, rather too often affixed to the Greek authors, Dion. Halic. and Aristoxenus, that the
terminations of their words. Every word beginning Greek accents were actually musical notes, and that
with e had the aspirate joined to g, probably with a de these tones did not consist of loud and low, or simply
sign to render the aspiration still more rough.

elevating and depressing the voice; but that they were
174
The ac-

The Greek accents are three in number; the acute, uttered in such a manner as to produce a melodious cents. the grave, and the circumflex. The acute raises and rythim in discourse.

sharpens the voice; the grave depresses and flattens it; In a word, the acute accent might be placed upon any
the circumflex first raises and sharpens tbe voice, and syllable before the ante penult, and rose to a fifth in the
then depresses and flattens it. It is obviously composed diatonical scale of music; the grave fell to the third be-
of the other two. The learned author of the Origin and low it. The circunflex was regulated according to the
Progress of Language has taken much pains to prove measure of both, the acute always preceding. The grave
that these accents were actually musical notes, invented accent is never marked except over the last syllable.
and accommodated to raise, depress, and suspend the When no accent is marked, there the grave always
voice, according to a scale of musical proportions. It is takes place. Some words are called enclitics. These
scarce possible, we think, for a modern Greek scholar have no accent expressed, but throw it back upon

the
to comprehend distinctly the ancient theory of accents. preceding word. The circumflex, when the last syllable
These the native Greeks learned from their infancy, is short, is often found orer the penult, but never over
and that with such accuracy, that even the vulgar among any other syllable but the last or the last but one.

175 the Athenians would have bissed an actor or actress off The ancient Greeks bad no accentual marks. They The anci* See Puls the stage or an orator off the pulpitum *, on account of learned those modifications of voice by practice from ent Greeks pitur.

a few mistakes in the enunciation of those notes. their infancy; and we are assured by good authority, bad no acThe elevations, depressions, and suspensions of the that in pronunciation they observe them to this day.

centual

maiks.
voice upon certain syllables, must have made their lan The accentual marks are said to have been invented
guage sound in the ears of foreigners somewhat like re by a famous grammarian, Aristophanes of Byzantium,
citative, or something nearly resembling cant. But the keeper of the Alexandrian library under Ptolemy Phi-
little variety of these syllabic tones, and the voice not lopater, and Epiphanes, who was the first likewise who
resting upon them, but running them on without inter- is supposed to have invented punctuation. Accentual
ruption, sufficiently distinguished them from music or marks, however, were not in common use till about the
cant. Be that as it may, we think it highly probable, seventh century; at wbich time they are found in manu-
that the wonderful effects produced by the harangues of scripts. If our curious readers would wish to enter more
the orators of Greece on the enraptured minds of their deeply into the theory of accents, we must remit them
hearers, were owing in a good measure to those artifi. to Origin of Language, vol. ii. lib. 2. passin ; and to
cial musical tones by which their syllables were so hap.. Mr Foster's Essay on the different Nature of Accent
pily diversified.

and Quantity
To this purpose we shall take the liberty to tran Such, in general, are the observations which we
scribe a passage from Dion. Halic. De Structura Ora- thought the nature of our design obliged us to make on
tionis, which we find translated by the author of the the origin and progress of the Greek language. Some
Origin and Progress of Language, vol. ij. book 3d, of our more learned readers may perhaps blame us for
part ii. chap. 7. page 381. “Rhetorical con position is

" Rhetorical con.position is not interspersing the whole disquisition with quotations
a kind of music, differing only from song or instrumen from the most celebrated writers in the language which
tal music, in the degree, not in the kind; for in this has been the object of our researches. We are well aware
composition the words have melody, rythm, variety, or that this is the general practice in such cases. The books
change, and what is proper cr becoming : So that the were before us, and we might have transcribed from them
ear in it, as well as in music, is d-lighted with the me more quotations than the nature of an article of this kind
Jor! moted by the rytlım, is fond of variety, and de would permit. In the first part there were no books in
Vol. XVI. Part I.
#

that

Xx

ken at pre

sent,

Greek that language to quote from, because the Greeks knew A great part of the south of Italy was planted with Greek
Language, nothing of their own origin, nor of that of their lan. Greek cities on both coasts ; so that the country, was Language,

guage, and consequently have recorded nothing but denominated Magna Græcia. Here the Greek tongue
dreams and fictions relating to that subject. Even universally prevailed. In Sicily it was in a manner ver-
when we had made considerable progress in our inquiry, nacular. The lonians had sent a colony into Egypt in
the nature of the plan we have adopted excluded in a the reign of Psammitichus; and a Greek settlement had
great measure the use of quotations. When we drew been formed in Cyrenia many ages before. The Pho-
near the conclusion, we imagined that our learned read- cians bad built Massilia or Marseilles as early as the reign
ers would naturally have recourse to the passages allud- of Cyrus the Great, where some remains of the Greek
ed to without our information, and that the unlearned language are still to be discovered. Cæsar tells us, that
would not trouble themselves about the matter. The in the camp of the Helvetii registers were found in
Greek student who intends to penetrate into the depths Greek letters. Perhaps no language ever had so exten-

of this excellent language, will endeavour to be thorough- sive a spread, where it was not propagated by the law 176 ly acquainted with the books after mentioned.

of conquest.

178 Books to be

Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics, his book De Inter The Greek tongue, at this day, is confined within Greek spostudied by

pretatione, especially with Ammonius's Commentary. very narrow limits. It is spoken in Greece itself, exevery one who wishes Ammonius was a native of Alexandria, and by far the cept in Epirus, and the western parts of Macedonia. It to be a mas-most acute of all the ancient grammarians.

is likewise spoken in the Grecian and Asiatic islands, in ter of this

Dion. Halic. De Structura Orationis, where, amidst Candia or Crete, in some parts of the coast of Asia Miabundance of curious and interesting observations, will nor, and in Cyprus: but in all these regions, it is much be found the true pronunciation of the Greek letters. corrupted and degenerated. Demetrius Phalereus De Elocutione; a short essay

in As a specimen, we shall insert a modern Greek song, deed, but replete with instruction concerning the proper and the advertisement of a quack medicine, which with arrangement of words and members in sentences. other plunder, was brought by the Russians from Choc

Longinus, the prince of critics, whose remains are sim or Chotzim in 1772.
I Sce Gaza. above commendation. Theodorus Gaza I and the other
refugees from Constantinople, who found an bospitable

Song in modern Greek.
reception from the munificent family of the Medici,
and whose learned labours in their native language MI δυσικίαις πολεμώ μί βάσανα ως το λεμό
once more revived learning and good taste in Europe. Είμαι, και κεντινεύω, και να χαθω κοντεύω
These, with some other critics of less celebrity, but Στο πέλαγος των συμφορών με επικινδυνον καιρό,
equal utility, will unlock all the treasures of Grecian Μ' ανέμες ολέθριες σφοδρες
erudition, without however disclosing the source from Με κύματα πολλών και μών τεφανί ανασενασμών. .
which they flowed. To these one might add a few Θαλασσα φασκομένη, πολλα αγριομένη,
celebrated moderns, such as Mons. Fourmont the Elder, οπό αφριζι καί φησα γε σαγανάκια περισσα
Mons. Gebelin, Abbé Pezron, Salmasius, and especially Σύνεφα σκοτισμένα και κατασυγχισμένα, ,
the learned and industrious Lord Monboddo.

Και να φανή μια σωτηρία, να ιδαν τα μάτια μυστρια.
We shall now give a very brief account of the vast Γλίχα νερα να εύρω, κάσχα και δεν ήξευρώ,
extent of the Greek language even before the Macedo. Ν' άραξω και δεν ημπορώ γιατι λιμένα δεν θορώ. .
nian empire was erected ; at which period, indeed, it Μ' ατελπισίαν θρέχω οτα άρμενα πε έχω.
became in a manner universal, much more than ever πε με αυτά καν να πνιγώ ή σελαμίτινα εγώ,

the Latin language could accomplish notwithstanding Και τετα άν βασαξεν, εμπορει να με φυλαξε».
177 the vast extent of the Roman empire.
Vast extent
Greece, originally Hellas, was a region of small ex-

Translation.
Greek lan- tent, and yet sent out many numerous colonies into diffe-
guage, rent parts of the world. These colonies carried their With dire misfortunes, pains, and woes,

native language along with them, and industriously dif O'erwhelm'd, ingulph'd, I struggling fight;
fused it wherever they formed a settlement. The Iones, O'er my frail bark proud billows close,
Æoles, and Dores, possessed themselves of all the west, To plunge her deep in lasting night.
and north-west coast of the Lesser Asia and the adja Rough seas of ills incessant roar,
cent islands; and there even the barbarians learned that Fierce winds adverse, with howling blast,
polished language. The Greek colonies extended them-

Heave surge on surge. Ah! far from sbore
selves along the south coast of the Euxine sea as far as My found'ring skiff shall sink at last.
Sinope, now Trebizund, and all the way from the west Involv'd in low'ring darksome clouds,
coast of Asia Minor : though many cities of barbarians 'Mid sultry fogs, I pant for breath ;
lay between, the Greek tongue was understood and Huge foaming billows rend my shrouds,
nerally spoken by people of rank and fashion.

While yawning gulfs extend beneath.
There were Greek cities on the north coast of the From bursting clouds loud thunders roll,
Euxine sea to the very eastern point, and perhaps be And deafʼning peals terrific spread;
yond even those limits; likewise in the Taurica Cherso Red lightnings dart from pole to pole,
nesus, or Crim Tartary; and even to the mouth of the And burst o'er my devoted head.
Danube, the straits of Caffa, &c. In the neighbour-

When sball the friendly dawning rays
hood of all these colonies, the Greek language was care Guide me to pleasures once possest;
fully propagated among the barbarians, who carried on And breezy gales, o’er peaceful seas,
commerce with the Greeks..

Waft to some port of endless rest?

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of the

ge

Greek
In dark despair, with tempests tost,

much of the air of extempore compositions ; an epithet Greek Language. I veer my sail from side to side.

is never wanting to fill up a verse; and a set of expres- Languags. Conduct me, Heav'n! to yond' fair coast, sions are mechanically annexed to such ideas as were of Or plunge me in the 'whelming tide.

frequent recurrence. Hence that copiousness and waste

of words in the old Greek bard, wbich forms such a The Quack Bill.

contrast to the condensed and laboured composition of

Virgil.
ΒΑΛΣΑΜΟΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΟΥΣΑΛΗΜ, ΑΠΟ

The Greek prose was of a more difficult structure;
ΤΑΙΣ, ΚΑΙ ΝΟΥΡΙΑΙΣ, ΚΑΙ

and it may be distributed into different styles or degrees
IIAAEAIE PETZETAIL.

of purity. Of the prose authors now extant, the first ΤΟΥΤΟ το μπαλσαμον ωφελεί εις το αδυνατόν σομαχι, ,

and best style is that of Herodotus, and of Plato in
remi Bonds Tuv xovtuer duvzpáves the reçoiar. ouxapes önces simple, of Thucydides and Demosthenes in the austere.

the florid or mixed kind, of Xenophon in the pure and
τας έμφράξεις της κοιλιας ωφελεί εις την σενωσιν και βήχα πα-
λαιών. Ιατρέψει τις εσωτερικές πληγάς το στήθος, και το πνεύ- Nothing, perhaps, is so conducive to form a good taste
μονος ήγουν πλεμονία. κινεί τα καταμήνια των γυναικών. Εις

in composition as the study of these writers.
τας εξωτερικές πληγές πρέπει να βάζεται με το ξανθό τόσον

The style of Polybius forms a new epoch in the biεις παλαιάς. Ocov xai lovics, retais rives jordbārs, xào story of the Greek language : it was the idiotic or poμαχαιριαϊς, και άλλα κοψίματα ιατρευει κάθελογής Φισολα,

pular manner of expression, especially among military
kui on as ths Bzoresgads mangas oxă ipocray és tò xóvenes men, in his time, about the 150th Olympiad. It be-
θαυμάσιως, ωφελεί εις τα αυτία όπ8 τρέχουν έμπυον να σα-

came the model of succeeding writers, by introducing a
ζεται δύο ή τρεις κόμπες ήχουν σταλαγματίας μίζαμπάκι simple unstudied expression, and by emancipating them
βρεμμένον εις αυτό, βάνεται εις τας πληγωμενας δοντοκοιλιαϊς
και θέλουν ατρευθή. και ακόμα δυναμώνει τα δόντια οπε κι-

the cadence and choice of words. The style of the
νούν ται δε θέλουν να πέσουν. βοηθά και από την πανέκλαν.

New Testament, being plain and popular, frequently re-
H obous isatiqızãs das sivees dexx w xai Sadıxx xóutas sis lius, and by Kirchmaier, de parallelismo N. T. et Poly-

sembles that of Polybius, as has been shown by Raphe-
ολίγον κρασί, ή και νερον, το κάθε ταχυ και βράδυ. ας το με- oil, 1725.
ταχαριζεται, και είνα θαυμάσιον μετην δοκιμήν βεβαιωμενον.
'Αληθές βάλσαμον τε Βασιλας.

Before this historian, the Alexandrian Jews had

formed a new or Hellenistic style, resulting from the
Instead of giving a literal and bald translation of expression of oriental ideas and idioms in Greek words,
this advertisement, which runs exactly in the style of after that language had lost of its purity, as it gained
other quack bills, it may be sufficient to observe, that in general use, by the conquests of Alexander. The
the medicine recommended is said, when taken inward- Hellenistic is the language of the Septuagint, the A.
ly, to raise the spirits, remove costiveness and inveterate pocrypha, the New Testament, and partly of Philo and
coughs ; to cure pains of the breast and bellyaches; Josephus. This mixture in the style of the evangelists
to assist respiration, and remove certain female ob- and apostles, is one credential of the authenticity of the
structions. When applied externally, it cures wounds best of all books, a book which could not have been
and sores, whether old or fresh, removes ringing of written but by Jewish authors in the first century. See
the ears, fastens the teeth when loose, and strengthens the fine remarks of Bishop Warburton, Doctrine of

Grace, book i. ch. 8-10. Critics lose their labour in
All this, and much more, it is said to do in a won- attempting to adjust the Scripture-Greek to the stand-
derful manner; and is declared to be the true royal ard of Atticism.
balsam of Jerusalem, and an universal specific.

The diction of the Greek historians, and geographers
It is indeed next to a miracle that so many monu of the Augustan age, is formed on that of Polybius;
ments of Grecian literature are still to be found among but improved and modernized, like the English of the
men. Notwithstanding the burning of the famous lic present age, if compared with that of Clarendon or Ba-
brary of Alexandria, and the almost numberless wars, con. More perspicuous than refined, it was well suited
massacres, and devastations, which have from time to to such compilations as were then written by men of
time in a manner desolated those countries where the letters, such as Dionysius, Diodorus, and Strabo, with-
Greek langiinge once flourished; we are told that out much experience or rank in public life.
there still remain about 3000 books written in that The ecclesiastical style was cultivated in the Christian
language.

schools of Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople; We shall now conclude this section with a brief de- rank and luxuriant, full of oriental idioms, and formed guished tail of the most distinguished stages and variations in a great measure on the Septuagint version. Such is, stages of

through which this noble tongue made its progress for instance, the style of Eusebius. After him, the best
from the age of Homer to the taking of Constanti- Christian writers polished their compositions in the schools
nople, anno Chr. 1453 ; a period of more than 2000 of rhetoric under the later sophists. Hence the po-
years.

pular and flowing purity of St Chrysostome, who has
Homer gave the Greek poetry its colour and consist more good sense than Plato, and perhaps as many good
ency, and enriched, as well as harmonized, the lan- words.
guage. It seems, from the coincidence of epithets and On the Greek of the Byzantine empire, there is a
cadence in Honer and Hesiod, that the Greek heroic good dissertation by Ducange, de causis corruptæ Græ-
verse was formed spontaneously, by the old Aosdos, a sort citatis, prefixed to his Glossary, together with Portius's
of improvisatori; and that Honer and bis first followers Grammar of the modern Greek. This last stage of the
adopted their versification. The Iliad and Odyssey have Greek language is a miserable picture of Turkish bar-

X x2

barism.

the gums:

179 Datin.

the Greck

language.

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