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Greek Afterwards, when the Chaldean article du was adopt- minative plural ended in ss, which nearly resembles the
into 1, and prefixed to it; and then the Greeks, who, Thracians. The genitive plural in all the declensions
consonant, which would not easily coalesce with s, comes
we will not pretend positively to determine. We are, In this case the Greeks seem to have copied from an bowever, inclined to imagine that they lost as much in In this mode of eastern archetype. In llebrew we find an arrangement perspicuity as they gained by variety.
140 flexion the exactly similar. To supply the place of the pronouns It is generally believed that the Greeks have no Greek abGreeks co- possessive, they affix fragments of the personals: Thus, ablative; to this opinion, however, we cannot assent. lative. pied from
they write ben-i, “my son," instead of ben-ani, and the Orien
It is true, that the dative, and what we would call the tals debir-nu, “our words," instead of debir-anu, &c. The ablative, are always the same : yet we think there is
persons of their verbs are formed in the same manner. no more reason to believe that the latter is wanting in
Latin, because in that language both these cascs are al-
terminations did not readily coalesce with the articles of the east are, to this day, strongly addicted to personi.
ses. The Phænician feminine was formed from the mas-
141 readily conducted to the termination of the pristine vo cases imitated them. The Greeks and Latins left a vast Genders: cable. The genitive always ends in os, which ending is number of substantives, like a kind of outcasts, without formed by inserting o between the radical word and so reducing them to any gender ; this process gave rise to By throwing out o we have the ancient nominative : the neuter gender, which imports, that such substantives Thus, Titav, genitive Titanos ; taking out o we have to were of neither gender. This has the appearance of a Tærs, the original inflexible termination. Antw, genitive defect, or rather a blemish, in both. Sometimes, too, Antoos; throw out o and you have Antos. Mandas, ge- they make words neuter, which, according to the ananitive nad rados; take away . and there remains Fandads. logy of grammar, ought to be either masculine or femiOgres, genitive Ogredos ; by throwing out o we have nine. And again, they range words under the mascuOgrobs. Avaz, genitive Avaxtos, A VeXTS. Kqatos, geni- line or feminine, which by the same rule ought to have tive Kgatios, Ke«tns; originally Kgatos, because origi- been neuter. In short, the doctrine of generical distrinally i had the sound of n, as was observed above. Mine, bution seems to have been very little regarded by the genitive Μελιτος, Μελιτς. Ειδος, genitive Eιδεος, Ειδις, fabricators of both tongues. The beauty which arises the old noun. In short, the genitive is always formed from variety seems to have been their only object. by inserting immediately before s, which is always the The use of the article in the Greek language is, we Farther od termination of the nominative; and by this rule, we think, rather indeterminate ; it is often prefixed to pro-servations easily discover the noun such as it was in its original per names, where there is no need of demonstration nor on the arform
generical distinction. On the contrary, it is often omit-ticle, The dative of this declension was closed with vascrip- ted in cases where both the one and the other seem to tum ; the same with that of the second, namely, 6 sub- require its assistance. In short, in some cases it seems scriptum. The accusative commonly terminates with a ; to be a mere expletive. Though both Lord Monboddo but was originally ended with y. The Romans imitated and Mr Harris have treated of this part of speech, neithe Æolian dialect, and they commonly ended it with ther the one nor the other has ascertained its proper use. em or im. The Greeks, perhaps in this imitated their (See Origin and Progress of Language, vol. ii. p. $3. progenitors, for a was their favourite vowel. The no Hermes, p. 214. et seq.)-We know not any objection
Greek to the early use of articles aniong the Greeks so plausible their alphabet amount to 900. To express chiliads Greek
it ought to be considered, that after the flexions were phabet as before, and to make the distinction, they
145 that, on the other hand, when there was no occasion for The word pronoun signifies a word placed instead of Propouts.
pointing out an object, it being fully determined by the a noun or name; and indeed the personal pronouns are 143 tenor of the discourse, it was often omitted.
really such : this needs no explication. The pronoun Adjectives. In forming adjectives, they followed the same plan of the first person is one of those words which have that they had done with substantives. Their great
effort continued invariable in all languages; and the other was to make their adjectives agree with their substan personals are of the same character. The relatives, tives in gender, number, and case. This arrangement possessives, demonstratives, and gentiles, are generally impaved the larmony of speech'; and nothing could derived from these, as may be discerned by a very mobe more natdia! than to make iko word expressing the derate adept in the language. Our readers will therequality correspond with the subject to which it be fore, we hope, easily dispense with our dwelling upon longed.
this part of speech. As adjectives denote qualities, and thus are suscep
Verb. In most ancient languages, verbs, according Greek tible of degrees, nature taught them to invent marks to the order of nature, have only three tenses or times, formed. for expressing the difference of these degrees. The namely, the past, present, and future. The intermediqualities may exceed or fall below each other by al ate tenses were the invention of more refined ages.most numberless proportions ; it was, however, found The Greek, in the most carly periods, had no other convenient to restrict these increases and decreases to tenses but those above mentioned. The niander of two denominations. The positive is, properly speaking, forming these we shall endeavour to point out, withno degree of comparison at all; therefore we need only out touching upon the nature of the rest, since an idea point out the formation of the comparative and super of them may be acquired from any common gramlative.
The former is generally thought to be fabricated, by We have observed above, that the flexion of nouns first adding the Hebrew word 97', excellent, to the po. of the first and second declensions are formed by apsitive, and then affixing the Greek termination o6; and nexing fragments of the articles to the radical words, the latter, by affixing the Syrian word tath and the syl- and that the variation of the tenses was produced by lable in the same manner.
joining the substantive verb, according to the same ana144 Greek nu
Every nation, even the most uncivilized, have early logy. Every Greek verb was originally an inflexible bis merals. acquired the notion of number. Numerical characters literal, triliteral, quadriliteral or dissyllabic radix. The
and names are the same in many different languages. variations were formed a long while after in the manner
Pres. sw, tes, ti,
sójov, EETS, fort, divided the letters of the alphabet into decades or tens,
Cont. W, us, ut, oumey, EITT, OUSS,
Fut. sow, totis, tou, Soomes, &c.
letter We place or in the third person plural, because for increased by tens, and so P denoted 100. In this de many centuries optexpor supplied the sound of the diplcade they inserted 4 KOTTA=90. In the third, every thong ov. By these variations it will appear that the letter rose by 100; so that ) cwri=900. By in- radical verb was rendered capable of inflection. We serting these three Phænician characters they made bave observed that Greek verbs were a collection of bi2
Literarum er columna.qm
Ermplum Seminrum Proswamm
in via Appia reperlu.poslea ad hortos Parnesianos traducta est.
ODENI. QEMITON. METAKINE SAI.EK. TO. TPIOFIO. HO
ESTIN. ETI. TO.TRITO.EN.TEI HODOL, TEI. ALA.EN TOI
HERODO.AMROI.O MAR.LOION. TOI.KINESANTI. MARTIS
DILION. ENHODIA.KAI.HOI.KIOVES.DEME TROS
KAI. KORES. AVADE MA. KALQONION. DEON. KAI.
ojumserit o Alphabet.
Urnebed? उ ऋ ऋ ल ल ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः
Cennik el क का कि की कु कू कृ कृ कल के कै को कौ कं कः
. क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज न ज ड ढ ण त थ द
ki khe gu ghu n crni chi chha ja jha nya tà
ध न प फ ब भ म य र ल व श ष स ह क्ष न ileti ni pi while the mi
Greek literal, triliteral, or quadriliteral, radical words.The of the radix can coalesce with e after's is thrown out,
Greek Language, following may serve for examples : Th, asy, Mag, tut, they transform it, so as to answer that purpose ; if not, Language. prev, tav, qan, Adj, Ann, Aux,
they sometimes throw it out. We shall once more take
asy-tow, Asy-sous, Asy-sos, &c.
by changing ys into & it becomes asźw. Ad and o can-
cond, or Attic future, appears plainly to have been the Antw, Avusw, &c. now the se
most ancient present. When the language was im These are the general rules with respect to the for-
proved, or rather in the course of being improved, a new mation of the present and future of active verbs in the
151 only the circumflex has been removed in order to ac more congruous to such a purpose. Perhaps, indeed, Origin of commodate them to the general standard. Gramma. the people from whom we suppose it borrowed, derived the auxirians have now chosen the three characteristic letters of it from the eastern quarters.
We bave already obser. liary verb. active verbs from the present, first future, and perfect. ved, that the Thracians were masters of a great part of The true characteristic of the original verb was that of Greece in the very earliest ages. At that time they the present second future. Many verbs are now desti, were a polite and learned people. From them a consitute of that tense, because since the invention of the derable part of the Greek language was derived. If, new present, those have fallen into disuse.
therefore, we should find a word in their language emFormation Let us now take the verb Asyw, dico, in order to ployed for the same purpose, and accommodated to coaof the mo. make a trial; and let us write the radix and the lesce with the radical verb, we feel ourselves very
much dern pre- auxiliary, first separately, and then in conjunction inclined to prefer such a word.
. . Thus,
The word ha pervades many different languages as λεγ-βω, λεγ εες, λεγ-ες, λιγ-βομίν, λεγ-εσε, λεγ-60σσι. Τhen an auxiliary verb. From it we have the Italian ho, we will have contracted λεγώ, λιγείς, λεγεί, λεγούμεν, the Spanish he, the French ai; and in one shape or Arrire, Asyyor. Here, we believe, every thing is self other it appears in all the German and Scandinavian evident.
dialects. It is the Gothic auxiliary; and, we believe, The English would run thus : Saying I am, saying it forms the termination of the perfect active of the first thou arl, saying he is, &c. At first the radix and the conjugation in the Latin tongue : For there om is the auxiliary were pronounced separately, as we do our radix of ano; in the preterite am-avi, amavi: and the helping verbs in English, and would have been written preterperfect am-hav-eram, i. e. amaveran, compounded in the same manner had words been then distinguished of am, hav, and erum, the imperfect of the indicative of in writing.
the substantive verb. This process, in the formation of 149 First fu
The present first future occupied the same place that the preterite of Latin verbs, will scarce be questioned, ture, and it now does, and concurred in its turn to complete the and forms certainly a presumptive proof that the Greeks
future in conjunction with the radix. That the sub- pursued the same line. From this verb is likewise de-
and indeed the same letter. Our readers, after this detail,
dix could not unite with the aspirate in ha, they me-