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Greek Afterwards, when the Chaldean article du was adopt- minative plural ended in ss, which nearly resembles the
Languine, ed for the neuter gender, the letter 7 or d was changed English plural, and was possibly borrowed from the Language,

into 1, and prefixed to it; and then the Greeks, who, Thracians. The genitive plural in all the declensions
in their declension of adjectives, always followed the ends in we; the dative ends in on, the o being inserted to
neuter gender, began to prefix it to the oblique distinguish it from the dative singular. When a strong

consonant, which would not easily coalesce with s, comes
In this manner we think the Greek nouns stood ori, immediately before it, that consonant is thrown out to
ginally; the only change being made upon the article. avoid a harsh or difficult sound. The sum then is ; the
At length, instead of prefixing that word, and expres. cases of nouns of the first and second declensions consist
sing it by itself, they found it convenient to affix a frag- of the radical word with fragments of the articles annexed,
ment of it to the noun, and so to pronounce both with and these were the first classifications of nouns. The
more expedition. Thus ós-doy, e. g. became now-os, óv other nouns were left out for some time, and might be
λογ became λογ ου, and of course λογος and λογου, &c. denominated neuters ; at length they too were classified,
The spiritus asper, or rough breathing, was thrown a. and their variations formed as above. In this process
way, in order to facilitate the coalition. Nouns of the the Greeks deviated from the oriental plan ; for these
neuter gender, as was necessary, were distinguished by people always declined their nouns by particles prefixed.
using » instead of s. In oriental words the Greeks of Whether the Greeks were gainers by this new process,
ten change s into y, and vice versa.

we will not pretend positively to determine. We are, In this case the Greeks seem to have copied from an bowever, inclined to imagine that they lost as much in In this mode of eastern archetype. In llebrew we find an arrangement perspicuity as they gained by variety.

140 flexion the exactly similar. To supply the place of the pronouns It is generally believed that the Greeks have no Greek abGreeks co- possessive, they affix fragments of the personals: Thus, ablative; to this opinion, however, we cannot assent. lative. pied from

they write ben-i, “my son," instead of ben-ani, and the Orien

It is true, that the dative, and what we would call the tals debir-nu, “our words," instead of debir-anu, &c. The ablative, are always the same : yet we think there is

persons of their verbs are formed in the same manner. no more reason to believe that the latter is wanting in
In this way, in our opinion, the variations of the first Greek, than that the ablative plural is wanting in
and second declensions were produced.

Latin, because in that language both these cascs are al-
After that a considerable number of their nouns were

ways alike.
of the third arranged under these two classes, there remained an al In the eastern languages there are only two genders,
declension most infinite number of others which could not conveni. analogous to the established order of nature, where all
and of its ently be brought into these arrangements; because their animals are either male or female. But as the people

terminations did not readily coalesce with the articles of the east are, to this day, strongly addicted to personi.
above mentioned. These, like nouns of the neuter gen. fication, they ranged all objects of which they bad occa-
der, were in a manner secluded from the society of the sion to speak, whether animate or inanımale, under one
two other classifications. It is probable that these for or other of these two classes. Hence arose what is now
a long time continued indeclinable. At last, however, called the masculine and feminine genders. The orien-
an effort was made to reduce them into a class as well tals knew nothing of a neuter gender, because, indeed,
as the others. All these excluded nouns originally ter all objects were comprehended under the foregoing clas-
minated with s, which appears from their genitives as

ses. The Phænician feminine was formed from the mas-
they stand at present. By observing this case, we are culine, by adding nx, ah. In this the Greeks in many

141 readily conducted to the termination of the pristine vo cases imitated them. The Greeks and Latins left a vast Genders: cable. The genitive always ends in os, which ending is number of substantives, like a kind of outcasts, without formed by inserting o between the radical word and so reducing them to any gender ; this process gave rise to By throwing out o we have the ancient nominative : the neuter gender, which imports, that such substantives Thus, Titav, genitive Titanos ; taking out o we have to were of neither gender. This has the appearance of a Tærs, the original inflexible termination. Antw, genitive defect, or rather a blemish, in both. Sometimes, too, Antoos; throw out o and you have Antos. Mandas, ge- they make words neuter, which, according to the ananitive nad rados; take away . and there remains Fandads. logy of grammar, ought to be either masculine or femiOgres, genitive Ogredos ; by throwing out o we have nine. And again, they range words under the mascuOgrobs. Avaz, genitive Avaxtos, A VeXTS. Kqatos, geni- line or feminine, which by the same rule ought to have tive Kgatios, Ke«tns; originally Kgatos, because origi- been neuter. In short, the doctrine of generical distrinally i had the sound of n, as was observed above. Mine, bution seems to have been very little regarded by the genitive Μελιτος, Μελιτς. Ειδος, genitive Eιδεος, Ειδις, fabricators of both tongues. The beauty which arises the old noun. In short, the genitive is always formed from variety seems to have been their only object. by inserting immediately before s, which is always the The use of the article in the Greek language is, we Farther od termination of the nominative; and by this rule, we think, rather indeterminate ; it is often prefixed to pro-servations easily discover the noun such as it was in its original per names, where there is no need of demonstration nor on the arform

generical distinction. On the contrary, it is often omit-ticle, The dative of this declension was closed with vascrip- ted in cases where both the one and the other seem to tum ; the same with that of the second, namely, 6 sub- require its assistance. In short, in some cases it seems scriptum. The accusative commonly terminates with a ; to be a mere expletive. Though both Lord Monboddo but was originally ended with y. The Romans imitated and Mr Harris have treated of this part of speech, neithe Æolian dialect, and they commonly ended it with ther the one nor the other has ascertained its proper use. em or im. The Greeks, perhaps in this imitated their (See Origin and Progress of Language, vol. ii. p. $3. progenitors, for a was their favourite vowel. The no Hermes, p. 214. et seq.)-We know not any objection


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verbs, hos

Greek to the early use of articles aniong the Greeks so plausible their alphabet amount to 900. To express chiliads Greek
Language as the total neglect of them among the Romans. But or thousands, they began with the letters of the al- Language.

it ought to be considered, that after the flexions were phabet as before, and to make the distinction, they
introduced, the use of the article was in a great measure placed a dot under each character, as the units, tens,
neglected. Accordingly, Lord Monboddo observes that hundreds, were distinguished by an acute accent over
it is very seldom used as such by Homer, but commonly them.
in place of the relative pronoun ós, “, ó.—Thus it would But in monumental inscriptions, and in public in-
appear, that at the time when the Roman language was struments, a larger and more lasting numerical charac-
reduced to the Grecian standard, the article was not ter was fabricated. The began with I, and repeat-
commonly used by the Greeks; and of course the La ed that letter till they arrived at 1=5. This is the first
tins never employed it. There can be no doubt but the letter of mure, five. Then they proceeded, by repeat-
pronoun who, in the northern languages, is the same ing I till they came to 10 A, the first letter of dance, 10.
with the Greek ., and the Hebrew hua. This among Then they repeated A over and over, so that four A=
the northern people is always a relative, which affords a 40. To express 50, they used this metbod ; they in-
presumption that the Greeks originally used the article closed A in the belly of Al=50, H=500, M=50,000,
in the same manĝer as we do at present. The fact is, &c. Often, however, x signifies 1000, and then we
that the articles having once got into vogue, were often bave dis XiA.o., 2000 ; Teis XiA.o., 3000 ; and so of the
positively used as mere expletives to fill up a gap; and rest.

145 that, on the other hand, when there was no occasion for The word pronoun signifies a word placed instead of Propouts.

pointing out an object, it being fully determined by the a noun or name; and indeed the personal pronouns are 143 tenor of the discourse, it was often omitted.

really such : this needs no explication. The pronoun Adjectives. In forming adjectives, they followed the same plan of the first person is one of those words which have that they had done with substantives. Their great

effort continued invariable in all languages; and the other was to make their adjectives agree with their substan personals are of the same character. The relatives, tives in gender, number, and case. This arrangement possessives, demonstratives, and gentiles, are generally impaved the larmony of speech'; and nothing could derived from these, as may be discerned by a very mobe more natdia! than to make iko word expressing the derate adept in the language. Our readers will therequality correspond with the subject to which it be fore, we hope, easily dispense with our dwelling upon longed.

this part of speech. As adjectives denote qualities, and thus are suscep

Verb. In most ancient languages, verbs, according Greek tible of degrees, nature taught them to invent marks to the order of nature, have only three tenses or times, formed. for expressing the difference of these degrees. The namely, the past, present, and future. The intermediqualities may exceed or fall below each other by al ate tenses were the invention of more refined ages.most numberless proportions ; it was, however, found The Greek, in the most carly periods, had no other convenient to restrict these increases and decreases to tenses but those above mentioned. The niander of two denominations. The positive is, properly speaking, forming these we shall endeavour to point out, withno degree of comparison at all; therefore we need only out touching upon the nature of the rest, since an idea point out the formation of the comparative and super of them may be acquired from any common gramlative.

The former is generally thought to be fabricated, by We have observed above, that the flexion of nouns first adding the Hebrew word 97', excellent, to the po. of the first and second declensions are formed by apsitive, and then affixing the Greek termination o6; and nexing fragments of the articles to the radical words, the latter, by affixing the Syrian word tath and the syl- and that the variation of the tenses was produced by lable in the same manner.

joining the substantive verb, according to the same ana144 Greek nu

Every nation, even the most uncivilized, have early logy. Every Greek verb was originally an inflexible bis merals. acquired the notion of number. Numerical characters literal, triliteral, quadriliteral or dissyllabic radix. The

and names are the same in many different languages. variations were formed a long while after in the manner
These terms were discovered, and in use, long before above intimated.
grammar came to any perfection; and therefore re The Greeks had their substantive or auxiliary verb,
main either inflexible or irregular. The first way of from the Phoenician or Chaldean verb ton, fuit. This
computing among the Greeks was by the letters of verb, taking away the gentle aspirate from both begin-
the alphabet; so that a signified one and a twenty- ning and end, actually becomes u. This vocable the
four: in this manner the rhapsodies of Homer are Greeks brought along with them from the East, and
numbered ; and so are the divisions of some of the manufactured after their own manner, which
Psalms, as is generally kuown. But a more artificial have been thus :
plan of computation was obviously necessary. They

Pres. sw, tes, ti,

sójov, EETS, fort, divided the letters of the alphabet into decades or tens,

Cont. W, us, ut, oumey, EITT, OUSS,
from A to 1510. To express the number 6, they in-

Fut. sow, totis, tou, Soomes, &c.
serted G baw=6; so that by this means the first de-
cade amounted to 10. Io the next decade


letter We place or in the third person plural, because for increased by tens, and so P denoted 100. In this de many centuries optexpor supplied the sound of the diplcade they inserted 4 KOTTA=90. In the third, every thong ov. By these variations it will appear that the letter rose by 100; so that ) cwri=900. By in- radical verb was rendered capable of inflection. We serting these three Phænician characters they made bave observed that Greek verbs were a collection of bi2




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te se,

Greek literal, triliteral, or quadriliteral, radical words.The of the radix can coalesce with e after's is thrown out,

Greek Language, following may serve for examples : Th, asy, Mag, tut, they transform it, so as to answer that purpose ; if not, Language. prev, tav, qan, Adj, Ann, Aux,

they sometimes throw it out. We shall once more take
These radicals are taken at random; and we believe asyw for an example:
our Grecian student, by adding the terminations, will
readily find them all significant verbs. With these ra-

asy-tow, Asy-sous, Asy-sos, &c.
dicals, then, and the substantive verb, we suppose the Throwing out s, it would stand day-ow, dey-cris, &c.
present and future tenses were formed.

by changing ys into & it becomes asźw. Ad and o can-
Original But it is now generally admitted that the modern not coalesce with o, therefore they throw them out:
present that present was not the original one of the verb. The se thus, Adw, future first crw; ainda, future first ainsi ;
which is

cond, or Attic future, appears plainly to have been the Antw, Avusw, &c. now the se

most ancient present. When the language was im These are the general rules with respect to the for-
cond fu-

proved, or rather in the course of being improved, a new mation of the present and future of active verbs in the
present was invented, derived indeed from the former, earliest stages of the Greek language. The limits pre-
but differing widely from it in its appearance and com scribed will not allow us to pursue these conjectures;
plexion. Upon this occasion, the old present was de- but the reader may, if be thinks proper, carry them a
graded, and instead of intimating what was doing at pre great way.

sent, was made to import what was immediately to be The preterite tense falls next under consideration, preterite
done hereafter. By this means, veæosa, contracted in If we may trust analogy, this, as well as the other two,
to yzxcã, I am writing, came to intimate, I am just go must have owed its conformation to the radix of the
ing to write. This change was probably made for the verb, and some other word fitted to eke out its termina-
sake of enriching the language, for variety, for energy. tions. It has been thought by some critics, that this
Tbus, TUTEM contracted tutã became TUTTW, Tixã, TIXTW, addition was taken from the Hebrew word non; and we
&c. According to this theory, we find, that such verbs should be of the same opinion did not another auxiliary
as now have no second future retain their original form, present itself nearer home, which appears to us much

151 only the circumflex has been removed in order to ac more congruous to such a purpose. Perhaps, indeed, Origin of commodate them to the general standard. Gramma. the people from whom we suppose it borrowed, derived the auxirians have now chosen the three characteristic letters of it from the eastern quarters.

We bave already obser. liary verb. active verbs from the present, first future, and perfect. ved, that the Thracians were masters of a great part of The true characteristic of the original verb was that of Greece in the very earliest ages. At that time they the present second future. Many verbs are now desti, were a polite and learned people. From them a consitute of that tense, because since the invention of the derable part of the Greek language was derived. If, new present, those have fallen into disuse.

therefore, we should find a word in their language emFormation Let us now take the verb Asyw, dico, in order to ployed for the same purpose, and accommodated to coaof the mo. make a trial; and let us write the radix and the lesce with the radical verb, we feel ourselves very

much dern pre- auxiliary, first separately, and then in conjunction inclined to prefer such a word.

. . Thus,

The word ha pervades many different languages as λεγ-βω, λεγ εες, λεγ-ες, λιγ-βομίν, λεγ-εσε, λεγ-60σσι. Τhen an auxiliary verb. From it we have the Italian ho, we will have contracted λεγώ, λιγείς, λεγεί, λεγούμεν, the Spanish he, the French ai; and in one shape or Arrire, Asyyor. Here, we believe, every thing is self other it appears in all the German and Scandinavian evident.

dialects. It is the Gothic auxiliary; and, we believe, The English would run thus : Saying I am, saying it forms the termination of the perfect active of the first thou arl, saying he is, &c. At first the radix and the conjugation in the Latin tongue : For there om is the auxiliary were pronounced separately, as we do our radix of ano; in the preterite am-avi, amavi: and the helping verbs in English, and would have been written preterperfect am-hav-eram, i. e. amaveran, compounded in the same manner had words been then distinguished of am, hav, and erum, the imperfect of the indicative of in writing.

the substantive verb. This process, in the formation of 149 First fu

The present first future occupied the same place that the preterite of Latin verbs, will scarce be questioned, ture, and it now does, and concurred in its turn to complete the and forms certainly a presumptive proof that the Greeks

future in conjunction with the radix. That the sub- pursued the same line. From this verb is likewise de-
stantive verb was inflected in the manner above laid rived the Latin habeo, by changing v and b, which are
down, is obvious from its future middle Stoual,

and indeed the same letter. Our readers, after this detail,
from the future of the Latin verb sum, which was of will not be surprised if we should now hazard a conjec-
old eso, esis, &c. Verbs in nw, puw, you, ea, often take ture, and declare it as our opinion, that this same Go.
fw in the first future. See Fæd. Cret, ap. Alarm. Oxon. thic auxiliary ha is actually the additional part of the
lib. 87. Verbs in nw and gw assume o by analogy, as preterite of Greek verbs, and that part upon which
rsdaw, eshow, Eurip. Hecub. v. 1057. xsdoos, Hom. Od. the conjugation depends.
X. v. 511. Tidna, telow, unde ringov, Il. x. v. 707. oqw. In forming this combination between the radis and
oproniv, Pind. Nem. Od. 9. Duodec. 2. Tugw, rigout, the auxiliary, the Greeks were obliged to fabricate
l'hcoc. Idyll. 22. v. 63. In fine, the Æolic dialect several devices. As ofien as the last letter of the ra-
after the liquids often inserts o.

dix could not unite with the aspirate in ha, they me-
It must be observed, that the Greeks, in order to ac tamorpbosed it into one of the double letters, which
celerate the pronunciation, always throw out the è and are capable of coalescing with it. In the verb deryw,
o, except in verbs ending in aw, sw, ow; where they gene g was changed into %; thus, Asy ha became neyee, TUTTW
rally change them into , and W. When the last letter preterite tut ha, was combined into TuQx. In verbs
VOL. XVI. Part I,



U u

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