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Father also. This is all we find concerning Philip in and went down into the water, where Philip baptized Philip the gospel.

the eunuch. Being come out of the water, the Spirit of The upper Asia fell to this apostle's lot, where he the Lord took away Philip, and the eunuch saw no more took great pains in planting the gospel, and by his of him. But Philip was found again at Azotus, and he preaching and miracles made many converts. In the preached the gospel in all the cities he passed througlı, Îatter part of his life, he came to Hierapolis in Phry- till he arrived at Cæsarea in Palestine. After this, the gia, a city very much addicted to idolatry, and particu- scripture does not inform us of any particulars relating larly to the worship of a serpent of a prodigious bigness. to Philip. The modern Greeks say that he went to St Philip by his prayers procured the death, or at least Tralles in Asia, where he founded a church, of which the disappearing, of this monster, and convinced its wor he was the apostle and bishop ; and where he rested in shippers of the absurdity of paying divine honours to peace, after performing many miracles. The Latins, such odious creatures. But the magistrates, enraged at on the contrary, say that he died at Cæsarea, and that Philip's success, imprisoned him, and ordered him to be three of his daughters were there buried with bim. severely scourged, and then put to death, which some It is thought, that the eunuch converted by St Phisay was by crucifixion; others, by hanging him up lip was the first apostle of the Ethiopians ; and that the against a pillar. St Philip is generally reckoned among Abyssines boast of having received the Christian faith the married apostles; and it is said he had three daugh- from him. ters, two whereof preserved their virginity, and died at Philip II. was the fourth son of Amyntas, king of LempriHierapolis: the third, having led a very spiritual life, Macedonia. He was sent to Thebes as an hostage by cre's Biblidied at Ephesus. He left behind him no writings. The his father, where he learnt the art of war under Epa-otheca gospel under his name was forged by the Gnostics, to


minondas, and studied with the greatest care the mancountenance their bad principles and worse practices. ners and the pursuits of the Greeks. He discovered, from The Christian church observes the festival of this saint, bis earliest years, that quickness of genius and greatness together with that of St James, on the first day of May. of courage which afterwards procured him so great a Euseb. lib. iii. c. 30.

name and such powerful enemies. He was recalled to Philip, the second of the seven deacons, was chosen Macedonia ; and at the death of his brother Perdiccas by the apostles after our Saviour's resurrection. (Acts vi. be ascended the throne as guardian and protector of the 5.). This deacon, they say, was of Cæsarea in Palestine. youthful years of his nephew. His ambition, however, It is certain that his daughters lived in this city (Acts soon discovered itself, and he made himself independent xxi. 8, 9.). After the death of St Stephen, all the about the year 360 before Christ. The valour of a pruChristians, excepting the apostles, baving left Jerusalem, dent general, and the policy of an experienced statesand being dispersed in several places, St Philip went to man, seemed requisite to ensure his power. The neighpreach at Samaria (id. viii. 1, 2, &c.), where he per- bouring nations, ridiculing the youth and inexperience formed several miracles, and converted many persons. of the new king of Macedonia, appeared in arms; but He baptized them; but being only a deacon, he could Philip soon convinced them of their error. Unable to not confer on them the Holy Ghost. Wherefore hav meet them as yet in the field of battle, be suspended ing made known to the apostles at Jerusalem, that Sa- their fury by presents, and soon turned his arms against maria had received the word of God, Peter and John Amphipolis, a colony tributary to the Athenians. Amcame thither, and the Samaritans that were converted phipolis was conquered, and added to the kingdom of received the Holy Ghost. St Philip was probably at Macedonia ; and Philip meditated no less than the deSamaria when the angel of the Lord ordered him to go struction of a republic which had rendered itself so forto the south part of the conntry, in the road that leads midable to the rest of Greece, and had even claimed from Jerusalem to old Gaza. Philip obeyed, and there submission from the princes of Macedonia. His designs, met with an Ethiopian eunuch belonging to Queen Can- however, were as yet immature ; and before he could dace, who had the care of her revenues, and had been at make Athens an object of conquest, the Thracians and Jerusalem to worship God there (id. viii. 26, 27, &c.). the Illyrians demanded his attention. He made himself He was then returning into his own country, and was master of a Thracian colony, to which he gave the name reading the prophet Isaiah as he went along in his cha- of Philippi, and from which he received the greatest adriot. Philip, hearing the eunuch reading the prophet vantages on account of the gold mines in the neighIsaiah, said to him, Do you understand what you read? bourhood. These made it a very important capture. The eunuch replied, How should I understand, except He settled in it a number of workmen, and was the first somebody explain it to me? He desired Philip therefore who caused gold to be coined in his own name. He emto come and sit down by him in the chariot. The pas- ployed his wealth in procuring spies and partisans in all sage the eunuch was reading is this: "He was led as a the great cities of Greece, and in making conquests sheep to the slaughter, and like a lamb dumb before his without the aid of arms. It was at the siege of Methone shearer, so he opened not his mouth.” The eunuch then in Thrace that Philip had the misfortune to receive a says to Philip, Pray, whom does the prophet speak of wound in his right eye from the stroke of an arrow. In in this place ? Is it of himself, or of some other? Then the midst of his political prosperity, Philip did not nePhilip began to instruct him concerning Jesus Christ. glect the honour of his family. He married Olympias And baving gone on together, they came to a fountain; the daughter of Neoptolemus, king of the Molossi ; and when the eunuch said to Philip, Here is water, what when, some time after, he became father of Alexander, hinders me from being baptized ? Philip told him that the monarch, conscious of the inestimable advantages hie might be so, if he believed with all his heart. He re- which arise from the lessons, the example, and converplied, I believe that Jesus Christ is the son of God. He sation of a learned and virtuous preceptor, wrote a leto then ordered the chariot to stop, and they both alighted ter with his own hand to the philosopher Aristotle, and VOL. XVI. Part I.




Philip. begged him to retire from his usual putsuits, and to de- with the inhumanity of a brute, be insulted the bodies Philip.

dicate his whole time to the instruction of the young of the slain, and exulted over the calamities of the priprince. Every thing seemed now to conspire to his soners of war. Ilis insolence, however, was ehecked, aggrandizement; and historians have observed that Phi- when Demades, one of the Athenian captives, reminded lip received in one day the intelligence of three things lim of his meanness, by exclaiming, “ Why do you, O which could gratify the most unbounded ambition, and king, act the part of a Thersites, when you can repreflatter the liopes of the most aspiring monarch : the sent with so much dignity the elevated character of an birth of a son, an honourable crown at the Olympic Agamemnon ?” The reproof was felt; Demades regames, and a victory over the barbarians, of Illyricum. ceived bis liberty; and Philip learned how to gain poBut all these rather increased than satiated his ambi- pularity even among bis fallen enemies; by relieving tion : he declared his inimical sentiments against the their wants and easing their distresses. At the battle of power of Athens, and the independence of all Greece, Chæronea the independence of Greece was extinguished; by laying siege to Olynthus, a place which, on ac and Philip, unable to find new enemies in Europe, formcount of its situation and consequence, would prove ed new enterprises, and meditated new conquests. He most injurious to the interests of the Athenians, and was nominated general of the Greeks against the Permost advantageous to the intrigues and military ope- sians, and was called upon, as well from inclination as rations of every Macedonian prince. The Athenians duty, to revenge those injuries which Greece had sufferroused by the eloquence of Demosthenes, sent 17 ves ed from the invasions of Darius and Xerxes. But he sels and 2000 men to the assistance of Olynthus; but was stopped in the midst of his warlike preparations, the money of Philip prevailed over all their efforts. being stabbed by Pausanias as he entered the theatre The greatest part of the citizens suffered themselves at the celebration of the nuptials of his daughter Cleoto be bribed by the Macedonian gold, and Olynthus patra. This murder has given rise to many reflections surrendered to the enemy, and was instantly reduced upon the causes which produced it; and many who to ruins. Philip soon after defeated the Athenians, consider the recent repudiation of Olympias and the and made a greater number of them prisoners, whom he resentment of Alexander, are apt to investigate the dismissed without ransom. Of this victory, the fruit causes of his death in the bosom of his family. The of that excellent discipline wbich he had established ridiculous lionours which Olympias paid to her busin bis army, the Macedonian phalanx had the princi. band's murderer strengthened the suspicion ; yet Alexpal honour.

This was a body of infantry heavily arm ander declared that he invaded the kingdom of Persia ed, consisting commonly of 16,000 men, who had each to revenge bis father's death upon the Persian satraps of them a shield six feet high and a pike 21 feet long. and princes, by whose immediate intrigues the assassi(See PHALANX). The success of his arms,


tion had been committed. The character of Philip is cially his generosity after victory, made his alliance that of a sagacious, artfal, prudent, and intriguing and a peace a desirable object to the people of Athens; monarch: he was brave in the field of battle, eloquent and as both parties were inclined to this measure, it and dissimulating at home, and he possessed the wonderwas concluded without delay. His successes were as ful art of changing his conduct according to the disposigreat in every part of Greece: he was declared head tion and caprice of mankind, without ever altering his of the Amphictyonic council, and was entrusted with purpose, or losing sight of his ambitious aims. He posthe care of the sacred temple of Apollo at Delphi. If sessed much perseverance, and in the execution of his he was recalled to Macedonia, it was only to add fresh plans he was always vigorous. He had that eloquence laurels to bis crown, by victories over his enemies in which is inspired by strong passions. The hand of an Illyricum and Thessaly. By assuming the mask of assassin prevented him from achieving the boldest and a moderator and peace-maker, he gained confidence ; the most extensive of his undertakings; and he might and in attempting to protect the Peloponnesians against have acquired as many laurels, and conquered as many the encroaching power of Sparta, he rendered his nations, as his son Alexander did in the succeeding cause popular; and by ridiculing the insults that were reign; and the kingdom of Persia might have been oilered to his person as he passed through Corinth, he added to the Macedonian empire, perhaps with greater displayed to the world bis moderation and philosophic, moderation, with more glory, and with more lasting virtues. In his attempts to make himself master of advantages. The private character of Philip lies open Eubea, Philip was unsuccessful; and Phocion, who to censure, and raises indignation. The admirer of his despised his gold as well as his meanness, obliged him virtues is disgusted to find liim among the most abandonto evacuate an island whose inhabitants were as insen-, ed prostitutes, and disgracing himself by the most unnasible to the charms of money as they were unmoved tural crimes and lascivious indulgencies which can make at the horrors of war, and the bold efforts of a vi even the most debauched and the most profligate to gilant enemy. From Eubea he turned his arms against blush. He was murdered in the 47th year of his age, the Scythians ; but the advantages he obtained over and the 24th of his reign, about 336 years before the this indigent nation were inconsiderable, and he again Christian era. His reign is become uncommonly inmade Greece an object of plunder and rapine. He teresting, and his administration a matter of instruction. advanced far in Bæotia, and a general engagement was

He is ihe first monarch whose life and actions are defought at Chæronea. The fight was long and bloody, scribed with peculiar accuracy and historical faithfulbut Philip obtained the victory. His behaviour after ness. Pbilip was the father of Alexander the Great and the battle reflects great disgrace upon him as a man and of Cleopatra, by Olympias; he had also by Audaca an as a monarch. In the hour of festivity, and during the Illyrian, Cyna, who married Amyntas the son of Pera entertainment which be bad given to celehraie the tro diccas, Philip's elder brother; by Nicasi polis a Thessaphies he had won, Philip sallied from his camp, and lian, Nicæa, who married Cassander ; by Philæna a.


Pliðip. Larissxan dancer, Aridæus, who reigned some time af wanted to indulge himself in every species of dissipation Philipo.

ter Alexander's death ; by Cleopatra, the niece of At and vice: and indeed bis cruelty to bim soon displayed talus, Caranus and Europa, who tvere both murdered his character in its true light; for to the gratification by Olympias ; and Ptolemy the first king of Egypt, by of every vice, and every extravagant propensity he had Arsinoe, who in the first month of her pregnancy was the meanness to sacrifice this faithful and virtuous Atlica married to Lagus. Of the many memorable actions nian. Not satisfied with the kingdom of Macedonia, and sayings reported by Plutarch of this prince, the fol- Philip aspired to become the friend of Hannibal, and lowing are the most remarkable. Being present at the wished to share with him the spoils which the distresses sale of some captives, in an indecent posture, one of and continual loss of the Romans seemed soon to prothem informed him of it; “ Set this man at liberty (says mise. But his expectations were frustrated ; the Ro. Philip), I did not know that he was my friend." Being mans discovered his intrigues ; and though weakened by solicited to favour a lord of bis court, who was like to the valour and artifice of the Carthaginian, yet they lose his character by a just but severe sentence, Philip were soon enabled to meet him in the field of battle. refused to hearken to the solicitation, and added, " Î The consul Lævinus entered without delay his territohad rather that be be disgraced than myself." A poor ries of Macedonia ; and after he had obtained a victory woman was importuning him to do ber justice; and as over bim near Apollonia, and reduced his fleet to aslies, he sent her away from day to day, under the pretence be compelled him to sue for peace. This peaceful disthat he had no time to attend to her petition, she said position was not permanent; and when the Romans disto him with some warmth,“ Cease then to be a king." covered that he had assisted their formidable enemy HanPhilip felt all the force of this reproof, and immediate- nibal with men and money, they appointed T. Q. Flaly gave her satisfaction.- Another woman came to ask minius to punish his perfidy, and the violation of the treajustice of him as he was going out from a great enter ty. The Roman consul, with his usual expedition, invadtainment, and was condemned. “ I appeal (exclaimed ed Macedonia ; and in a general engagement, which was she) !” “ And to whom do you appeal (said the king fought near Cynocephale, the hostile army was totally to her)?” “ To Philip fasting." This answer open- defeated, and the monarch saved his life with difficulty ed the eyes of the monarch, who retracted his sen by flying from the field of battle. Destitute of resourtence. If he possessed any virtue, it was principally ces, without friends either at home or abroad, Philip that of suffering injuries with patience. Democharos, was obliged to submit to the mercy of the conqueror, to whom the Greeks gave the surname of Parrhesiastes, and to demand peace by his ambassadors. It was granton account of his excessive petulance of tongue, was one ed with difficulty; the terms were humiliating; but of the deputies whom the Athenians sent to this mo the poverty of Philip obliged him to accept the condi.. narch. Philip, at the conclusion of the audience, beg. tions, however disadvantageous and degrading to his digged the ambassadors to tell him, “ if he could be of any nity: In the midst of these public calamities, the peace service to the Athenians ;" to which Democharus gave of his family was disturbed ; and Perses, the eldest of his an insolent return, which he forgave. Having learned sons by a concubine, raised seditions against his brother that some Athenian ambassadors charged him, in full as. Demetrius, whose condescension and humanity had gainsembly, with atrocious calumnies : “ I am under greated popularity among the Macedonians, and who from obligations (said be) to those gentlemen, for I shall his residence at Rome, as an hostage, bad gained the henceforwards be so circumspect in my words and good graces of the senate, and by the modesty and inactions, that I shall convict them of falsehood.” One nocence of his manners had obtained forgiveness from saying of Philip, which does bim less honour than those that venerable body for the hostilities of his father. we have before mentioned, was, “ Let us amuse child- Philip listened with too much avidity to the false accuren with playthings, and men with oaths." This abo sations of Perses ; and when he heard it asserted that minable maxim, which was the soul and spring of his Demetrius wished to rob him of his crown, he no longpolitics, gave rise to the observation, “ That he was in er hesitated to punish with death so unworthy and so full length, what Louis XI. afterwards was in minia ungrateful a son. No sooner was Demetrius sacrificed ture.” It is well known that Philip had a person about to credulity, than Philip became convinced of his cruelhim, who called out at times, “ Philip, remember that ty and rashness; and to punish the perfidy of Perses, he thou art mortal ; " but whether we should place this to attempted to make Antigonus, another son, his succes. the account of bis pride or his humility, it is difficult to sor on the Macedonian throne. But he was prevented say.

from executing his purpose by death, in the 420 year of Philip V. was king of Macedonia, and son of De bis reign, 178 years before the Christian era. The asmetrius. His infancy, at the death of his father, was sassin of Demetrius succeeded his father, and with the protected by Antigonus, one of his friends, who ascen same ambition, with the same rashness and oppression, ded the throne, and reigned for 12 years, with the title renewed the war against the Romans, till his empire was of Independent monarch. When Antigonus died, Phi- destroyed, and Macedonia became a Roman province. lip recovered bis father's throne, though only 15 years Philip has been compared with his great ancestor of the of age, and he early distinguished bimself by bis bold same name; but though they possessed the same virtues, ness and bis ambitious views. He came to the throne the same ainbition, and were tainted with the same in the year 220 before our Saviour, and the beginning vices, yet the father of Alexander was more sagacious of his reign was rendered glorious by the conquests of and more intriguing, and the son of Demetrius was Aratus; a general who was as eminent for his love of more suspicious, more cruel, and more implacable ; and, justice as his skill in war. But so virtuous a character according to the pretended prophecy of one of the could hardly fail to be disagreeable to a prince who Sybils, Macedonia was indebted to one Philip for her

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rise and consequence among nations, and under another usurpation. Philip, after the fatigues of the war, hy Philip.
Philip she lamented the loss of her power, her empire, way of relaxation gave himself up entirely to pleasure
and her dignity.

and dissipation. Tired of his wife Bertha, and fond of Philip, M. Julius, a Roman emperor, of an obscure Bertrade, spouse of Foulques count of Anjou, he carried family in Arabia, from whence he was surnamed Ara- her off from her husband. Having, in 1093, legally bian. From the lowest rank in the army he gradually annulled his own marriage under the pretext of barren. rose to the highest offices ; and when he was made gene ness, and Bertrade's marriage with the count of Anjou ral of the prætorian guards, he assassinated Gordian, to having been set aside under the same pretext, Philip and make himself emperor. To secure himself on the impe she were afterwards solemnly married by the bishop of rial throne, he left Mesopotamia a prey to the continual Beauvais. This union was declared void by Pope Urinvasions of the Persians, and búrried to Rome, where ban II. a Frenchman by birth, who pronounced the senhis election was universally approved by the senate and tence in the king's own dominions, to which he had the Roman people. Philip rendered his cause popular come for an asylum. Philip, fearing that the anathe. by his liberality and profusion; and it added much to mas of the Roman pontiff might be the means of exciting bis splendour and dignity, that the Romans during his his subjects to rebellion, sent deputies to the pope, wlio reign commemorated the foundation of their city; a so obtained a delay, during which time he was permitted lemnity which was observed but once every 100 years,

to use the crown. To know what is meant by this perand which was celebrated with more pomp and more mission, it is necessary to recollect, that at that period magnificence than under the preceding reigns. The kings appeared on public solemnities in royal habit, people were entertained with games and spectacles ; the with the crown on their heads, which they received theatre of Pompey was successively crowded during from the hand of a bishop. This delay was not of long three days and three nights; and 2000 gladiators bled duration. Philip was excommunicated anew in a counin the circus at once, for the amusement and pleasure cil held at Poictiers in 1100; but in the year 1104, of a gazing populace. His usurpation, however, was Lambert bishop of Arras, legate of Pope Pascal II. at short. Philip was defeated by Decius, who had pro- last brought him his absolution to Paris, after having claimed himself emperor in Pannonia ; and he was as made him promise never to see Bertrade more ; a prosassinated by his own soldiers near Verona, in the 45th mise which he did not keep. It would appear that the year of his age, and the 5th of his reign. His son, who pope afterwards approved their marriage ; for Suger in bore the same name, and who had shared with him the forms us, that their sons were declared capable of sucimperial dignity, was also massacred in the arms of his ceeding to the crown. Philip died at Melun the 29th mother. Young Pbilip was then in the 12th year of of July. 1108, aged 57 years, after having witnessed the his age, and the Romans lamented in him the loss of first crusade, in which he declined taking any part. His rising talents, of natural humanity, and endearing vir- reign, which comprehends a period of 48 years, was the tues,

longest of any of his predecessors, excepting that of Clo. Philip, a native of Acarnania, physician to Alexan- tarius, and of all who came after him, except those of der the Great.. When that monarch had been suddenly Louis XIV. and Louis XV. It was distinguished by taken ill, after bathing in the Cydnus, Philip under- several great events; but Philip though brave in battle, took to remove the complaint, when the rest of the and wise in counsels, was no very excellent character. physicians believed that all medical assistance would be He appeared so much the more contemptible to his subinellectual. But as he was preparing his medicine, jects, as that age abounded with heroes. Philip is not Alexander received a letter from Parmenio, in which the first of the French monarchs (as is commonly rohe was advised to beware of his physician Philip, as he ported), who, in order to give the greater authority to , had conspired against his life. The monarch was alarm- his charters, caused them to be subscribed by the officers ed; and when Philip presented him the medicine, he of the crown ; for Henry I. had sometimes done the gave him Parmenio's letter to peruse, and began to. same before him. drink the potion. The serenity and composure of Phi

Philip II. surnamed Augustus, the conqueror and lip's countenance, as he read the letter, removed every given of God, son of Louis VII. (called the younger), suspicion from Alexander's breast, and he pursued the king of France, and of Alix, his third wife, daughter directions of bis physician, and in a few days reco of Thibault, count of Champagne, was born the 22d of vered.

August 1165. He came to the crown, after his father's There were, besides, a vast number of persons of this death in udo, at the age of 15 years. His youth was name in antiquity, and many of them were very emi not spent like that of the generality of other princes ; pent.

for, by avoiding the rock of pleasure on which so many PhilipI. king of France, succeeded his father Henry are apt to split, his courage thereby became the more 1. in 1060, when but eight years of age, under the re- lively and intrepid. The king of England seemed wil. gency and guardianship of Baudouin V. count of Flan- ling to take advantage of his minority, and to seize upon ders, wbo discharged his trust with zeal and fidelity. a part of his dominions. But Philip marched against He defeated the Gascons who were inclined to revolt, him, and compelled him, sword in band, to confirm the and died, leaving his pupil 15 years of age. This young ancient treaties between the two kingdoins. As soon as prince made war in Flanders against Robert, Baudouin's the war was ended, he made his people enjoy the bles... younger son, who had invaded Flanders, which belong. sings of peace. He gave a check to the oppressions of ed to the children of his elder brother. Philip marched the great lords, banished the comedians, punished blas, against him with a numerous army, which was cut to phemies, caused the streets and public places of Paris to pieces near Mount Cassel. Peace was the consequence be paved, and annexed to that capital a part of the adjaof the victory, and the conqueror quietly enjoyed his cent villages. It was enclosed by walls with towers ;



and the inhabitants of other cities were equally proud victorious arms into Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poictou, Philip. to fortify and embellish theirs. The Jews having for a and brought those provinces, as they anciently were, long time practised the most shameful frauds in France, under the immediate authority of his crown. The EngPhilip expelled them from his kingdom, and declared lish had no other part left them in France, but the prohis subjects quit with them; an action unjust, contrary vince of Guienne. To crown his good fortune, John his to the laws of nature, and consequently to religion. enemy was embroiled with the court of Rome, which The tranquillity of France was somewhat disturbed by had lately excommunicated him. The ecclesiastical a difference with the count of Flanders, which was how, thunder was very favourable for Philip. Innocent II. ever happily terminated in 1184. Some time after he put into his hands, and transferred to him, a perpetual declared war against Henry II. king of England, and right to the kingdom of England. This king of France, took from bim the towns of Issoudun, Tours, Mans, and when formerly excommunicated by the pope, had deother places. The epidemical madness of the crusades clared his censures void and abusive ; be thought very then agitated all Europe ; and Philip, as well as other differently, however, when he found himself the execuprinces, caught the infection. He embarked in the

tor of a bull investing bim with the English crown. To year 1190, with Richard I. king of England, for the give the greater force to the sentence pronounced by his relief of the Christians in Palestine, who were oppressed holiness, he employed a whole year in building 1700 by Saladin. Those two monarchs sat down before ships, and in preparing the finest army that was ever Acre, which is the ancient Ptolemais; as did almost all seen in France. Europe was in expectation of a decithe Christians of the east, while Saladin was engaged in sive battle between the two kings, when the pope laugha civil war on the banks of the Euphrates. When the ed at both, and artfully took to himself what he had two European monarchs had joined their forces to those bestowed upon Philip. A legate of the holy see perof the Asiatic Christians, they counted above 300,000 suaded John Sans terre to give his crown to the court of fighting men, Acre surrendered the 13th of July 1191; Rome, which received it with enthusiasm. Then Philip but the unhappy disagreement which took place between was expressly forbid by the pope to make any attempt Philip and Richard, rivals of glory and of interest, did upon England, now become a see of the Roman church, more mischief than could be compensated by the suc or against John who was under her protection. Meancessful exertions of those 300,000 men. Philip, tired of while, the great preparations which Philip had made, these divisions, and displeased with the behaviour of Ri. alarmed all

Europe ; Germany, England, and the Low chard bis vassal, returned to his own country, which, Countries, were united against him in the same manner perhaps, he should never have left, or at least have seen as we have seen them united against Louis XIV. Feragain with more glory. Besides, he was attacked (say rand, count of Flanders, joined the emperor Otho IV. bistorians) with a languishing disorder, the effects of He was Philip's vassal ; which was the strongest reason which were attributed to poison ; but which might have for declaring against him. The French king was nobeen occasioned merely by the scorching heat of a cli wise disconcerted; his fortune and his courage dismate so different from that of France. He lost his hair, sipated all his enemies. His valour was particularly his beard, and bis nails; nay, his very flesh came off. conspicuous at the battle of Bouvines, which was The physicians urged him to return home; and be soon fought on the 27th of July 1214, and lasted from determined to follow their advice. The year after, he noon till night. Before the engagement, he knew obliged Baudouin VIII. count of Flanders to leave him well that some of his nobles followed bim with rethe county of Artois. He next turned his arms against luctance. He assembled them together; and placing Richard king of England, from whom he took Evreux himself in the midst of them, be took a large golden and Vexin ; tbough he had promised upon the holy gos cup, which he filled with wine, and into which he pels never to take any advantage of his rival during his put several slices of bread. He ate one of them bimabsence; so that the consequences of this war were very self, and offering the cup to the rest, he said, “ My unfortunate. The French monarch, repulsed from companions, let those who would live and die with Rouen with loss, made a truce for six months; during me follow my example.” The cup was emptied in a which time he niarried Ingelburge, princess of Den- moment, and those who were the least attached to mark, whose beauty could only be equalled by her virtue. him fought with all the bravery that could be expectThe divorcing of this lady, whom he quitted in order ed from his warmest friends. Ít is also reported, that . to marry Agnes daughter of the duke of Merania, em after showing the army the crown that was worn by bruiled him with the court of Rome. The pope issued sovereigns upon these occasions, he said, “If any one a sentence of excommunication against him; but it was thought himself more worthy than he was to wear taken off upon his promising to take back his former it, he had only to explain himself; that he should be wife. John Sans-terre succeeded to the crown of Eng- content it were the prize of that man who should disland in 1199, to the prejudice of his nephew Arthur, play the greatest valeur in battle.” The enemy had to whom of right it belonged. The nephew, supported an army of 150,000 fighting men; that of Philip was by Philip, took up arms against the uncle, but was de not half so numerous; but it was composed of the feated in Poictou, where he was taken prisoner, and af- flower of his nobility. The king run great bazard of terwards murdered. The murderer, being summoned his life ; for he was thrown down under the horses feet, before the court of the peers of France, not having and wounded in the neck. It is said 30,000 Germans appeared, was declared guilty of bis nephew's death, were killed ; but the number is probably much exagand condemned to lose his life in 1203. His lands, gerated. The counts of Flanders and Boulogne were situated in France, were forfeited to the crown. Phi- led to Paris with irons upon their feet and hands; a lip soon set about gathering the fruit of his vassal's barbarous custom which prevailed at that time. The crime. He seized upon Normandy, then carried his French king made no conquest on the side of Germany


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